The need to interconnect networks that are based on different protocols and platforms was recognized in the early 1970s, during a period when the use and development of networking technology was increasing. The rapid growth in networking over the past three decades has allowed users greater access to resources and information, but it has caused significant problems when merging, or interconnecting, different types of networks. Open protocols and common applications were required, leading to the development of a protocol suite known as Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) which originated within the US Department of Defense (DoD) in the mid-1960s and took its current form around 1978. An interesting article about the history of the Internet can be found at the following URL: http://www.isoc.org/internet-history/ In the early 1980s, TCP/IP became the backbone protocol in multi-vendor networks such as ARPANET, NSFNET and regional networks. The protocol suite was integrated into the University of California at Berkeley’s UNIX operating system and became available to the public for a nominal fee. The inexpensive availability of TCP/IP in UNIX, combined with its spread to other operating systems, resulted in its increasing use in both local area networks (LAN) and wide area networks (WAN) environments. Today, TCP/IP provides corporations with the ability to merge differing physical networks while giving users a common suite of functions. With the current level of z/VM, TCP/IP for z/VM brings the power and resources of your IBM zSeries server to the internet. Using the TCP/IP protocol suite called TCP/IP for z/VM , you can reach open multi-vendor networking environments from your z/VM system. With this background, we can explain and describe the TCP/IP networks, routing, different types of network devices, and monitoring of your TCP/IP setup within your z/VM system. This module will help you better understand the networking capabilities of z/VM on the zSeries server. ARPANET was the first wide area packet-switching network. It evolved into the Internet we know today. The concept was a paradigm shift from the prevailing model of communications networks as dedicated, analog circuits, establishing a new model of discontinuous, digital systems that break a message into many individual packets transmitted over a network independently and assembled back into the original message at the far end. This conceptual breakthrough enabled the construction of networks with much greater flexibility, throughput, and robustness, and laid the technical foundation for the Internet Protocol. NSFNET facilitated the Internet's first period of explosive public growth. NSFNET was one of the first to initiate high-speed available lines of communication.
The explosive growth of corporate data combined with the falling price of storage has created both an opportunity and a challenge for Information Technology (IT) managers. More affordable storage technology allows IT managers to buy more storage devices for rapidly increasing volumes of corporate data, but managing these expanded storage networks becomes a complex, resource-intensive task. In many organizations, storage management is executed without strategy, reducing cost-effectiveness and efficiency. Applying the discipline of storage management, combined with the appropriate technology and a well-crafted set of storage management practices, you can provide significant business value by helping your enterprise increase revenues and decrease costs. Applications have the most direct effect on the corporate bottom line, enabling employees to efficiently communicate, handle tasks, and lower costs. Businesses depend heavily on their employees’ ability to access data and process data through an application. Poor storage management practices can act as a stone dropping into the enterprise’s financial pool, causing a potentially dangerous ripple effect throughout business processes. Unavailable data spreads harmful effects to applications, rendering them ineffective; this can slow or even halt business operations and impair financial success. Example 1: Consider this example of an online auction service that joins buyers and sellers electronically. Through a Web application, the service collects data from thousands of auction participants; if the application becomes inaccessible, the company’s business transactions stop, cutting off cash flow. If it can’t protect the data that feeds the applications, the online auction service is out of business. Example 2: Sun Microsystems has stated that U.S. firms waste billions of dollars yearly compensating for significant data loss and spend millions of business days each year recreating lost data. Many of these same companies have no formal policy describing how or how often data should be backed up to best protect corporate information. In fact, corporate data protection practices are most often implemented only after a disaster occurs, when large amounts of data have already been either damaged or lost. Even more distressing are the companies that have policies in place, but do not enforce the safeguards. Storage management is a serious issue and must be implemented correctly on all platforms.
Today’s storage infrastructures are too complex to manage with conventional, tactical products. IT administrators are forced to manage the enterprise by becoming specialists in heterogeneous platforms, differing methodologies, and niche product technologies. The need to store large volumes of information is driving growth in storage requirements. It is important that critical systems and data are available at all times; otherwise organizations lose revenue. In today’s storage landscape, administrators are often forced into reactive storage management decisions, spending time and resources fixing problems after they have already impacted the business. Proactively gathering relevant storage information is usually difficult and requires administrators to work with several interfaces. Storage systems technology and performance continues to rapidly change and improve (storage area networks (SAN) and network-attached storage (NAS) are two examples of this) and yet often organizations have no way of efficiently managing the new technologies and storage performance. IT managers know that they need to protect their hardware and software investments and they need to use the technology they have to its fullest potential, maximizing their return on investment (ROI). How do businesses and IT managers accomplish these goals? By using products designed to manage storage to protect, back up, and restore critical system and data information.
Both z/VM and Linux use what is known as virtual storage, or virtual memory. Virtual memory is a method of allowing more programs and data to share real (physical) memory at the same time. At any given moment, a program can only be accessing a very small amount of memory; even over several seconds, a program is highly unlikely to access more than a fraction of the total memory it has assigned to it. Virtual memory systems use a mechanism called paging that tries to ensure that memory that is actively being used is in real memory, and memory that is not being actively used is temporarily saved to disk, and the real memory is made available for other memory that is actively in use. In z/VM and Linux, memory is managed in 4KB pages. The z/VM storage hierarchy uses three types of memory: MAIN MEMORY: Often referred to as main storage, this memory is directly accessible by user programs. Programs execute in main memory. All I/O operations occur within main memory. The size of main memory is limited to the amount of physical memory. EXPANDED STORAGE: Expanded storage exists in physical memory, but is addressable only as whole pages. Physical memory allocated as expanded storage reduces the size of main memory. Expanded storage is optional and its size is configurable. Expanded storage acts as a fast paging device. As demand for main memory increases, z/VM can page to expanded storage. Because it exists in physical memory, paging to expanded storage can be much faster than paging to DASD. PAGING SPACE: Paging space resides on DASD. When paging demands exceed the capacity of expanded storage, z/VM uses paging space. The relationship between the types of z/VM storage is depicted in the diagram on the slide.
Several factors can influence how efficiently z/VM manages memory. These include: Ensure paging DASD and the paths to them are not very busy: This makes paging as fast as possible. Use multiple devices to permit overlapping I/O. Use dedicated full packs for paging DASD, and be sure to define enough so that you can do block paging. Use expanded storage for paging: Expanded storage can improve system performance. Ensure system operation information records are properly retrieved and stored: z/VM allows for collection of various accounting, error, and symptom records during operation. This data is stored in main memory until retrieved by designated virtual machines. A new installation of z/VM typically defines virtual machines that are automatically logged on at IPL: The DISKACNT virtual machine retrieves accounting records, The EREP virtual machine retrieves error records. The OPERSYMP virtual machine retrieve symptom records. If these virtual machines stop retrieving the data, available system memory can be greatly reduced. Using V=F or V=R: These VM configurations allow main memory to be dedicated to a guest operating system; guest virtual machine memory to be dedicated to a guest operating system; and guest virtual machine memory pages to reside permanently in main memory. The V=F option is only available if the hardware processor is IPLed in basic (native) mode and not in LPAR made.
z/VM utilizes specially allocated DASD space for system storage that is available to all virtual machines running within that system. This DASD storage is owned and controlled by the system (CP) and has distinct uses. As already discussed, paging DASD storage is utilized for virtual machine paging along with main memory and expanded storage. Paging needs to be as fast as possible, distributing paging DASD space across numerous devices. Because the data in page storage is temporary, all the paging data is discarded when z/VM is shut down. Spool space is used to store data that is common to all virtual machines. Because z/VM simulates an environment of independent operating systems, each of these virtual machines has a designated reader, punch, and printer. Data sent to a virtual machine will reside in the reader until deleted or “read” into a user’s minidisk. Data that is created as output is directed to the virtual printer or to the virtual punch. Spool space is also used for executable data or systems stored for access by all virtual machines. This creates a common location for system code, rather than each virtual machine requiring individual storage space. Because the contents of spool space are valid data, they are preserved across z/VM shutdowns and IPLs. Along with DASD storage that is owned by specific virtual machines, z/VM allows for temporary minidisk space. This space can be allocated as needed by a virtual machine from the tdisk storage created on the system. This is meant only to hold data that is being processed or does not need to be retained. When z/VM is shut down, all data in tdisk storage is discarded.
In this module, we will be discussing the importance of the software available for storage managers. We will be discussing the IBM storage management solution, Tivoli Storage Manager. Some other storage management solutions include: CA BrightStor Resource Manager Sun StorEdge VERITAS NetBackup These products are used for many different platforms and operating systems, but we will be discussing how these products are used within a mainframe system for z/VM. For each product, we will touch upon each of the important areas of managing software. They are all supporting the same systems, but they might not protect system storage resources in the same manner. For each product, we cover: Product description Data protection - Backup Data restoration SAN/NAS Virtualization Application management Integration and global management At the end of this module ask yourself: which product would I purchase and why?
IBM Tivoli has emerged as one of the frontrunners in the Enterprise Storage Management market with their recent product and strategy announcements. IBM Tivoli’s strategic direction integrates their storage management solutions into the IBM Tivoli enterprise management family to provide what they term “Business Impact Management Solutions.” IBM Tivoli has a slew of management solutions that address all areas of enterprise management. Their goal is to have all of those applications interact in a way that enables correlation of data, so a user not only understands how an event affects storage environment, but also understands the impact on the business as a whole. IBM Tivoli has not realized this vision completely; however, the recent product introductions and roadmaps show they are well on their way to providing integrated solutions that offer a great deal of value beyond point solutions. Traditional Storage Resource Manager (SRM) solutions provide alerts and alarms when user-defined usage thresholds are exceeded, and some also perform quota management, where they automatically delete or block files based on specific criteria. The IBM Tivoli Storage Resource Manager solution provides “corrective actions” which go beyond alerting and quota management. The IBM Tivoli Storage Resource Manager can evaluate each file and take action based on predefined policies. The action may be just to identify certain triggered files (those that have met criteria of aging, type, etc) and provide a report. Beyond that, the solution can also delete files, or archive and then delete the files. It is also capable of migrating the file to another area, while leaving a “stub” behind that makes the host think that the file is still in the original location. With the need to manage complex heterogeneous storage systems growing daily, it is clear that Tivoli will continue to be a force to be reckoned with in the storage management market, especially in environments that make use of other Tivoli systems management tools. The deployment of data protection systems utilizing Tivoli’s progressive incremental and hierarchical storage management technologies can enable organizations to make significant savings in their overall data protection costs. Tivoli’s approach to data protection enables organizations to build systems that ensure that data restoration times are as fast as possible. In addition to a well-established data protection solution, Tivoli is rapidly expanding its portfolio to encompass Storage Network Management and policy-based total Storage Resource Management. There is a growing demand for tools that can assist in the management of modern complex storage environments.
Backup and restore functionality, or data protection as it is now called, forms the foundation upon which all data protection systems are built. The Tivoli Storage Manager (TSM) product supplies this essential functionality across an extremely diverse set of operating systems and storage technologies. The operating systems that TSM supports include the major UNIX variants (Solaris, HP-UX, AIX), Linux (on x86, zSeries and S/390 platforms), Novell, MAC and Windows, as well as a number of other platforms. These include AS/400, OS/2, portable computers along with mainframe systems such as MVS, OS/390, and z/VM. TSM operates in a number of possible architectures and utilizes a number of patented technologies to enable very high performance data protection systems to be built to manage mission critical business information in an OS/390 and z/VM enterprise wide Storage Area Network (SAN) and traditional network environments. When TSM’s centralized storage management capabilities are combined with the automated network progressive incremental and sub-file backup (which is to back up a small amount of data at once to avoid overloading the system at any one time), archive and retrieval technologies at the heart of TSM, it is possible to build storage architectures that are very fast (in terms of backup time and, crucially, restore time) and very safe. Indeed, TSM enables sophisticated high-speed, policy-based disaster recovery architectures to be created that optimize the use of the storage infrastructure and consequently minimize the total costs associated with running these backup services over the lifetime of the system, For instance, TSM can utilize file version tracking in addition to file age criteria in its policy-based system. The storage hierarchy features and Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) capabilities of TSM, when coupled with features such as tape collocation, tape reclamation, mixed retention time on the same tape and the ability to append data to tapes in use, contribute significantly to the efficient usage of the storage infrastructure and reductions in the total cost of the data protection service. Tape Collocation — The database can keep a client's or file system's data grouped in logical sets on individual tapes to improve the performance of restores by reducing the number of tape mounts and positioning that occur. Tape reclamation — The database also automatically deletes expired files on tapes and consolidates the remaining unexpired files to other tape volumes. The resulting empty tapes are then reused for new data. This process offers substantial annual savings on tape media. Mixed retention time –- The database also allows the data to retain a retention time limit that will be used to verify the amount of time it can remain in the database before it is archived or deleted. TSM has very sophisticated policy-driven tools that help simplify the increasingly complex management tasks faced by administrators in the large IT infrastructures currently being deployed. The policy-driven schemas supported by TSM are, perhaps, the best tools currently available. Consequently, the management of the entire backup process enables customers to ensure that their data is protected as efficiently and safely as possible, while employing as few staff as possible to operate at minimum cost to the enterprise. The policy management capabilities of TSM will continue to be enhanced to provide even greater functionality. TSM’s management capabilities mean that all information generated by the data protection system can be collected and integrated into corporate frameworks and global infrastructure management systems where appropriate.
IBM Tivoli Storage Manager can execute a restore from almost any point in time the customer chooses. An extension of the point-in-time restore capability, instant archive allows the customer to create a virtual full backup (or client archive) from data already stored at the Tivoli Storage Manager server. Simply put, the Tivoli Storage Manager server executes a restore operation specified by the customer. The difference is that the data is not sent back to the client, but is sent instead to another tape or CD on the Tivoli Storage Manager server; customers can create a full backup tape without actually making a full backup. Customers who use this function are often preparing for a disaster recovery situation, creating baseline copies of a system for long-term archival, or getting ready to restore a remote or mobile computer. Instant archive allows all these capabilities by using data already stored on the Tivoli Storage Manager server without having to move that data across the network. Rapid recovery is an integrated attribute of the instant archive media described above. Besides a full copy of information from a given point in time, these pieces of media also contain all inventory information necessary so they can perform a restore without interacting with the Tivoli Storage Manager database. The Tivoli Storage Manager client also can read the instant archive media directory, which means that in the case of a disaster, or in remote areas without sufficient bandwidth to transmit a full restore over a network, the instant archive media can be removed from the Tivoli Storage Manager server and mounted directly to the client machine. This enables a rapid full restore without any interaction with the Tivoli Storage Manager server or the network. The above features are included within the IBM Tivoli Storage Manager Software, but one important priced feature is the Disaster Recovery Manager. This feature is not essential, but in disaster circumstances it can save time during recovery. The Tivoli Storage Manager Disaster Recovery Manager simplifies the disaster recovery planning process by generating an automated recovery plan file based on a predetermined recovery strategy. Companies can use this auditable recovery plan to certify the recoverability of their distributed environment. The recovery plan contains information and procedures necessary to restore the key Tivoli Storage Manager server and the clients managed by that server. Sample information contained in the recovery plan for restoring the Tivoli Storage Manager server include: Installation-specific recovery instructions A list of the volumes needed, including their offsite location Devices required to read the tapes Space requirements Copies of necessary configuration files Macros for automating the recovery process
The Tivoli Storage Manager SAN tape resource sharing capability delivers immediate benefits by reducing the traffic on the IP network and allowing shared utilization of resources over a storage area network (SAN). This Storage Area Network is typically a disk drive subsystem attached by the physical cables for a network, accepting and processing requests from multiple platforms. SANs also remove the overhead commonly found with slow, overworked communication networks and facilitate quicker access time. Tape library and drive resources are more efficiently used because they can be shared by multiple Tivoli Storage Manager servers across the SAN. NAS (Network-Attached Storage) is typically a disk drive subsystem attached via Ethernet to a network and uses an IP protocol to accept and process requests from multiple platforms. Tivoli Storage Manager Extended Edition uses Network Data Management Protocol (NDMP) to perform high-performance, scalable backups and restores. The backups and restores minimize network traffic and transfer data outboard of the Tivoli Storage Manager client and server. When doing backups and restores, the NAS device, the Storage Manager server, and the client all have specific roles. See the diagram on the slide. NDMP can be used to back up file system images to a Tivoli Storage Manager server by backing up the full file system image and then restoring it. Once a full file system image has been backed up, subsequent backups can be differential images. A differential image consists of all the files that have changed since the previous full image backup. The restore of a differential image automatically restores the differential image after the appropriate full file system image has been restored. Backup and restore operations can be scheduled using the administrative command scheduler. During backup and restore operations, data flows directly between the tape drive and the NAS appliance. NDMP operations can be performed using SCSI, ACSLS, or 349X tape libraries. In other cases we will be using Ethernet connections. NDMP for NAS backup works with either a SCSI-attached tape device local to the NAS appliance, or with a SAN-attached SCSI or ACSLS device that can be shared with the Storage Manager server. Drives must be supported by both the NAS appliance and the NAS operating system. Drives can be dedicated to NDMP operations from a single NAS file server or can be shared. Multiple NAS appliances can share tape resources if they have full access to the drive and if backups are performed via the same Storage Manager server. Depending on the configuration, drives can be shared with LAN-free backup/restore operations. LAN-free data transfers provide an alternative path for moving data between the Tivoli Storage Manager client and server. LAN-free data transfer exploits the SAN and NAS path by enabling the Tivoli Storage Manager client to back up and restore data directly to and from SAN and NAS-attached storage, which is shared between the Tivoli Storage Manager server and client and managed by the server. The existing Local Area Network (LAN) connection is used to exchange control information, such as policy information and metadata about the objects being backed up, but the data transfer uses the SAN or NAS to write directly to the storage media. Description of the slide: The diagram on the slide shows the fundamental tasks that each portion of the system must accomplish. The diagram lists each function’s abilities and the way in which data can flow and how control is passed to different operations when backing up and restoring. Use the diagram above to follow this example: The TSM client can issue a backup request to the TSM Server. Then control is sent across the NDMP Control (TCP/IP) to the NAS Device, which accepts the request from the TSM server. Finally, the backup is stored on either the NAS file system or the data is transferred to the tape library. This would be the correct process to back up the client-side information to either the NAS file system or the Tape Library.
IBM Tivoli Software is first to support the IBM Total Storage Virtualization family of products. From provisioning of LUNs (Logical Unit Name; its capacity is definable as a logical set of storage blocks rather than as a specific set of predefined physical disks), automatic error detection and fault analysis, to enhanced utilization of SAN resources, IBM Tivoli storage software is tightly integrated with the family of virtualization products to enhance the utilization of the SAN environment. This helps customers ensure key storage applications and hardware are available, while providing additional management capabilities that tie virtualization technology into business priorities. IBM Tivoli Storage Resource Manager helps customers better manage storage environments, including virtualized SANs, by reducing unplanned downtime, providing detailed information and taking automated actions based on user-defined policies. Tivoli Storage Resource Manager complements the SAN Volume Controller by helping with problem determination, such as: Which hosts have access to a given SAN Volume Controller (LUNs) Which hosts have access to a given physical disk(s) within SAN Volume Controller Which SAN Volume Controller volume and managed disks a host has access to Virtualization solutions can be implemented in the storage network, in the server or in the storage device itself. IBM’s storage virtualization solution is SAN-based, which helps allow for a more “open” virtualization implementation. Locating virtualization in the SAN, and thus in the path of I/O activity, helps provide a solid basis for policy-based management. And, IBM’s focus on open standards means their virtualization solution supports freedom of choice in storage-device vendor selection. Storage virtualization is an intelligent “layer” or abstraction that pools storage from multiple storage devices into a common storage pool. Often part of a storage area network (SAN), virtualized storage appears as one device to the server-operating systems and can be centrally managed and provisioned from a single view. The evolution from direct-attached storage (DASD) to SANs resulted from increasing company data loads and the need to add cost-effective storage capacity while still providing flexibility for future growth. SANs helped overcome many storage challenges, but also created a new layer of complexity. Storage devices from different vendors didn’t necessarily interoperate well on the SAN. Management could be tedious and require additional resource attention. Needed infrastructure changes were often difficult to implement, and had a high impact on operations. Storage virtualization aims to “mask” SAN complexity by aggregating multiple storage devices into a common managed “virtual” storage pool and isolating servers from the physical storage. Storage virtualization can enable customers to: Add a storage device without requiring server and network reconfiguration Remove and change storage-volume definition and assignment from one storage device to another to help meet service-level requirements Aggregate hard disk drives of different speeds and sizes, and from different vendors Dynamically reallocate storage space. For example, virtualization allows a server requiring additional storage to find unused space on another storage device. Conversely, a server requiring less storage reallocates the space back into the storage pool.
Tivoli’s Application Management supplies products that help to simplify the management of the storage issues (performance, backup, availability etc.) associated with many large applications and databases. Currently Tivoli provides agents that work with their data protection products to address databases such as DB2, Informix, SQL*Server and Oracle in various operating environments. Equally, Tivoli has agents for groupware products such as Microsoft Exchange and Lotus Notes that complement their data protection products. Tivoli also provides sophisticated data protection for the SAP R/3 application. These products are widely deployed by users and are regularly recommended or resold by the application vendors/resellers themselves. SAP (Systems, Applications and Products in Data processing), a German corporation, has developed the R/3 system (referred to as R/3) which is a client / server- based information management program. Using R/3 as a tool, organizations can effectively link together all of their business activities (including the spheres of finance, purchasing, sales, and human resources), thus ensuring all business transactions in a company are accessible to all areas of that company. SAP R/3, with its on-line access to information and its automation of business processes, will allow us to work more efficiently together. The system was designed with a very &quot;user-friendly look and feel&quot;, with simple fill-in forms, pull-down menus with choices, and on-line help for all functions. IBM Tivoli Storage Manager for Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is specifically designed and optimized for the SAP R/3 environment, IBM Tivoli Storage Manager for ERP provides automated data protection, reduces the CPU performance impact of data backups and restores on the R/3 server, and greatly reduces the administrator workload necessary to meet data protection requirements. Tivoli Storage Manager for ERP builds on the SAP database, a set of database administration functions integrated with R/3 for database control and administration. The Storage Manager for ERP software module allows multiple R/3 servers to utilize a single Tivoli Storage Manager server to automatically manage the backup of R/3 data. As the intelligent interface to the R/3 database, Tivoli Storage Manager for ERP is SAP certified in heterogeneous environments, supporting large-volume data backups, data recovery, data cloning and disaster recovery of multiple SAP R/3 servers.
Tivoli recognizes that integration with other tools is a key requirement for every management product. It is therefore possible for Tivoli’s storage management tools to plug into other global systems management tools commonly deployed today through the use of standard protocols and customized integration services. Also, the data protection products of other suppliers can be plugged into Tivoli’s storage management tools in a relatively straightforward fashion. Tivoli is one of the world’s leading “manager of managers” products and Tivoli developed as a company specifically to provide tools that supplied global systems management. It is therefore to be expected that the entire range of storage management tools supplied by Tivoli can integrate with the Tivoli Framework enterprise management tools in a straightforward fashion. Today Storability provides the Global Storage Manager (GSM), a multi-platform storage resource management tool that handles both NAS and SAN. It manages storage configuration, backup, capacity allocation, utilization, and performance. It also provides real-time information and predictive alerts and enables the automation of routine storage operations.
To help you take on your storage challenges, BrightStor Storage Resource Manager (BrightStor SRM) from Computer Associates International, Inc. (CA) provides powerful, centralized management of storage resources for distributed systems. This cross-platform solution centrally monitors, analyzes, reports, trends, forecasts, schedules and automates networked storage resource for storage capacity planning, effective management of storage performance events and reduction in the total cost of storage ownership. (For Windows, NetWare, all major UNIX derivatives, including Solaris, HP-UX, AIX, Tru64, SGI IRIX and SCO UnixWare and the major Linux distributions, including those running on the mainframe; to name a few systems other then z/VM.) BrightStor Storage Resource Management provides: End-to-end management (centralized management) of: Open systems and mainframe environments, such as z/VM File systems, volume managers, server and storage subsystems NAS and SAN Storage-View Application helps you examine the relationship between storage resources and storage-intensive applications such as: Backup/Recovery Database Messaging/Collaboration Enterprise Storage Automation Business Process Focus leverages advanced storage classification to manage storage with a focus on business processes. Advance SRM Capability improves productivity by automating storage related tasks, analysis, responses, and service. These components listed above will be discussed in more detail later in this module. Storage Resource Manager solutions can assist organizations looking to effectively set up data storage management best practices in order to realize improved productivity. Storage management best practices can help ensure the highest efficiency and quality of service.
Sun StorEdge™ Enterprise Storage Manager software provides a consolidated view of essential SAN management services to give you full command and control of Sun Open SAN environments, helping to streamline operational activities, improve efficiencies, and reduce storage management costs. The software’s unique, expert-based SAN-wide health management services help improve the availability and uptime of your Sun Open SAN infrastructure as well as the return on these assets through 24x7 proactive health monitoring, event notification, fault identification, and recommendations for recovery. SAN topology management and reporting services allow you to visualize an end-to-end view of your Sun Open SAN infrastructure and employ a central point of access and control for effectively managing the various elements of the storage area network. Sun’s comprehensive storage software solutions provide storage management services that are designed to help simplify management of storage assets and reduce costs through deployment of a common software stack—built on open standards— that spans Sun’s full line of storage offerings. These storage software offerings strongly complement Sun’s portfolio of storage area network solutions and, when used in combination, provide a comprehensive storage solution that adds to Sun’s overall IT infrastructure solutions. Sun’s offerings include: • SAN and Systems Management solutions—including health management, device configuration, topology, and resource management—to help better manage and leverage your storage assets. • Data Continuance solutions—including path management, data replication, and backup and archiving—to help provide data protection, business continuance or duration, and best-of-breed availability according to the creators of StorEdge. • Data Management solutions—including performance, virtualization, and utilization— to improve data accessibility and enable the most effective use of information to meet business objectives.
The VERITAS NetBackup product family provides a complete set of solutions for protecting data from the desktop to the data center. It consists of three distinct yet complementary products: VERITAS NetBackup DataCenter, VERITAS NetBackup BusinesServer and VERITAS NetBackup Professional. NetBackup DataCenter is the classic NetBackup product designed for enterprise environments and high-end applications. NetBackup BusinesServer is a scaled-down version of NetBackup DataCenter optimized for smaller workgroup environments or remote sites. NetBackup Professional, while an important part of the NetBackup story, is optimized for desktop backup and recovery and will not be discussed in this module. VERITAS NetBackup DataCenter is a VERITAS enterprise data protection solution that provides centralized control from a single management interface. The multi-tier architecture of VERITAS NetBackup DataCenter provides customers with a fast, reliable, data center strength backup and recovery solution that can protect environments that span from terabytes to petabytes in size. The NetBackup DataCenter “master” server uses other NetBackup DataCenter “media” servers as workhorses to accomplish backup and recovery tasks in a centralized fashion. In contrast, NetBackup BusinesServer, designed for smaller environments, instead functions as a standalone master/media server. Despite this key difference, most of the underlying architecture and capabilities of the two products are the same. For simplicity, this document generally will not distinguish between DataCenter and BusinesServer products and will instead simply refer to “NetBackup.” Key features in VERITAS NetBackup include VERITAS’ media management, disaster recovery support, and Java and Windows administrative interfaces. In addition to protecting data in a mixed UNIX, Linux, Microsoft Windows and Novell NetWare environment, VERITAS NetBackup delivers advanced, “application aware” solutions for all leading applications including Oracle, Informix, Sybase, IBM DB2, SAP R/3, Microsoft SQL Server, Microsoft Exchange Server and Lotus Notes and Domino Server. VERITAS NetBackup provides high performance backup, archiving, and recovery services for UNIX, Linux, Windows, and PC client systems in client/server networks. It can be economically scaled to serve any size operation ranging from a standalone system to an entire enterprise. Storage devices can be disk, tape, or optical. The Media Manager component of VERITAS NetBackup manages the tape and optical storage and is designed so that secondary storage devices can also be shared by other VERITAS storage products, such as VERITAS NetBackup Storage Migrator. NetBackup provides automated support for most tape libraries, which means human intervention is rarely required. Administrators can set up periodic or calendar-based schedules for automatic, unattended backup operations for clients across the network. These backup operations may be full or incremental. A full backup processes all files, while an incremental backup only processes those files changed since the last full or incremental backup. By carefully scheduling automatic backups, an administrator can achieve systematic and complete backups over a period of time, and optimize network traffic during off-peak hours. In addition to scheduled backups, administrators can perform manual backups of client data using the same criteria specified for automatic backups. Manual backup operations are useful in special circumstances, such as backing up a client that missed a previously scheduled backup or preserving a system configuration prior to installing new software. Client users, too, are able to initiate backup, archive, and restore operations for data on their client systems — without operator or administrator intervention. User-directed backups allow users to protect their files immediately on demand. If files are damaged or accidentally deleted, users can quickly and easily recover any backed up or archived files by restoring them to their primary disk space. The NetBackup Master Server maintains a database (called the catalog) that records information about all backup and restore operations. A separate backup procedure is provided to protect the NetBackup catalog to facilitate recovery in case of a disk failure.
Common Practices: Installing a tape drive on each server, an expensive option that does not provide high reliability Manually monitoring or neglecting to monitor backup jobs, which might create incomplete backup tape sets Managing tapes for each server, which requires significant manual effort to remove the previous backup and insert tapes for the next backup Manually moving numerous daily backup tapes away from the server for disaster recovery, creating not only a staffing issue but also a resource constraint during restoration Delaying restores to obtain the latest backup, then waiting for tapes to be scanned until the needed file is found Putting off the process of disaster recovery planning, which can create lengthy recovery delays in case of disaster and potentially jeopardize the company’s ability to do business Best Practices: Using a central database of files under storage management, which enables central monitoring and control and reduces the amount of data stored Backing up only changed data, which improves backup time, reduces network demands, and saves on storage resources Relocating backup tapes for offsite storage to support disaster recovery efforts (the storage manager should provide a tape “PULL” list and a directory of the tape contents) Allowing both end user and LAN administrators to perform restores; empowering end users to restore only their own files saves time and effort for IT staff Automatically restarting restore operations in case of network failure during a restore operation Implementing a storage management policy as needed, across heterogeneous platforms Archiving data using a centrally managed archival/retrieval system, so that end users and applications benefit from robust records-retention services without the overhead of direct management of these activities Using these best practices can provide significant value, according to IBM Tivoli Storage Manager.
1. z/VM Module 10: Storage Management Software
2. Objectives <ul><li>Discuss the importance of using a storage management software package. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the storage environment today and explain why storage management products are needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe a storage management product: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IBM Tivoli Storage Manager </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mention three alternative products: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BrightStor Resource Manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sun StorEdge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VERITAS NetBackup </li></ul></ul>
3. Objectives, continued <ul><li>Explain the functions and concepts behind storage management: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restoration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SAN/NAS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtualization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration and global management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>List the best storage management techniques according to IBM Tivoli Storage Manager. </li></ul>
4. Why Storage Management? <ul><li>More affordable storage technology allows IT managers to buy more storage devices. </li></ul><ul><li>But more storage devices mean expanded storage networks. They become very complex, which can cause a reduction in cost-effectiveness and efficiency because more personnel are needed to support the complex system. </li></ul><ul><li>An administrator who applies the appropriate technology to storage management can provide significant business value, increase revenues, and decrease costs. </li></ul>
5. Today’s Storage Environment <ul><li>Today’s storage infrastructures are too complex to manage with conventional, tactical products. </li></ul><ul><li>Storage systems’ technology and performance continues to rapidly change and improve. Often organizations have no way to efficiently manage new storage technologies and storage performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Some technologies are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IBM Tivoli Storage Manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BrightStor Storage Resource Manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sun StorEdge Resource Manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VERITAS NetBackup </li></ul></ul>
6. The z/VM Storage Hierarchy
7. Influencing z/VM Memory Management <ul><li>The major factors that can influence z/VM’s memory management include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure paging DASD and the paths to them are not very busy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use expanded storage for paging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure system operation information records are properly retrieved and stored </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use V=F or V=R </li></ul></ul>
8. Paging and Spooling <ul><li>Paging DASD storage is utilized for virtual machine paging along with main memory and expanded storage. </li></ul><ul><li>Spool space is used to store data that is common to all virtual machines. </li></ul><ul><li>Spool space is also used for executable data or systems stored for access by all virtual machines. </li></ul><ul><li>Temporary minidisk space can be allocated as needed by a virtual machine. </li></ul>
10. IBM Tivoli Storage Manager <ul><li>Has emerged as one of the front runners in the Enterprise Storage Management market </li></ul><ul><li>Recent product introductions and roadmaps show it is well on its way to providing integrated solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional SRM solutions provide alerts and alarms, but the Tivoli product provides corrective actions, which go beyond alerting and quota management </li></ul>
11. IBM TSM: Data Protection <ul><li>TSM operates in a number of possible architectures and utilizes a number of patented technologies to enable a very high performance data protection system. </li></ul><ul><li>TSM has very sophisticated policy-driven tools that help simplify the increasingly complex management tasks faced by administrators in the large IT infrastructure. </li></ul>
12. IBM TSM: Restore <ul><li>Instant Archive – allows the customer to create a virtual full backup from data already stored at the Tivoli Storage Manager server </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid recovery – is an integrated attribute of the instant archive media, but these pieces of media also contain all inventory information necessary to perform a restore with the databases </li></ul><ul><li>IBM Tivoli Storage Manager Disaster Recovery Manager -- simplifies the disaster-recovery planning process by generating an automated recovery plan based on a predetermined strategy </li></ul>
13. IBM TSM: SAN/NAS
14. IBM TSM: Virtualization <ul><li>IBM Tivoli was the first to support the IBM Total Storage Virtualization family of products. </li></ul><ul><li>This software can help you better manage storage environments, including virtualized SANs, by reducing unplanned downtime, providing detailed information and taking automated actions. </li></ul><ul><li>Storage virtualization is an intelligent layer or abstraction that pools storage devices into a common storage pool. </li></ul>
15. IBM TSM: Application Management <ul><li>Tivoli’s Application Management supplies products that help to simplify the management of the storage issues associated with many large application and databases. </li></ul><ul><li>Tivoli ERP is specially designed and optimized for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The SAP R/3 environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing automated data protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reducing the CPU performance impact of data backups and restores on the R/3 server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greatly reducing the administrator workload </li></ul></ul>
16. IBM TSM: Integration and Global Management <ul><li>Tivoli recognizes that integration with other tools is a key requirement for every management product. </li></ul><ul><li>Tivoli provides tools that are capable of supplying global systems management. </li></ul><ul><li>GSM manages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage configuration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Backup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity allocation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul></ul>
17. CA BrightStor Storage Resource Manager <ul><li>Computer Associates International, Inc. (CA) created this product to provide powerful, centralized management for storage resources </li></ul><ul><li>BrightStor SRM provides: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>End-to-End Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage-View of application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business Process Focus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advance SRM Capability </li></ul></ul>
18. Sun StorEdge Enterprise Storage Manager <ul><li>This product provides a consolidated view of essential SAN management services to give you full command and control of the SUN Open environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Sun’s comprehensive storage software solutions provide storage management services that are designed to help simplify management of storage assets. </li></ul><ul><li>Sun’s offerings include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SAN and Systems Management solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data continuance solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data management solutions </li></ul></ul>
19. VERITAS NetBackup <ul><li>This software is the VERITAS data protection solution that provides centralized control from a single management interface. </li></ul><ul><li>The key features of this software are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Media management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disaster recovery support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High performance backups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic/Unattended backup operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrator and Client manual backup, archive, and restore operations without operator intervention </li></ul></ul>
20. Comparing Storage Management Techniques <ul><li>Common Practices: </li></ul><ul><li>Installing a tape drive on each server,, an expensive option that does not provide high reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Manually monitoring or neglecting to monitor backup jobs, which might create incomplete backup tape sets </li></ul><ul><li>Delaying restores to obtain the latest backup, then waiting for the tapes to be scanned until the needed file is found </li></ul><ul><li>Best Practices: </li></ul><ul><li>Backing up only changed data, which improves backup time, reduces network demand, and saves on storage resources </li></ul><ul><li>Automatically restarting restore operations in case of network failure during a restore operation </li></ul><ul><li>Implementing a storage management policy as needed, across heterogeneous platforms </li></ul>
21. Glossary <ul><li>AIX :– (Advanced Interactive eXecutive) IBM’s incarnation of Unix for the RT PC, RS/6000, PS/2, and mainframe; it is an enhanced version of Unix V </li></ul><ul><li>AS/400 : – (Application System/400) IBM’s mid-range processor </li></ul><ul><li>DAS: – (Direct Access Storage) can only scale along with the server that it is attached to, unlike SAN </li></ul><ul><li>Instant Archive: – allows customers to create a virtual full backup from data already stored at the Tivoli Storage Manager server </li></ul>
22. Glossary <ul><li>IOP: – (Integrated Off-load Processor) originally, a component of certain ES/9000s which manages data transfer autonomously, without using the central processor. </li></ul><ul><li>JBOD: - Just a Bunch Of Disks. A RAID system that doesn’t try to be too clever. </li></ul><ul><li>LAN-Free: – a data transfer that exploits the SAN and NAS path by enabling the Tivoli Storage Manager client to back up and restore data directly to and from SAN and NAS-attached storage. </li></ul>
23. Glossary <ul><li>LUNs: - logical unit numbers </li></ul><ul><li>NAS: – (Network-Attached Storage) typically, a disk drive subsystem attached via Ethernet to a network that uses an IP protocol to accept and process requests form multiple platforms. </li></ul><ul><li>NDMP: – (Network Data Management Protocol) can be used to back up file- system images to a Tivoli storage management server. </li></ul>
24. Glossary <ul><li>RAID: - (Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks) consists of a series of systems to organize several disk drives into a single entity that behaves as a single virtual drive. The various disks work in parallel, thus improving the access performance and saving the information stored from accidental crashes. </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid Recovery: – is an integrated attribute of the instant archive media, but these piece of media also contain all inventory information necessary to perform a restore with the database. </li></ul><ul><li>SAN: - Storage Area Network. Typically, a disk drive subsystem attached via fiber to a network, accepting and processing requests from multiple platforms. </li></ul>
25. References <ul><li>Computer Associates. BrightStor Storage Resource Manager . www.ca.com , 2003. </li></ul><ul><li>IBM. DFSMS/VM Planning Guide . 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Bloor Research. Storage Management from Tivoli . January 2002. </li></ul><ul><li>IBM. Storage Management: Best Practices . 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprise Storage Group. IBM Tivoli Storage Management Solutions: Product Brief . October 2002. </li></ul><ul><li>Sun. Sun StorEdge Open SAN Architecture . Whitepaper 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Sun. Backup Planning with Sun StorEdge Resource Management Suite Software . Whitepaper 2002. </li></ul><ul><li>Sun. Sun StorEdge Resource Management Suite: Version 6 . 2002. </li></ul><ul><li>Veritas Software Corporation. Veritas NetBackup Release 4.5 Technical Overview . June 2002 </li></ul>