Introduced in the 60s, revived in the 90s Paper: “Survey of Virtual Machine Research”, 1976
Performance is the main concern that comes up as we talk about VMs. The results above are amazing and come from the paper as referenced. Also: “Xen and the Art of repeated research”: they did independent test of these results and confirmed them. They also showed that the software runs just as well on old and cheap workstations (i.e., the resuts show the same relationship). Benchmarks: 1) SPED INT2000: a CPU intensive benchmark 2) Linux bulid: about 7% in CPU, mainly file i/o, scheduling and memory management 3) Database access PostgreSQL database Open Source Database Benchmark suite on-line transaction processing: considerable load on the OS, many synchronous disk operations resulting in many protection domain transitions 4) SPEC WEB99: web servers, dynamic content, http post, disk workload (not just read-only), exercises the whole system, PCP traffic disk read-write activity, scheduling between many different httpd processes.
How do we make all those goodies available remotely?
Add security to this slide!
Virtual Infrastructure in the Grid Kate Keahey [email_address] Argonne National Laboratory
The Grid Metaphor How do we store energy? How do we charge for energy? How do we reliably deliver energy? What happens if a power station fails? How do we ensure quality of service? What elements make for a safe and efficient power Grid? How do we make sure that supply meets demand?
A VM can serialize all of its state (including RAM)
A VM image is simply a collection of files
Disk partitions, RAM, configuration file
Such image can be easily moved (migrated) between hypervisors of the same type
Such image can also be saved and used for rollbacks
Hardware Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM) / Hypervisor Guest OS (Linux) Guest OS (NetBSD) Guest OS (Windows) App App App App App VM VM VM
The Need for Speed Paper: “Xen and the Art of Virtualization”, SOSP 2003 L X V U SPEC INT2000 (score) L X V U Linux build time (s) L X V U OSDB-OLTP (tup/s) L X V U SPEC WEB99 (score) 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 Benchmark suite running on Linux (L), Xen (X), VMware Workstation (V), and UML (U)
Summary: What Makes VMs a Great Workspace Implementation
Generally enhanced security, audit forensics
Fine-grain enforcement potential
Details depend on implementation
Customizable software configuration
Library signature, OS, maybe even 64/32-bit architectures
VM images (include RAM), can be copied
The ability to pause and resume computations
How do we make VMs available over the network and manage them so as to leverage this potential?
Challenges: security, enforcement, protocols
Deploying Workspaces in the Grid Workspace Wizard (VW Factory) Workspace Management Service (VW Repository) Workspace Service (VW Manager) manage workspace environment workspace metadata terminate workspace deployment manage activities within the workspace Workspace request a workspace workspace meta-data negotiate workspace deployment manage/monitor/renegotiate workspace deployment