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  • Who am I? Datalink? IOUG?
  • Non-Oracle Storage Backup Solutions Non-Oracle solutions are sometimes “undiscovered” in the world of DBAs Can solve issues that simply cannot be done with Oracle-only technology May already be deployed in a company to support Oracle/non-Oracle applications but the database staff is unaware of its HUGE benefits to database environments
  • Set up the market opportunity with this 3rd party info as support for having a Dbase Practice.
  • This is an excellent summary of customer pain points. What are Datalink’s specific solutions? How do they tie into Oracle environments? Take each challenge, equate it with a DLink offering, and tie into an Oracle environment!
  • Since not all data is created equal, availability and recovery solutions need to be be carefully aligned with the criticality of the data to the organization. In doing this, we take a number of things into consideration. Cost of protection: The shorter the time intervals for protecting your data, the more expensive the system will be Cost of data: The more time that has elapsed since the last consistent copy of data, the more costly that data is if you’re unable to recover it due to an outage Availability: Ability to ensure failures are transparent to users and applications (i.e. the recovery time and recovery point are zero) Cost of recovery: The more quickly you need to restore data, the more expensive the system will be Cost of time: As the time to recover data increases, so does the cost of lost productivity and business We help determine criticality of systems We conduct a gap analysis We help define technologies based on where you fall on timeline Examples: A banking or bank processing (e.g. credit card, brokerage firm) may have extremely high costs per every minute of down time. In this case we may recommend a fully redundant site with hot failover, providing a short Recovery Time and Recovery Point. Costs associated with this solution are high. In other cases, a tape backup/recovery solution may be adequate based on the recovery point and recovery time analysis.
  • A segment is a set of one or more extents that contains all the data for a specific type of logical storage structure within a tablespace. Database: A logical collection of shared data stored in tablespaces File: A physical data file belonging to a single tablespace Tablespace: A logical repository for physically grouped data Segment: A set of one or more extents that contains all the data for a specific structure within a tablespace Extent: A set of contiguous database blocks Block: Multiple physical file blocks allocated from an existing data file.
  • Tip: For recovery, don’t overwrite existing online controlfiles – otherwise it recovers only to the point-in-time of the backup Due to reduced performance, minimizing time in hot backup mode is critical. Snapshots and SMO will help this greatly! During the hot backups the entire block containing a changed record, not just the changed record, is written to the archive log, requiring more archive space for this period.
  • Pros: if only one table is needed, the backup administrator can selectively Import that table versus recovering a 5 TB database
  • Many of the hardware and software-based storage technologies can be applied to Oracle data to improve backup and recovery environments. These technologies are independent of Oracle and typically are also integrated with non-Oracle applications and files that still need to be backed up. These solutions are sometimes “undiscovered” in the world of database administrators. When architected properly though, they can prove extremely valuable and solve some issues that simply cannot be done with Oracle-only technology. In many cases, they may already even be deployed in a company to backup and recover non-Oracle applications and files but the database staff is unaware of its use or of its benefits to the database environment. Below are some of these solutions.
  • Let me move on to a third innovation that dramatically simplifies the process of application development. For most enterprises, application development and application deployment accounts for a significant %age of IT time and expense. Let me use the example of a large, global software corporation that is in the business of application development. They make several copies of data for testing and development purposes prior to production deployment. There are two costs that stem from this requirement: Traditionally, each copy consumes 100% disk overhead because these copies need to be writeable copies that are used by developers and test groups. Each copy requires a lot of time to make. As a result, this company carefully managed how frequently they would clone their data and run tests on the application – this sacrifices the time to market since more frequent testing during the process of development would lead to better results the first time around.
  • This company was one of the most vocal advocates and an early Alpha and Beta partner in the development of FlexClone, because FlexClone dramatically simplifies the process of application development and takes costs out. With FlexClone, copies are almost instantaneous to make and each copy only occupies as much storage as needed to track changes. Estimates suggest that only 5-10% of the data might change in each development and test environment – this means that 90-95% of the storage required for copies is saved. Equally importantly, because clones are instantaneous, they can now run tests a lot more frwquently leading to higher quality application development as well as faster time to market.
  • As we look to the future, we see more companies moving to the grid computing model, which has very exciting implications for storage. In the past, if you wanted a hugely powerful computing environment, you went out and spent a lot of money and resources on a big Cray-class supercomputer. Now the market has changed so that companies can create the same class of environment by joining up thousands of low-priced commodity components. Companies can start with thousands of cheap commodity CPUs, (click) linked together with cheap commodity networks like GB Ethernet. (click) add a free OS like Linux, and you’ve got a large, flexible, virtual machine. The problem is that this system can generate dat loads bigger than any server can handle. (click) The answer is to extend the model to a storage grid--a pool of cheap fast storage. To manage all this storage, NetApp provides tools for (click) transparent reconfiguration of your storage, to optimize storage for different classes of data, as well as (click) software that provides a single Global Name Space and unified management--creating what functions as a single virtual storage pool Additionally, (click) as demands for certain types of data increase, the pool can be reconfigured to move high-access data to faster primary storage. (click) This model means you have an extremely powerful environment where everything is scalable--from capacity to performance--but with the administrative control and simplicity of a single machine. Network Appliance is uniquely positioned to help companies make a smooth transition to the grid computing model and take advantage of this powerful new paradigm.
  • Here I’ve used color to show all the diagonals and how they are stored on the DP disk. Notice that there are five disks, and hence five diagonals, but we only have room to store 4. The one we don’t store is left as transparent in the picture. It’s going to turn out that we can reconstruct after a double disk failure even though we haven’t stored that last diagonal. Also, now may be the best place to point out that the total number of disks, not counting the DP parity disk is 5, which is a prime number. In this talk, I’m not going to go into any details about the proofs involving prime numbers, but you should be aware that there are deeper issues I’m not going into here. (This detail doesn’t matter for day-to-day operation. Our implementation allows you to have any number of disks in the array, just like RAID 4.) It’s also worth pointing out that each diagonal includes blocks from 4 of the 5 disks. This turns out to be important. The reason is that if one disk fails, there is always a diagonal that hasn’t lost any data at all. If a second disk fails, this diagonal will only be missing one block, which makes reconstruction possible. We’ll see this when we actually work out the example. TRANSITION: Now let’s fill in all of the locations with “data”…
  • Lets look at this example that we ran in our lab..
  • Lets look at this example that we ran in our lab.. 17% performance increase when moving the two aggregates into one FlexVol aggregate and 24% reduction in disk utilization. This allows you to add additional workload on the same storage device.
  • Datalink is a publicly-traded company. We went public in 1999. While many technology companies have financially struggled during the economic downturn, we’ve remained debt-free. We’re not new to information storage. We have been focused exclusively on information storage solutions since 1987. We moved to a new corporate headquarters in Chanhassen, MN., in 2001. We also have offices throughout the U.S. Each is staffed with sales teams and technical services teams. Tech services personnel represent the largest employee segment.
  • We committed to helping companies advance their business. Independence = business-driven vs. product-driven approach and solutions. Not tied to a particular platform or product line, which gives us the flexibility to be business-driven vs. product-driven. Storage architectures and services are aligned with business needs and maximizes ROI. Storage focus & expertise Datalink has a unique vantage point though access to and visibility within each manufacturer’s organization. Extensive field experience with large and complex, multi-vendor, and multi-platform infrastructures. By using a holistic approach, we’re able to align three critical elements – people, processes, and technologies. Alignment assures project success and full return on investment. Track record of excellence High level of repeat business We take the time to understand our customer’s business and identify opportunities where information technologies can help them achieve their objectives, such as enhancing customer service, driving revenues, etc.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Information Means The World. Information Means The World.
    • 2. Storage: A New Paradigm for Databases Ari Kaplan President, IOUG & Datalink Database Practice [email_address] 312-399-0079
    • 3. Oracle: 30 years! IPOs: Sun: March 4, 1986 Oracle: March 12, 1986 Microsoft: March 13, 1986
    • 4. 30 years of IT paradigms: - Mainframe - Client-Server - Internet - Mobile - Web 2.0 Storage paradigms: - Direct-attached disk - Tape backups - NAS - Disk-to-disk - Virtualization - Replication
    • 5.
          • Introduction
          • Oracle-based Methods: Hot backup, RMAN, Data Guard, Export / Import, Data Pump, Flashback
          • Snapshots : Enterprise Backup and Recovery
          • Snapshots : Development and testing for cloning
          • Enterprise Backup and Recovery :
            • Disk-to-disk, enhanced data recovery, and VTL
          • Disaster Recovery : storage-based replication
          • Cost savings : tiered architecture / ILM
          • Performance and high-availability : RAID-DP and aggregates
          • Storage security / encryption
          • De-duplication
          • Pros and Cons : Oracle and non-Oracle enterprise solutions
      Agenda
    • 6. A Silo Approach?
      • “ I’ve always focused on the Oracle side due to implementing RAC. Every company I’ve worked with has had their storage team take care of that side of the house.”
        • One of America’s top Oracle RAC specialists
    • 7. Databases Growing at Staggering Rate
      • The WinterCorp survey found that the world’s largest databases have posted an annual compounded growth rate of approximately 75% since 1995.
      Size of the Largest Data Warehouse in the WinterCorp TopTen ™ Survey
    • 8. Storage Solutions for DBA Challenges
      • Backup issues
      • Scalability: it can take a long time to physically copy 2 TB of data to tape or disk
      • Cost: it costs a lot to purchase 200 TB of storage so you can perform physical image backups of 200 TB databases. It is costly to even purchase hardware to test backups.
      • Performance: keeping large databases in hot backup mode negatively affects the performance of high-transaction systems (inserts, updates, deletes)
      • Complexity of systems: multiple databases, interlinked systems, different database versions, RMAN/non-RMAN, RAC, ASM, etc.
      • Manageability: it is often difficult to setup, manage, and test backups
      • Recovery issues
      • Manageability: human errors, lost data, inconsistent data, physical failures, corruption can require restores. It can be a manual and scary process to recover to a consistent point-in-time
      • Performance: how in the world do you recover a 2 TB database in 15 minutes?
      • Disaster Recovery / Replication
      • How do you architect your database and surrounding environment for DR? With no data loss? With a 15-minute failover timeframe?
      • Data growth
      • Cost: DBAs tend to put storage on single class of storage without archiving or tiering considerations
      • Performance: system response time is 5 seconds now. What happens when my data triples in size?
      • Manageability: it is often a political process to get additional storage from non-DBA groups
      • Development and testing
      • Cost: it costs a lot to purchase 20 TB of storage to get several image copies of production to test and development!
      • Scalability: it is too much to provide 5, 10, 15 or more copies to development and testing teams
      • Manageability: it can take 25% or more of a DBA’s time to manage the cloning process
    • 9. RPO and RTO Recovery Point – Database-only is typically days or hours of lost data in disaster, or too costly. Combined with storage can be faster, heterogeneous, and with less cost Recovery Time – Database-only can be days or hours. Combined with storage can be minutes. Backup Window – Database-only is typically days for terabyte-sizes. Combined with storage can be seconds Tape Backup Hot backup Tape Backup Hot backup RMAN Data Guard Copy-on-Write Snapshots WAFL Snapshots Async replication RMAN Synchronous replication, Data Guard
    • 10.
          • Snapshots: Enterprise Backup and Recovery
    • 11. Oracle Tablespace Architecture datafile 1 datafile 2 datafile 3 datafile 4 datafile 5 Database Blocks Extent 28K Extent 84K Segment 112K (Table, Index, etc.) TABLESPACE
    • 12. Oracle Database Architecture Image from Oracle Corp
    • 13. Oracle Backup Methods: Hot Backups
      • What:
      • Online backup of the database
      • PROS:
      • Can be used with other backup methods
      • CONS:
      • Can be prohibitively lengthy
      • Only backs up some of the Oracle files – not customized code or non-Oracle systems such as Exchange, applications, and SQL
      • Performance degradation
      • Need an automated script that looks at Oracle’s configuration on the fly
    • 14. Oracle Backup Methods: RMAN
      • RECOVERY MANAGER
      • What:
      • Block-level backups - datafile compression
      • Parallel streams
      • Many companies see a 10x + performance depending on the amount of updates that were made between backups
      • Use of a recovery catalog for multiple databases
    • 15. Oracle Backup Methods: RMAN
      • PROS:
      • Significantly reduces RTO
      • Significantly less storage space for incremental backups (only changed blocks)
      • Parallel streams/channels
      • Works well with snapshots, SnapMirror, SMO, Decru, future de-duplication
      • CONS:
      • RMAN only backs up the database, not code or non-Oracle systems
    • 16. Oracle Backup Methods: Data Guard
      • What:
      • Replicates Oracle databases from one data center to another
      • Performs backups from the standby database instead of the production database
      • Both physical and logical versions
    • 17. Oracle Backup Methods: Data Guard
      • PROS:
      • Synchronous mode
      • Logical mode
      • CONS:
      • Not supported by earlier versions of Oracle
      • Only supports Oracle databases, not source code or non-Oracle systems
      • Disables NOLOGGING mode
      • Extra Oracle license
      • Standby database must be online
    • 18. Oracle Backup Methods: Export/Import
      • What:
      • Logical backups of tables (rather than copying the physical blocks of data, it copies the series of commands used to recreate the tables)
      • PROS:
      • Can recover on a table-by-table basis instead of the entire database
      • Good for complementing other backup methods
      • CONS:
      • Can take a LONG time versus snapshot methods
      • All data since the export was made is lost
      • A database must be running to perform either an export or import
      • Export files shouldn’t be edited and can only be used by Oracle
    • 19. Oracle Backup Methods: Export/Import
      • Additional Features:
      • Using the SELECT clause (compared to FlexClone…)
      • Logical copy of tables or the entire database
      • Defragmenting
      • Moving tables / data among schemas
      • Moving tables / data among databases
      • Recreating CREATE statements
          • imp full=y show=y log=cr_db.sql (it’s ugly)
      • Migrate among Oracle versions
      • Note: some OS’s have a 2G file-size limit so DBAs use the “split” and/or compress / tar commands
    • 20. Oracle Backup Methods: Data Pump
      • What:
      • Export/Import’s replacement with significant improvements
      • PROS:
      • 15-45 times faster than Export/Import
      • Parallel streams
      • Suspend and restart data transfers
      • Self-tuning
    • 21. Oracle Backup Methods: Data Pump
      • CONS:
      • Like the Export/Import utilities
        • All data since the Data Pump started is lost
        • Still can take a long time to back up and recover versus methods such as snapshots
        • A database must be running to perform either an export or import
      • Data Pump does NOT yet work with XML schemas and XML schema-based tables
      • When you are importing data into an existing table using either APPEND or TRUNCATE, if any row violates an active constraint, the load is discontinued and no data is loaded
      • Situations where external tables is used and Direct Path Load is not
        • there is an active trigger
        • a unique index exists
        • the table is partitioned
        • a referential integrity constraint exists
        • fine-grained access control is enabled in insert mode
        • the table has encrypted columns, table is in a cluster
        • a global index on multi-partition tables exists during a single-partition load
        • a domain index exists for an LOB column
        • a table contains BFILE columns or columns of opaque types
        • a table contains VARRAY columns with an embedded opaque type
        • supplemental logging is enabled and the table has an LOB column
    • 22.
      • What:
      • Oracle’s flashback area allows for recovering a table (or database) to any point-in-time in the past by storing images of data online
      • Flashback Database:
      • Recover to point-in-time from Flash Recovery Area
      • Flashback Table:
      • FLASHBACK TABLE LAOUG_audience,
      • free_gift_list TO TIMESTAMP
      • (06-FEB-2007, 13:25:00);
      Oracle Backup Methods: Oracle Flashback
    • 23.
      • Flashback Drop
      • DROP command puts object into a “recycle bin” for quick recovery
      Oracle Backup Methods: Oracle Flashback
    • 24. Oracle Backup Methods: Oracle Flashback
      • PROS:
      • This method provides online backup and recovery, eliminating the need to recover from tape and saving valuable recovery time and management effort
      • Extremely fast recovery of tables with simple commands
      • CONS:
      • Requires a significant amount of flashback area online, taking up lots of storage
      • Can’t recover from media failure
      • Can’t undo operations such as shrink datafile
      • Can only flashback to the oldest SCN in the FRA
      • Only works with newer releases of Oracle
    • 25. Storage Backup Methods
      • Non-Oracle Storage Backup Solutions
      • Non-Oracle solutions are sometimes “undiscovered” in the world of DBAs
      • Can solve issues that simply cannot be done with Oracle-only technology
      • May already be deployed in a company to support Oracle/non-Oracle applications but the database staff is unaware of its HUGE benefits to database environments
    • 26. Storage Backup Methods: Triple-Mirroring
      • What:
      • Copies the data in real time to three sets of redundant disks
      • PROS:
      • It’s possible to slice the mirror instantaneously and back up from the slices, thereby eliminating performance hits of being in hot backup mode for extended periods of time
      • CONS:
      • Expensive: 50% more storage costs to keep a set of production-sized disks
      • Companies still may not be able to meet backup windows, especially if backing up from the mirror takes more than 24 hours
    • 27. Storage Backup Methods: Array-Based Replication
      • What:
      • Replication between two storage arrays that sends storage layer blocks to a standby site whenever there is a storage change at the primary site
      • PROS:
      • Fills the gaps of Data Guard by replicating non-Oracle systems and source code as well as tables in NOLOGGING mode
      • Works best in conjunction with Data Guard by jointly reducing replication traffic and reducing or eliminating single points of failure
      • Significantly improves RTO and RPO
      • CONS:
      • Source and target may need to be the same vendor, unless using heterogeneous replication such as Topio
      • There is a cost associated with purchasing and maintaining a third-party array-based replication solution. An ROI analysis will demonstrate that this cost can be justified. The point at which it is recouped will depend on the value of the data
    • 28.
      • All of these should be backed up!
      • Datafiles – data, index, temporary, rollback, system
      • Online and archived redo logs
      • Control files
      • Oracle executables and patches
      • Export, Data Pump dump, RMAN files
      • Auditing files
      • Parameter files (init.ora, sqlnet.ora, listener.ora, tnsnames.ora)
      • SPfiles
      • Alert logs, bdumps, cdumps, udumps
      • Password files
      • Single sign-on files
      • LOB or BFILE or library storage structures
      • External tables
      • Home-grown scripts
      Oracle Physical Files
    • 29. Simpler Backup and Recovery Active File System (CURRENT) All Oracle Datafiles 7 AM 8 AM 9 AM 10 AM 11AM Redo Logs Archive Logs Ctl Files
    • 30. Storage Backup Methods: Snapshots
      • Instant backup and recovery of large data sets using a sophisticated, scalable, and fail-safe pointer system of storage blocks. Snapshots represent a frozen view of data taken at a specific point-in-time. Data and entire environments can be restored to a known stable point prior to the event that caused the disruption or corruption.
      C’ Snapshot.0 A B C Active File System (Changed blocks between snapshots are tracked) Snapshot.0 file system version of ORACLE.DBF is still composed of blocks A, B & C Snapshot.1 file system version of ORACLE.DBF is composed of blocks A, B & C’ Snapshot.1 File: ORACLE.DBF File: ORACLE.DBF File: ORACLE.DBF
    • 31. Technology Integration Snapshot for Backup/DR validated by Oracle
      • Snapshots
        • Point-in-time copy
        • Created in a few seconds
        • No performance penalty
      • TPC-C Published with 5 active snapshots
      Snapshot taken
    • 32. Real World Snapshot Performance "In our test configurations, we found that conducting a single snapshot copy on the FAS3070 over the course of the test had no sustained impact on the overall performance. On the CX3-80, creating a single snapshot caused the overall performance level to drop to approximately 50 percent of the baseline performance. Additionally, the results show that the post snapshot performance did not recover to levels observed before the snapshot was taken.” VeriTest Report, NetApp FAS3070 vs. EMC CX3-80: Nov. 2006
    • 33. Storage Backup Methods: SnapManager for Oracle
      • What:
      • GUI that uses Snapshots for database backups, recoveries, and cloning. Easy to install and integrates with Oracle RMAN, Oracle RAC, Oracle ASM. Oracle 9i and 10g
      • PROS:
      • Greatly improves DBA efficiency in setting up test and dev environments
      • Automates DBA tasks and reduces risks for:
        • Error-free backups and recoveries
        • Restores
        • Clones
      • Initiate and manage backups
      • Minimize the risk of data loss and corruption with increased backup frequency
      • Near instantaneous restores of data when it’s most critically needed
      • CONS:
      • There is a cost associated with purchasing non-Oracle solutions. As with the other storage-based methods, an ROI analysis will demonstrate that this cost can be quickly justified. The point at which it is recouped will depend on the value of the data and the value of the speed of backup or recovery, improvements in manageability, etc.
    • 34.
          • Snapshots: Development and testing for Cloning
    • 35. Using Snapshot Cloning to Accelerate Application Development and Upgrade Cycle
      • Quickly reconfigure multiple test, development, QA, DW, auditing, staging environments
      • Rapid restore from online Snapshot copies
      • Allows multiple test environments
      • Accelerates test cycles
      • Helps deliver new Oracle applications quickly
      • Use Oracle cloning procedures to clone application environments
      Test and Development Lab Oracle Server Test Database Clustered Filers Database Testing Cycle Only Takes Seconds Testing Baseline Run Test Evaluate Results Restore Base Environment
    • 36. Before: Large E-Business Suite Production
      • Challenges
      • Copies consume lots of disk
        • < 10% data differences for each instance
      • Copies take a lot of time
        • Slower time to market
      Mirrored Copy Test 1 … Dev N … Test N Test 2 Dev 1 Dev 2
    • 37. After, with Snapshot Clones Production Test 1 Test 2 QA Develop 1 Develop 2 Mirrored Copy
      • Solution
        • Instantaneous copies
        • Low storage overhead
      • Faster TTM
      • Higher quality
      • Lower cost
    • 38. Oracle University and Cloning
      • Refresh about 100 classes with 11 databases each weekend
      • Entire operation now complete in 45 minutes!
    • 39. Storage Backup Methods: SnapShots for Cloning (SMO and FlexClone) Demo (05:04) Known Performance and Cost Unpredictable Performance and Cost Scalability by Metric: To avoid surprise, require proof of scalability at your requirement levels Test and dev with full size database Test and dev with full size database) Test and dev with subset of database
    • 40. Storage Backup Methods: SnapManager for Oracle
      • What:
      • GUI that uses snapshots for database backups, recoveries, and cloning
      • Easy to install and integrates with Oracle RMAN, Oracle RAC, Oracle ASM, Oracle 9i and 10g
      • PROS:
      • Greatly improves DBA efficiency in setting up test and dev environments
      • Automates DBA tasks and enables error-free backups and recoveries, restores and clones
      • Initiates and manages backups
      • Minimizes the risk of data loss and corruption with increased backup frequency
      • Provides near instantaneous restores
      • CONS:
      • Cost associated with purchasing non-Oracle products
        • ROI analysis will demonstrate that this cost can be justified
    • 41.
          • Disk-to-disk, enhanced data recovery and VTL
    • 42. Disk-to-Disk: Enhanced Data Recovery is the Solution
      • Why?
      • Rising downtime costs
      • Pressure to reduce recovery time (RTO)
      • Pressure to minimize data loss (RPO)
      • Increasing data sizes / shrinking backup window
      • Tape backup & restore is unreliable
      • Media costs & media management complexity getting out of control
    • 43. Disk-to-Disk: Enhanced Data Recovery is the Solution
      • A backup and restore architecture that adds a disk based storage array to a traditional tape only solution.
      • Enables concept of “Backup to disk, Archive to tape”
      • Enabled by falling disk prices (ATA & SATA)
      • Leverages random access capability of disk
      • Augments tape capabilities
    • 44. VTL: Efficient Backup and Restore
      • VTL emulates industry standard tape libraries
      • Time to restore is improved with online and near-line backups
      • Consolidated backups: integrates as appliance!
      • Replace tape backups with VTL backups
      • Faster than tape
      • Non-sequential recovery
      • Rapid failover supported — when a server fails you can remount the database volumes to another server
      Tape Library for backup Windows Servers Backup Server NearStore VTL Storage UNIX Servers Decru DataFort
    • 45.
          • Disaster Recovery: Storage-based Replication
    • 46. Replication Based Backup Solution ROI/TCO
      • What:
      • Replication between two storage arrays that sends storage layer blocks to a standby site whenever there is a storage change at the primary site
      • Reduces the number of copies of data backed up
      • Reduces IP network traffic for backup data
      • More frequent backups with more copies kept online
      • Reduces tape media and automation resources
      • Fast file & full restores
      • Shortest RPO & RTO
      • Centralization of remote backup
      • Replication to off-site location lowers tape media management costs for off-site tape rotation
    • 47. Oracle Backup Methods: Data Guard
      • What:
      • Replicates Oracle databases from one data center to another
      • Performs backups from the standby database instead of the production database
      • Both physical and logical versions
    • 48. Oracle Backup Methods: Data Guard
      • PROS:
      • Synchronous mode
      • Logical mode
      • CONS:
      • Not supported by earlier versions of Oracle
      • Only supports Oracle databases, not source code or non-Oracle systems
      • Disables NOLOGGING mode
      • Extra Oracle license
      • Standby database must be online
    • 49. Storage-based Replication for Oracle
      • Oracle DB volumes on primary and standby site are SnapMirrored
      • Remote site’s Oracle DB is kept in recovery mode
      • When disaster strikes primary site, it’s a matter of breaking the SnapMirror and bringing up the remote standby site’s Oracle DB in query/update mode
      GigE / FCP /vol/Oracle Data, Log & Cntrl files /vol/Oracle Mirrored Data, Log and Cntrl files Asynchronous replication over TCP/IP LAN or WAN. No distance limitation. Primary Site remote disk mirroring solutions NAS/SAN Storage Appliance Changed blocks are shipped to the target mirrored volume Standby Site NAS/SAN Storage Appliance GigE / FCP NYC Chicago
    • 50. Storage Backup Methods: Array-Based Replication
      • PROS:
      • Fills the gaps of Data Guard by replicating non-Oracle systems and source code as well as tables in NOLOGGING mode
      • Works best in conjunction with Data Guard by jointly reducing replication traffic and reducing or eliminating single points of failure
      • Significantly improves RTO and RPO
      • CONS:
      • Source and target may need to be the same vendor, unless using heterogeneous replication such as Topio
      • There is a cost associated with purchasing and maintaining a third-party array-based replication solution. An ROI analysis will demonstrate that this cost can be justified. The point at which it is recouped will depend on the value of the data
    • 51.
          • Cost savings: tiered architecture / ILM
    • 52. Oracle and Virtualization: Enterprise Grid
      • Scalable everything: performance, availability, capacity, etc.
      • Single view; single point of control
      Pooled Storage Network with Transparent Reconfiguration: Compliance Database Backup Data Secure Data CPUs OS and Load Sharing Software Single Virtual Machine High Access Data on Primary Storage Single Virtual Storage Pool Global Name Space and Unified Management
    • 53. Tiered Architecture / ILM
      • Oracle options for tiering data
      • Tablespaces on specific tiers of disks
      • Table and index partitioning – tiers of disk relate to specific partitions
      • Triggers, procedures, packages for migrating data
      • ILM solutions from Oracle or third-parties
        • Oracle ILM Assistant
          • Define the Data Classes
          • Create Storage Tiers for the Data Classes
          • Create Data Access and Migration Policies
          • Define and Enforce Compliance Policies
        • Third-party solution integration with Oracle
    • 54. Cost savings example: 94% reduction in storage costs!
      • Oracle options for tiering data
      • Tablespaces on specific tiers of disks
      • Table and index partitioning – tiers of disk relate to specific partitions
      • Triggers, procedures, packages for migrating data
      • ILM solutions from Oracle or third-parties
        • Oracle ILM Assistant
          • Define the Data Classes
          • Create Storage Tiers for the Data Classes
          • Create Data Access and Migration Policies
          • Define and Enforce Compliance Policies
    • 55.
          • Performance and high-availability: RAID-DP
    • 56. RAID-DP
      • RAID-DP is an advanced, cost-effective disk failure/error protection solution protecting information in the event of a double disk or media failure within a single RAID group
      • RAID-DP is based on RAID4 adding a diagonal parity calculation to enhance overall performance versus competitive double parity adaptations based on RAID6
      3 1 2 1 1 1 3 1 2 2 1 3 3 1 2 2 9 5 8 7 7 12 12 11 { D D D D P DP
    • 57. Why is RAID-DP Needed?
      • Protection
      • ‘ Traditional’ single-parity-drive RAID group no longer provides enough protection
        • Reasonably-sized RAID groups (e.g. 8 drives) are exposed to data loss during reconstruction
      • RAID-DP’s double disk-failure protection does what RAID5 and RAID1/0 cannot:
        • Reduces RISK: limits exposure to same RAID group second disk failure or non-recoverable media error
      • Cost
      • RAID 1 is too costly for widespread use
        • Mirroring doubles the cost of storage
        • Not affordable for all data
      • RAID-DP exceeds RAID1/0 protection levels without the associated doubling of capacity and cost
      • RAID-DP has a comparable operational cost to RAID 4
      • Performance
      • Optimized for Performance
      • Reduces RAID group rebuild time
    • 58. RAID-DP vs other RAIDs
      • >10,000 times more secure than single-parity RAID
      • More reliable than mirroring for double-disk failure
      • 13% Parity Overhead vs 50% Overhead w/ Mirror (*)
      • 75% more usable capacity than competitive offerings (*)
      • * Comparing 14d + 2p vs. 8+8 mirror
      P P DP RAID Protects against single disk failure RAID DP Protects against any two-disk failure
    • 59. The Cost of Data Availability & Protection Compare RAID-DP™ to RAID10 Count the drives needed for 2TB useable storage using 144GB disk drives RAID-DP™ RAID-DP protects as well as RAID10 with less storage overhead RAID 10 30 17
    • 60. A Simpler Database Architecture Redo Logs Archive Logs Ctl Files All Oracle Datafiles
    • 61. Aggregates: a Simpler Database Design RAID-DP Multi-Disk Aggregate Database
    • 62. Aggregates: Improved Performance Test OLTP Database - 1 Test OLTP Database - 2 Transaction log Archive log Flashback Data files All files 24 Disk Aggregate 32 Disk Aggregate 8 Disk Aggregate
    • 63. Aggregates: Improved Performance Test OLTP Database - 1 Test OLTP Database - 2 Transaction log Archive log Flashback Data files All files 24 Disk Aggregate 32 Disk Aggregate 8 Disk Aggregate
    • 64.
          • De-duplication
    • 65. Other Backup Methods: De-duplication
      • What:
      • De-duplication works with VTLs by detecting redundant data streams during the backup process and sending pointers to that data (versus actual streams of blocks of data) when duplicate streams are detected
      De-dupe device
    • 66. Other Backup Methods: De-duplication
      • PROS:
      • Can dramatically reduce the backup stream size—typically 10-20 times—and bandwidth required for backup
      • 10-40% lower acquisition cost than tape
      • When set up properly, de-duplication can work well with multiple Oracle RMAN channels
      • CONS:
      • Initial costs
    • 67.
          • Storage security
    • 68. Encryption by Storage Vendors
      • What:
      • Unencrypted data opens up the company to several vulnerabilities—whether it’s a disgruntled employee or consultant stealing the tape or the tape being lost in the warehouse or while being transported off-site.
    • 69.
      • Oracle solutions
      • Database Encryption:
        • Store data encrypted within database tables and, thus, also encrypted on tape
        • Data may be unencrypted in indexes, temp tablespace, flashback, audit, and elsewhere
      • Oracle Secure Backup:
        • Encrypt Oracle’s RMAN backups before they are written to tape
        • By encrypting at the database level, an organization reduces much of its exposure. This method is also free (for one direct-attached storage device)
        • Typically, the DBA is solely responsible for retaining the key and there are inherent weaknesses with this strategy
      • 2) Storage vendor encryption
      • Encryption at the storage level
      • Multi-master key management that prevents single points-of-failure for key loss
      • No auto-destruct capabilities
      • By using a hardware and software appliance, backup streams can be encrypted with negligible impact on performance
      Encryption by Oracle
    • 70. Recovery Methodologies
      • An untested or undocumented backup and recovery plan is no plan at all
    • 71. Summary, Q & A
      • Ari Kaplan
      • [email_address]
      • 312-399-0079
    • 72. Addendum Slides
    • 73. Datalink Overview
      • Independent information storage architect specializing in solutions & services spanning:
        • Data availability
        • Data recovery
        • Storage management
      • Focused on information storage solutions and services since 1987
      • Headquartered in Minneapolis, MN, with operations throughout the U.S.
      • Publicly traded company (NASDAQ: DTLK)
    • 74. Datalink Value Proposition
      • Independence
        • Unbiased guidance
        • Business needs drive recommendations
      • Storage focus & expertise
        • Insider’s view of manufacturer R&D roadmaps
        • Extensive experience with complex, multi-vendor, multi-platform infrastructures
        • Alignment of people, processes and technologies
      • Track record of excellence
        • Long-term partnerships
        • Business value