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Introduction to Virtualization
 

Introduction to Virtualization

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    Introduction to Virtualization Introduction to Virtualization Presentation Transcript

    • Introduction to Virtualization Michael Otey Technical Director Windows IT Pro Magazine
    • What this Session Covers • Types of Virtualization – Hardware Virtualization – Virtual Machine Virtualization – Application Virtualization • Future directions in Virtualization
    • Microsoft’s Virtualization Solutions A complete set of virtualization products, from the data center to the desktop All assets – both virtual and physical – managed from a single platform Server Presentation Virtualization Virtualization Management Desktop Virtualization Application Virtualization
    • Hardware Partitioning
    • Scenarios for Hardware Partitioning • Server consolidation – Reduced TCO – Increased server utilization • Separate production and test environments • Application isolation
    • Hardware Partitioning • Physical system is divided into multiple partitions • One or more CPUs per partition • Full electrical isolation between partitions • Redundant hardware components
    • Hardware Partitioning • High-end servers – HP Itanium – Unisys ES7000 – Fujitsu PrimeQuest • Multiple hardware partitions – Up to 8 • Assignment of physical resource per partition – CPUs – Memory – I/O • Cluster “in-a-box” support
    • Hardware Partitioning Summary • Can consolidate multiple servers – Reduced administration • Requires high-end servers – Usually Itanium based – Can be expensive • Limited number of partitions
    • Virtual Machine Virtualization
    • Virtualization Scenarios • Server consolidation • Multiple OS & application support • Lab and deployment testing • Training • Disaster recovery • Application isolation
    • Virtual Machine Virtualization Applications Applications Applications Virtual Guest OS Guest OS Guest OS (Windows NT) (Windows 2000) (Windows 2003) Virtual Machine Virtual Machine Virtual Machine Virtual Machine Manager Physical Host Operating System System Hardware
    • Virtualization Overview Virtual Machine Guest Environment
    • VM Hard Disk Options • Virtual hard disks – Fixed – Dynamic • Virtual hard disk features – Snapshots – Undo disks – Differencing disks
    • VM Networking Options • Virtual Networking – None – Internal – External (Bridged)
    • Virtual Machine Additions • Installed after the guest OS – Typically from installed IS image – Improves VM performance • Enhanced SVGA video drivers • Improved mouse support • Drag-and-drop with the host • Time synchronization
    • 64-bit Support • 64-bit host support – Windows Server SE and EE x64 • x64 eliminates physical memory restrictions • 64-bit Virtual Machine Manager – Larger kernel address space
    • Virtual Machine Types and Uses • Desktop products – Development – Testing – Training • Server products – Server consolidation – Disaster recovery – High availability – Testing and deployment
    • Desktop Virtualization Server Virtualization (Virtual PC, Workstation) (Virtual Server, Virtual Server 2005) Designed for running one or two Designed for running multiple server desktop systems systems Runs on the desktop Runs as a service Windows management UI Web management UI Local virtual disks only SAN support No management API Management API VM supports audio No VM audio support
    • Virtual Machine Products • Desktop – VMware Workstation 5.5.3 – Virtual PC 2007
    • VMware Workstation 5.5 • First VM product • 64-bit host & guests • 2-way virtual SMP • SCSI VHDs • Multiple snapshots • Compatible VM images w/ Virtual Server • Can import MS VM images • USB 1.1 & Audio support • $189
    • VMware Workstation 5.5 • Supported Hosts Windows Server 2003 Standard Edition, SP1 Windows Server 2003 Web Edition, SP1 Windows Server 2003 Small Business Edition, SP1 Windows Server 2003 Enterprise Edition, SP1 Windows Server 2003 R2 Windows XP Home Edition, SP1, SP2 Windows XP Professional, SP1, SP2 Windows 2000 Server SP3, SP4 Windows 2000 Professional, SP3, SP4 Windows 2000 Advanced Server, SP3, SP4 Windows Server 2003 x64 Edition SP1 Windows Server 2003 x64 Edition R2 Windows XP Professional x64 Edition Mandriva Linux 2006 Mandrake Linux 10.1 Mandrake Linux 9.0 — stock 2.4.19 Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS 4.0, updates 1, 2, 3 Red Hat Enterprise Linux ES 4.0, updates 1, 2, 3 Red Hat Enterprise Linux WS 4.0, updates 1, 2, 3 Red Hat Enterprise Linux WS 4.0, update 4 Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS 3.0, updates 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, (experimental support) 6, 7 Red Hat Enterprise Linux ES 3.0, updates 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Red Hat Enterprise Linux WS 3.0, updates 1, 2, 3, 4, Red Hat Enterprise Linux WS 3.0, update 8 5, 6, 7 (experimental support) Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1 — stock 2.4.9-e3 Red Hat Linux 9.0 — stock 2.4.20-8, upgrade 2.4.20- Red Hat Linux 8.0 — stock 2.4.18 20.9 Red Hat Linux 7.3 — stock 2.4.18 Red Hat Linux 7.2 — stock 2.4.7-10, upgrade 2.4.9-7, Red Hat Linux 7.1 — stock 2.4.2-2, upgrade 2.4.3-12 upgrade 2.4.9-13, upgrade 2.4.9-21, upgrade 2.4.9-31 Red Hat Linux 7.0 — stock 2.2.16-22, upgrade 2.2.17-14 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 9, 9 SP1, 9 SP2, 9 SP3 — stock 2.6.5-797 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 8, stock 2.4.19 SUSE Linux 10.1 SUSE Linux 10 — stock 2.6.13 SUSE Linux 9.3 — stock 9.3-2.6.11.4 SUSE Linux 9.2, SP1 — stock 9.2-2.6.8-24.11 (SUSE SUSE Linux 9.0 — stock 2.4.21-99 Linux 9.1 — stock 2.6.4-52 SUSE Linux 8.2 — stock 2.4.20 Ubuntu Linux 6.06 Ubuntu Linux 5.10 Ubuntu Linux 5.04
    • VMware Workstation 5.5 • Supported Guests Windows Vista Beta Windows Server 2003 Windows XP Windows 2000 Windows NT 4.0 Windows Me Windows 98 Windows 95 DOS and Windows 3.1x Mandriva Linux 2006 Mandrake Linux 10.1 Mandrake Linux 10 Mandrake Linux 9.2 Mandrake Linux 9.1 Mandrake Linux 9.0 Mandrake Linux 8.2 Mandrake Linux 8.0 and 8.1 Novell Linux Desktop 9 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.0 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3.0 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1 Red Hat Linux Advanced Server 2.1 Red Hat Linux 9.0 Red Hat Linux 8.0 Red Hat Linux 7.3 Red Hat Linux 7.2 Red Hat Linux 7.1 Red Hat Linux 7.0 Red Hat Linux 6.2 Sun Java Desktop System 2 SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server 10 SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server 9 SuSE Linux Enterprise Server 8 SuSE Linux Enterprise Server 7 SUSE LINUX 10.1 SUSE LINUX 10 SUSE LINUX 9.3 SUSE LINUX 9.2 SUSE LINUX 9.1 SUSE LINUX 9.0 SuSE Linux 8.2 SuSE Linux 8.1 SuSE Linux 8.0 SuSE Linux 7.3 Turbolinux 10 Desktop Turbolinux Enterprise Server 8 Turbolinux Workstation 8 Turbolinux 7.0 Ubuntu Linux 6.06 Ubuntu Linux 5.10 Ubuntu Linux 5.0.4 FreeBSD 6.1 FreeBSD 6.0 FreeBSD 5.4 FreeBSD 5.3 FreeBSD 5.2 FreeBSD 5.1 FreeBSD 5.0 FreeBSD 4.10 FreeBSD 4.9 FreeBSD 4.4, 4.5, 4.6.2, 4.8 FreeBSD 4.0, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3 NetWare 6.5 Server NetWare 6.0 Server NetWare 5.1 Server NetWare 4.2 Server Solaris 10 Operating System for x86 Solaris 9 Operating System x86 Platform Platforms Edition
    • Virtual PC 2007 • 64-bit host support • Hardware virtualization support – Intel-VT & AMD-V • Vista support – Host and guest • No official Linux support • Multiple monitor support • Compatible VM images w/ Virtual Server • Audio – no USB • Free
    • Virtual PC 2007 • Supported Hosts • Supported Guests Windows 98, Windows 98 Second Edition Windows XP Professional Windows Millennium Edition (Windows Me) Windows XP Tablet PC Edition Windows 2000 Professional Windows Vista Business Windows XP Home Edition Windows Vista Enterprise Windows XP Professional Windows Vista Ultimate Windows Vista Business Windows Vista Enterprise Windows Vista Ultimate OS/2 Warp Version 4 Fix Pack 15, OS/2 Warp Convenience Pack 1, OS/2 Warp Convenience Pack 2
    • Virtual Desktop Products Summary • Microsoft Virtual PC 2007 – Free – MS-only hosts & guests support – VT & 64 bit host hardware support – Vista support • VMware Workstation – Not free – More host & guests support – Feature-rich (e.g., snapshots, USB) – 64-bit hosts and guests
    • Virtual Server Products • Server Products – VMware Virtual Server 1.01 – Microsoft Virtual Server 2005 R2 – VMware ESX Server 3.0 – Others: XEN 3.0 & Virtuozzo
    • VMware Virtual Server • Features – 64-bit host & guest support – Virtual SMP support – USB support – VM Snapshots – Import MS VM images – Windows and Web management – Central management with VirtualCenter • Limitations – No support for host clustering
    • VMware Virtual Server • Supported Hosts 32-bit Operating Systems: 64-bit Operating Systems: Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Enterprise, Standard, and Web Editions, R2 Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Enterprise, Standard, and Web Editions, R2 Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Enterprise, Standard, Web, and Small Business Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Enterprise, Standard, and Web Editions, Service Pack 1 Editions, including Service Pack 1 Microsoft Windows 2000 Advanced Server, Service Pack 3 and Service Pack 4 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.0 AS, ES, and WS, including U3 and 3.0 AS, ES, and WS Microsoft Windows 2000 Server, Service Pack 3 and Service Pack 4 SUSE Linux 10 and 10.1 (experimental support), 9.3, 9.2 and 9.1 Mandriva Linux 2006 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 Beta (experimental support) and 9, including SP1, SP2, and SP3 Mandrake Linux 10.1 and 9.0 Mandriva Linux 2006 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.0, including updates 1, 2, and 3, 3.0, including updates 1, Ubuntu Linux 6.06, 5.10 and 5.04 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7, and 2.1 Red Hat Linux 9.0, 8.0, 7.3 and 7.2, SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 Beta (experimental support), 9, including SP1, SP2, and SP3 and 8 SUSE LINUX 10, 10.1 (experimental support), 9.3, 9.2, 9.1, 9.0, 8.2 and 7.3 Ubuntu Linux 6.06, 5.10 and 5.04
    • VMware Virtual Server • Supported Guests Windows Vista Beta Windows Server 2003 Windows XP Windows 2000 Windows NT 4.0 Windows Me Windows 98 Windows 95 DOS and Windows 3.1x Mandriva Linux 2006 Mandrake Linux 10.1 Mandrake Linux 10 Mandrake Linux 9.2 Mandrake Linux 9.1 Mandrake Linux 9.0 Mandrake Linux 8.2 Mandrake Linux 8.0 and 8.1 Novell Linux Desktop 9 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.0 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3.0 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1 Red Hat Linux Advanced Server Red Hat Linux 9.0 Red Hat Linux 8.0 2.1 Red Hat Linux 7.3 Red Hat Linux 7.2 Red Hat Linux 7.1 Red Hat Linux 7.0 Red Hat Linux 6.2 Sun Java Desktop System 2 SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server 9 10 SuSE Linux Enterprise Server 8 SuSE Linux Enterprise Server 7 SUSE LINUX 10.1 SUSE LINUX 10 SUSE LINUX 9.3 SUSE LINUX 9.2 SUSE LINUX 9.1 SUSE LINUX 9.0 SuSE Linux 8.2 SuSE Linux 8.1 SuSE Linux 8.0 SuSE Linux 7.3 Turbolinux 10 Desktop Turbolinux Enterprise Server 8 Turbolinux Workstation 8 Turbolinux 7.0 Ubuntu Linux 6.06 Ubuntu Linux 5.10 Ubuntu Linux 5.0.4 FreeBSD 6.0 FreeBSD 5.4 FreeBSD 5.3 FreeBSD 5.2 FreeBSD 5.1 FreeBSD 5.0 FreeBSD 4.4, 4.5, 4.6.2, 4.8 FreeBSD 4.0, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3 NetWare 6.5 Server NetWare 6.0 Server NetWare 5.1 Server NetWare 4.2 Server Solaris 10 Operating System for x86 Platforms Solaris 9 Operating System x86 Platform Edition
    • Virtual Server 2005 R2 • Features – 64-bit host support – Web-based management – New support for Linux distributions – iSCSI Support – Support for MSCS • Limitations – No 64-bit guest support – No guest audio – No guest USB
    • VS2005 R2 MSCS Host Support • Support for Microsoft Clustering Services – Windows Server 2003 Enterprise Edition or Datacenter Edition • VS is MSCS cluster- aware – Eliminates single point of failure – Automatic VM startup
    • Windows Server 2003 R2 • Applies to any virtualization product running on Windows Server 2003 R2 • VM licensing changes – Windows Server 2003 Enterprise Edition R2: base OS and four additional VM OS – Windows Server 2003 Datacenter Edition: unlimited VMs
    • VMware ESX Server 3.0 • Leader in the enterprise virtualization products • Bare metal installation – No host OS – Best performance
    • ESX Server Overview Applications Applications Applications Virtual Guest OS Guest OS Guest OS (Linux) (Windows 2000) (Windows 2003) Virtual Machine Virtual Machine Virtual Machine Physical Virtual Machine Manager (ESX Server) System Hardware
    • ESX Server 3.0 Features • CPU virtualization – 4-way Virtual SMP • Direct SAN LUN mapping, boot from SAN • Up to 16GB RAM per VM • Can import MS VM Images • Can cluster VMs across physical hosts • Centralized management using VirtualCenter • Not free: $1000 Standard Edition, $5750 Enterprise Edition
    • ESX Server 3.0 Limitations • Unfamiliar management for Windows administrators • No official support for MSCS host • No USB support in the guests
    • VMware ESX Server 3.0 • Supported 32-bit Guests Microsoft Windows Windows Server 2003 Standard, Enterprise, Web, or Small Business Server Windows Server 2003 Standard, Enterprise, Web, or Small Business Server R2 Windows XP Professional (Service Pack 1 and 2) Windows 2000 Advanced Server, Server, or Terminal Services Edition (Service Pack 3 or 4) Windows 2000 Professional Uniprocessor (Service Pack 4) Windows NT 4.0 Server (Service Pack 6a and higher) Red Hat Linux Enterprise Linux AS/ES/WS 2.1 Enterprise Linux AS/ES/WS 3.0 Enterprise Linux AS/ES/WS 4.0 SuSE Linux Enterprise Server (SLES) 8.0 Enterprise Server (SLES) 9.0 OES Novell Netware Version 5.1 Version 6.0 Version 6.5 Sun Solaris 10
    • VMware ESX Server 3.0 • 64-bit Guests – Windows 2003 64-bit SP1 (Standard, Enterprise) – Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 64-bit (UP6, UP7) – Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 64-bit (UP2, UP3) – SuSE Linux Server (SLES) 9 64-bit (SP3) – Solaris 10 1/062
    • Other Virtualization platforms • XEN – XEN 3.0 -- Open source • Limited guest support • Requires OS source-code changes – XENSource XenEnterprise – commercial • Windows and Linux support • Requires Intel-VT or AMD-V • Virtuozzo – Linux roots – Virtualizes the OS rather than the hardware
    • Virtual Servers Summary • VMware Virtual Server – Free, excellent host and guest support – 64-bit host and guest support – No clustering support • Microsoft Virtual Server 2002 R2 – Free, Microsoft-only hosts, good guest support – 64-bit host support, no 64-bit guest support – Support Microsoft Clustering for hosts Both benefit for Windows Server 2003 R2 licensing
    • Virtual Servers Summary • ESX Server – Highest costs, bare metal performance – Virtual SMP, highest guest capacities – No clustering for hosts, clustering for guests • XEN – Free, open-source, requires OS source code changes • Virtuozzo – Not free, virtualizes OS not hardware
    • Application Virtualization
    • Application Virtualization Scenarios • Legacy applications • Incompatible applications • End of DLL Hell • No OS changes • Can be coupled w/ AD or other management frameworks for client management and deployment
    • Application Virtualization • Runs as an application • Virtualizes OS settings – Registry – File system
    • Application Virtualization Products • Softricity SoftGrid – Application virtualization – Deployment • Altiris Software Virtualization Solution – Application virtualization
    • Softricity SoftGrid • $5000 base price w/ 20 CALs • Purchased by Microsoft • Requires AD • Requires a back-end applications server • On-demand deployment – Streams software to clients • Policy-based management
    • SoftGrid Overview • Install SoftGrip Application Server • Deploy SoftGrid clients • Add SoftGrid application groups to AD • Sequence target applications • Assign applications to SoftGrid AD groups
    • Softricity Overview
    • Altiris SVS • Free • No complex infrastructure requirements • Implemented as a file system filter driver – Redirects registry and file system calls
    • Altiris SVS Overview • Install SVS on the client • Create an application layer • Install the target application into the application layer • Activate the application layer
    • Future Directions in Virtualization
    • ESX Server vs. Windows Server • Monolithic hypervisor • Microkernel “hypervisor” – Simpler than a modern kernel – Simple partitioning functionality – Still complex – Lightweight hypervisor – Heavyweight hypervisor – No third-party code – Contains its own drivers model – Drivers run within guests VM 1 VM 1 VM 2 VM 3 (“Admin”) (“Parent”) Virtual- VM 2 VM 3 ization (“Child”) (“Child”) Stack Hypervisor Drivers Drivers Drivers Drivers Drivers Drivers Drivers Drivers Drivers Drivers Drivers Drivers Hypervisor Hardware Hardware VMware ESX Virtualization Windows Server Virtualization
    • Virtualization Management • VMware Infrastructure 3 – No AD requirement – Manages Virtual Server, GSX Server, and ESX Server VMs • Microsoft System Center for Virtual Machine Manager – Requires AD – Manages Microsoft Virtual Server 2005 & Windows Server Longhorn VMs – Currently in beta
    • Windows Virtualization Platforms VM 2 VM 3 VM 1 VM 2 VM 2 “Parent” ” “Child” “Child” Virtualization Platform and Management Virtual Server 2005 R2 Windows Server 2003 Hardware Virtual Hard Disks (VHD) )
    • Additional Resources • Hardware Partitioning – HP Integrity www.hp.com/enterprise/cache/262803-0-0-225- 121.html?jumpid=reg_R1002_USEN – Unisys ES7000 www.unisys.com/products/enterprise__servers/high_d_end__serve rs/features.htm – Fujistu PrimeQuest www.fujitsu- siemens.it/products/mission_critical/primequest440_480.html
    • Additional Resources • Desktop Virtualization – Microsoft Virtual PC 2004 www.microsoft.com/windows/virtualpc – VMware Workstation 5.5 www.vmware.com/products/ws/
    • Additional Resources • Server Virtualization – Microsoft Virtual Server www.microsoft.com/windowsserversystem/virtualserver – VMware www.vmware.com • Virtual Server • ESX Server
    • Additional Resources • Application Virtualization – Softricity SoftGrid www.softricity.com – Altiris SVS www.altiris.com/Products/SoftwareVirtualizationSolution.aspx
    • Thank You! Michael Otey mikeo@windowsitpro.com