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  • Cloud computing may futuristic but it is nothing more than a way to pull together proven technologies, including virtualization, SOA, and service management. (Note: Don’t need all three but cloud is most powerful at the intersection where all three technologies converge.) The central ideas of the Cloud Computing model: 1. Abstraction maximizes the benefit of skills and expertise. It decouples the user from operational details, allowing them to focus on high-value work 2. Virtualization allows the complex IT environment to be managed as one single large resource providing services 3. Dynamically allocation provisions, configures, reconfigures, and de-provisions IT capability as and when needed, transparently and seamlessly That’s the big picture for cloud. Tie back to the three examples outlined earlier. Celerity (speed) and reliability is achieved through standardization, where commonly used configurations are stored in a catalog, ready for automatic deployment, reducing downtime and error rate flexibility is achieved through virtualization, smart resource sharing and allocation. It anticipates needs and uses the most appropriate resource to address the need, With complete control over the environment, it can pool resources together and react to unexpected demand. efficiency is achieved through better automation, standardization, and prioritization, minimizing processing time and matching the best resources with the most important and difficult tasks Transition line : Let’s look at the impact of cloud in a real-life scenario.
  • Also: According to Gartner , "Worldwide total software revenue for software as a service (SaaS) within the enterprise software markets is projected to surpass $5.1 billion in 2007 , a 21 percent increase from 2006 revenue. The market is poised for strong growth through 2011, when worldwide revenue will reach $11.5 billion." – M2 Presswire – September 2007 Gartner says that 25% of the whole enterprise software industry, will be software as a service by 2012 and that’s right around the corner. Despite the current economic downturn, the software industry is poised for growth in 2008, with worldwide enterprise software revenue totaling $190.7 billion in 2008, an 8.2 percent increase from 2007 revenue of $176.3 billion, according to Gartner, Inc. – Business Wire, February 2008
  • Consulting methodogies – business SOA – for technology What does it yield – and what is the impact (Give an example – self service provisioning) At IBM, we have been working on a maturity model and process for achieving desirable stages of maturity, a model called the Service Integration Maturity Model (SIMM). The level of de-coupling and amount of flexibility achievable at each stage of maturity are what make up the following seven levels of maturity: Silo (data integration) Integrated (application integration) Componentized (functional integration) Simple services (process integration) Composite services (supply-chain integration) Virtualized services ( virtual infrastructure) Dynamically reconfigurable services (eco-system integration) Each level has a detailed set of characteristics and criteria for assessment, and what follows is a brief description of the highlights of each level: Silo : The organization starts from proprietary and quite ad-hoc integration, rendering the architecture brittle in the face of change. Integrated : The organization moves toward some form of EAI (Enterprise Application Integration), albeit with proprietary connections and integration points. The approaches it uses are tailored to use legacy systems and attempt to dissect and re-factor through data integration. Componentized : At this level, the organization componentizes and modularizes major or critical parts of its application portfolio. It uses legacy transformation and renovation methods to re-factor legacy J2EE or .NET-based systems with clear component boundaries and scope, exposing functionality in a more modular fashion. The integration between components is through their interfaces and the contracts between them. Services : The organization embarks on the early phases of SOA by defining and exposing services for consumption internally or externally for business partners -- not quite on a large scale -- but it acts as a service provider, nonetheless. Composite Services : Now the organization extends its influence into the value chain and into the service eco-system. Services form a contract among suppliers, consumers, and brokers who can build their own eco-system for on-demand interaction. Virtualized Services : The organization now creates a virtualized infrastructure to run applications. It achieves this level after decoupling the application, its servcies, components, and flows. Now the infrastructure is more finely tuned, and the notions of the grid and the grid service render it more agile. It externalizes its monitoring, management, and events (common event infrastructure). Dynamically Reconfigurable Services : The organization now has a dynamically re-configurable software architecture. It can compose services at run-time using externalized policy descriptions, management, and monitoring. The business domain looks primarily at three things: the maturity of the business architecture, the relationship between business and IT and the business value achieved by moving to a service-oriented paradigm. We assess the business architecture and IT support of service orientation with the goal of improved reuse and flexibility, reduced complexity and time-to-market and in both business architecture and IT solutions. The organization domain looks at the maturity of the enterprise and/or business units in the context of organization structure, processes, mechanisms, learning and knowledge enablement, and governance in support of service orientation. This includes the ability to deliver on changing business requirements. The method domain looks at the maturity of the enterprise and or business units in their use of specific software (system) development method and process to support the SOA life-cycle and methods. This includes project management and project estimation considerations for the development of services, components and flows for the SOA life-cycle. The application domain looks at the maturity of the application portfolio to leverage service orientation. It focuses on the use of services for sharing and reuse of business functionality across business units and the ability to flexibly interchanging functionality to meet changing business needs. The architecture domain looks at the maturity of various levels of the architecture including, the enterprise and application architecture to support service orientation. The information domain looks at the maturity of the information and data architecture and management to support service orientation. It includes the notions of information as a service and the ability to apply best practices such as MDM and appropriate application of best practices such as Data Cleansing and Migration. The infrastructure domain looks at the maturity of the infrastructure, monitoring and management in areas of service monitoring and management, service security, and service virtualization. Designing the infrastructure to support the non-functional and operational requirements and service-level agreements needed to operate in a specific scope of the service eco-system.
  • Massive number of services To massive number of users With quality of service
  • WebSphere VE : WebSphere Virtual Enterprise provides application infrastructure virtualization capabilities that dynamically deliver application server resources where they are needed most. The software separates applications and services from the underlying infrastructure. Workloads can then be dynamically placed and migrated across a pool of application server resources allowing the infrastructure to automatically adapt and respond to business needs. Requests are then prioritized and routed to respond to the most critical applications and users.

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  • Storage for Cloud Computing Clod Barrera – STG Systems Storage January 20, 2009
  • Agenda
    • What and why is Cloud Computing?
    • Cloud Computing and Storage
    • Ensembles as Cloud and Enterprise Infrastructure
    • Storage Ensembles
  • Cloud Computing
    • Notes:
    • Abstraction – alleviates IT consumers from the operations of applications, allowing end users to focus instead on the execution and high-value activities
    • Virtualization – access to business services on-demand independent of location and resource constraints
    • Dynamic allocation – dynamically provisions, configures, reconfigures, and de-provisions IT capability as and when needed, transparently and seamlessly
    Speed and reliability through standardization, higher level of automation, and abstraction Flexibility through virtualization, dynamic resource sharing, and proactive capacity allocation Efficiency through higher level of automation, catalog standardization, and prioritization Abstraction Current Environment SOA Service Mgmt
    • Emerging model where users can have access to applications or compute resources from anywhere through their connected devices through a simplified UI
    • Applications reside in massively-scalable data centers where compute resources can be dynamically provisioned and shared to achieve significant economies of scale
    • A strong service management platform results in only marginal incremental management cost, if any, when more workload needs to be handled by the cloud
    Virtual- ization Information Virtualization Elasticity Work Mobility
  • Key Attributes of Cloud Computing
      • Simple “self service” user interface
      • where underlying technology and
      • services are irrelevant to the user.
    *A Service Management platform allows an operations management team to collect or discover information about how the resources associated with a service are configured and consumed and then access that information to support integrated management processes that address changes to and problems with the service.
      • When adding IT resources to
      • the service, the incremental
      • cost to manage these new
      • resources approaches zero
    Provides for an infinitely scalable pool of connected computing resources Although often associated with Internet Services, clouds will exist both inside a data center to support that customers & internal users as well as supporting third-party managed service offerings. Efficient, green, and cost effective infrastructure
    • AaaS - Architecture as a Service
    • BaaS - Business as a Service
    • CaaS - Computing as a Service
    • CRMaaS - CRM as a Service
    • DaaS - Data as a Service
    • DBaaS - Database as a Service
    • EaaS - Ethernet as a Service
    • FaaS - Frameworks as a Service
    • GaaS - Globalization or Governance as a Service
    • HaaS - Hardware as a Service
    • IaaS - Infrastructure or Integration as a Service
    • IDaaS - Identity as a Service
    • LaaS - Lending as a Service
    • MaaS - Mashups as a Service
    • OaaS - Organization or Operations as a Service
    • SaaS - Software as a Service
    • StaaS - Storage as a Service
    • PaaS - Platform as a Service
    • TaaS - Technology or Testing as a Service
    • VaaS - Voice as a Service
    A variety of ‘as-a-Service’ terms have been used to describe the services offered in Clouds:
  • Who’s Offering Cloud Services today? 3Tera Grid-based Platform For Cloud Apps Akamai Application Performance Services Amazon.com Amazon Web Services AretiInternet Virtual Hosting Bungee Labs Virtual Labs-as-a-Service software CohesiveFT Cloud Platform Elastra Hosted Elastic Computing EMC Storage Cloud – Decho(Mozy, Pi) + Cloud Infrastructure & Services Division Enki Computing Utility Flexiscale Utility Computing on Demand Fortress ITX DynamicGrid Google Search Services HP Adaptive Infrastructure as a Service iCloud Desktop Cloud IBM Computing Cloud, Advanced UIs, Deep Capacity on Demand Joyent Accelerator for Applications Layered Technology GridLayer Microsoft CRM, email and IM Services Mosso Hosting Cloud Salesforce.com Force.com Terremark Infinistructure XCalibre FlexiScale
  • Cloud Computing Users and Business Models
    • Main actors and their interaction mode in the use and delivery of Cloud Services, enable the identification of the models and evolving technologies that support the Cloud Computing strategy:
    • Acquisition Model (Service): "All that matters is results; I don't care how it's done"
    • Business Model (Pay for usage): "I don't want to own assets - I want to pay for elastic usage, like a utility"
    • Access Model (Internet): "I want accessibility from anywhere, from any device"
    • Technical Model (Scalable, elastic, shareable): "It's about economies of scale, with effective and dynamic sharing"
    Garter, 2008 Service Consumers Service Catalog, Component Library Cloud Administrator Datacenter Infrastructure Monitor & Manage Services & Resources Component Vendors / Software Publishers Publish & Update Components, Service Templates Access Services IT Cloud
  • Cloud Computing: A New Paradigm Enterprise Cloud Network Cloud INNOVATIVE BUSINESS MODELS End Users / Requestors Government/ Academics Industry (Startups/ SMB/ Enterprise) Consumers
    • An “Elastic” pool of high performance virtualized compute resources
    • Cloud applications enable the simplification of complex services
    • A cloud computing platform combines modular components on a service oriented architecture
    • New combinations of services to form differentiating value propositions at lower costs in shorter time
    • Internet protocol based convergence of networks and devices
    SIMPLIFIED SERVICES Source: Corporate Strategy
  • Cloud computing perceived benefits and demand drivers
    • Awareness and demand for cloud computing are fueled by perceived / potential benefits to business entities , individual users , and IT providers (includes enterprises + service providers)
    Cloud computing’s “nirvana-like” promise drives higher service level expectations among business entities and individual users Which in turn puts pressure on the enterprise data center to deliver higher service quality (at lower cost)
    • IT Providers
    • Key Benefit:
    • Competitivenes
    • Lower TCO
    • Faster Time to Market
    • Higher Cust Rentention
    • Service quality
    • Resource optimization
    • Resiliency
    • Flexibility
    • Efficiency
    • “ Green”
    • Enhanced chargeback
    • Business Entities
    • Key Benefit:
    • Innovation
    • Faster, easier innovation
    • New business models
    • New products and services
    • Faster time to market
    • Lower IT cost
    • Lower IT risk (brand protection)
    • Improved IT user productivity
    • Improved Client Satisfaction
    • Improved Disaster Recovery
    • IT Users
    • Key Benefit:
    • Quality of Experience
    • Speed of access
    • Ease of access (anywhere, anytime)
    • Ease of use
    • Minimal software requirements on access device
    • No long-term commitments
  • Model for Delivering Cloud Services (single provider) Fulfillment Services
    • End Users make requests using a catalog of services
    • The Provider delivers service using fulfillment processes and technology
    • Services are normalized to achieve Abstraction and Encapsulation
    Fulfillment Process Fulfillment + Enterprise Process (e.g. Open Account) Fulfillment + Enterprise Process + Governance (e.g. ITIL) Provisioning Services Usage & Accounting Services Monitoring Services Security Services Energy Management Services Technology … . End User Requestors & Operators … Service Requestor Service Catalog Request UI Operational UI Service Provider Service Creator Federated Data Repository Service Definition Tools Service Publishing Tools Service Fulfillment & Configuration Tools UI, Fulfillment, Data, MetaData Service Monitoring Tools KPIs Service Planning
  • August 24, 2008 Architectural Model for Cloud Computing End User Requests & Operators … Service Request & Operations Design & Build Image Library (Store) Deployment Operational Lifecycle of Images IT Infrastructure & Application Provider Service Creation & Deployment Virtual Image Management Service Catalog Request UI Operational UI Standards Based Interfaces Virtualized Infrastructure Service Management Service Oriented Architecture Information Architecture Standards Based Interfaces Service Catalog, Component Library Datacenter Infrastructure Cloud Administrator Access Services Optimized Middleware (image deployment, integrated security, workload mgmt., high-availability) Service Oriented Architecture Information Architecture User Request Management/Self Service Portal Security: Identity , Access, Integrity, Isolation, Audit & Compliance Usage Accounting License Management Image Lifecycle Management Provisioning Performance Management Availability/Backup/ Restore Service Lifecycle Management Service Management Virtual Resources & Aggregations SMP Servers Network Hardware Storage Servers System Resources Blades Storage Virtualized Infrastructure Server Virt. Storage Virt. Network Virt.
  • The Role of Storage in Clouds - 1 Deep Infrastructure (What cloud?) Service Management SOA Application Middleware Virtualized Infrastructure Server / Storage / Network Virtual Image Management Cloud Service User
    • The ‘Cloud Service’ is an application or upper layer function, or a platform service
      • e.g. Salesforce.com, hosted computing
      • “ Application computing” is done by the Cloud Service and is co-located with the storage
    • Incremental cost and time to add a new user is effectively zero
    • Desired Storage Infrastructure is the same as advanced Enterprise Storage (only cheaper)
      • Integrated server & storage management
      • Automated provisioning
      • Performance & security controls
      • Chargeback
      • TCO challenges
    • Value of the Cloud Service
      • Complete application stack offload
    Compute Requires some new/better storage function
  • The Role of Storage in Clouds - 2 Storage Application As a Cloud Service Service Management SOA Storage Application Storage Optimized Infrastructure Virtual Image Management Cloud Service User
    • The ‘Cloud Service’ is a Storage Intensive application or upper layer function
      • e.g. Medical Image Archive
      • Backup/DR for SMB
      • Data Warehousing
      • Content serving
      • Client could be an individual or a server farm
    • Desired Storage Infrastructure is an optimized Storage Application
      • Archive + Indexing + Search, long term retention
      • Video/large object access
    • Local compute limited to:
      • Ingest and playback
      • Optimization, management
    • Value in the Cloud Service
      • Multi-tenancy
      • Content
      • Specialty storage application
    Compute Compute Requires some new/better storage function Requires specialty storage/function
  • The Role of Storage in Clouds - 3 ‘ Storage in the Cloud’ (like the old SSPs) Service Management SOA Storage Application – Device emulation Storage Optimized Infrastructure Virtual Image Management Cloud Service User
    • Storage devices are seen as local, deployed across the cloud
      • E: drive on laptop/desktops – Amazon S3
      • ‘ Capacity on Demand’ for server farms
    • Desired Storage Infrastructure is a very low cost ‘Network Virtual Disk’ facility
      • Upsell services?
        • Archive + Indexing + Search, long term retention
    • Local compute limited to:
      • Ingest and playback
      • Optimization, management
    • Value in the Cloud Service
      • Convenience, cost
      • Capacity on demand
    • Challenges
      • Multi-tenancy
      • Cost
      • Performance
      • Application Synergy
    Compute Compute
  • Making Cloud Computing a Reality requires: Virtualization Integrated virtualization and management with optimized systems and networks to break the lock between IT resources and business services Autonomic Management Autonomic management methods for both application and infrastructure services to meet user needs and expectations for delivery of high quality of service Ensembles Simplified IT infrastructure, reduced complexity and management through the creation of large, consistent pools of resources that are managed as one. Software Services Hardware
  • Methods for IT Simplification Service oriented architecture technologies frame business processes as services, ease of deployment, composition, reuse, change… Topologies of federated services must be mapped onto large numbers of diverse physical and virtual resources Business Processes as Services Heterogeneous servers, storage, networks “ Enterprises report that IT operational overhead = 70% of their IT budget and growing . . . leaving precious few resources for new initiatives.” – Forrester, 2007 OLD Virtual Resource Objects/Appliances, Libraries will reduce the labor required for software stack development and management Ensemble Ensemble Ensemble Ensembles, scalable pools of like systems that are manageable as single systems will replace multitudes of individual servers and reduce the labor required for physical systems management Service management software spans the diversity of heterogeneous physical and virtual resources, providing unified cross-platform management in support of SOA NEW
  • Ensemble Components
    • An Ensemble generally consists of the following components:
      • A pool of compatible system nodes (e.g., N physical servers; need not be homogeneous)
      • Virtual resource mobility within an ensemble and with compatible ensembles
      • The networks which interconnect the ensemble nodes (may be local / optimized)
      • Resource virtualizers (hypervisors, I/O virtualizers, storage virtualizers, …)
      • An ensemble manager appliance that provides platform management for the ensemble virtual and physical resources
      • Tools for planning, ensemble creation, P2V migration, image mgmt. & composition, …
      • Ensemble-local automated optimization software of performance, availability, energy usage, security, … with intelligent defaults
      • Multi-system services (locking, caching, message queuing, …) may be integrated with some ensembles
    Ensemble definition: a pool of like systems that is manageable as a single system OS OS OS Hypervisor Server OS OS OS Hypervisor Server Workload Mobility Server Ensemble Example Ensemble Manager
  • Ensembles – Building blocks for the New Enterprise Data Center and Clouds Ensembles Server Ensemble Ensemble Manager Virtualization Network Ensemble Ensemble Manager Virtualization Storage Ensemble Ensemble Manager Virtualization Storage Instantiate Virtual System Collections by allocating or assigning resources, configuring the resources as required, and managing the resources in the context of the goals & constraints provided. SEP
  • Accessing and Exploiting Ensembles Service Management Center Service Request Manager Catalog of Available Services Policies, Parameters, Options Specific Subscriber Cloud Instance Secure & Provision Resources Monitoring Subscriber Cloud Service Request Ensembles Server Ensemble Ensemble Manager Virtualization Network Ensemble Ensemble Manager Virtualization Storage Ensemble Ensemble Manager Virtualization SEP Storage
  • The Benefits of Ensembles
    • Ensembles will significantly reduce IT resource management complexity and cost, and improve IT functionality, in consumable data center increments
    Individual Servers Server Ensemble OS OS OS Hypervisor Server OS OS OS Hypervisor Server Workload Mobility OS OS OS Hypervisor Server Ensemble Manager Built-in optimizations; intelligent defaults Add-on software, custom scripts, … Management Automation Standard “off the shelf” assemblies Do it yourself; few assemblies are alike Create, Test, and Maintain N virtual elements; one physical ensemble N virtual elements; M physical elements # of Things to Manage Hierarchical; pool-level modularity Monolithic; spans d. c. heterogeneity Data Center Mgmt. Arch. Menus of selectable standard behaviors Many individual knobs and variables Management Interfaces Single console; in-context functionality Separate consoles for physical & virtual # of Consoles OS OS OS Hypervisor Server
  • Server Ensemble Hierarchy
    • Server ensembles look like single systems, hiding their internal parallel structure
    • Virtual resource mobility within an ensemble is a key enabling technology
    Middleware Ensemble
    • AIX 6.1 WPAR ensemble
    • System z ensemble
    • VMWare ensemble (e.g. on blade servers)
    • Other x86 ensembles
    • WebSphere VE ensemble
    Examples Corresponding Ensemble Virtual Runtimes Virtual Operating Systems Level Virtual Machines a.k.a. Logical Partitions Single System Server Ensemble OS Ensemble SMP Server Hypervisor OS App OS App App App OS SMP Server Runtime MW App App OS SMP Server Hypervisor Hypervisor SMP Server Hypervisor OS App OS App App App OS SMP Server Runtime MW App App OS SMP Server Hypervisor Hypervisor SMP Server Hypervisor OS App OS App App App OS SMP Server Runtime MW App App OS SMP Server Hypervisor Hypervisor Mobility Mobility Mobility
  • Cloud Computing – Requirements on Storage
    • Scale, Low cost
    • Dynamic, unpredictable workloads
    • Automated management, provisioning, performance monitor & tuning, …
    • Security and data protection
    • Quality of Storage Service
    • Geographic distribution
    • Storage Use Cases
      • Archive
      • Database
      • File
      • Block
  • Storage Ensembles File Server Ensemble File Server Database Server Database Server/Storage Cluster Xaction service Query service Backup Remote copy Integration Provisioning QOS, load balance Virtual storage Automated mgmt Disaster recovery SAN Components SAN Ensemble Cluster FS Cluster FS File APIs QOS Storage Tiers Backup Remote copy Archive interface Archive Ensemble Block Storage Server File & Archive APIs Indexing/Search Retention Policy Compliance + File Ensemble Cluster FS Content Mgmt
    • SoFS
    • Large scale NFS and CIFS data access
    • Stream servers
    • Compliance stores
    File
    • Balanced Warehouse
    • Data Warehouse cluster
    • High performance OLTP
    • Virtual storage + SAN + management
    • Virtual SAN storage as an (enterprise ) service
    • Building block for larger ensembles
    • Compliance Warehouse
    Examples Storage Ensemble Archive Database Level Block (LUN) Single System
  • Storage Ensembles are ‘Dual Use’ technology
    • Improve Enterprise Computing
      • Lower complexity, lower costs of operation
      • Improved automation
      • Improved security
      • Server / storage / network integration
    • Better infrastructure for Cloud Service Offerings
      • Same as above +
      • Responsive to dynamic workloads
      • Responsive to new business modes
  • Ensemble Pool Management : Dynamic Capacity for Ensembles
    • New storage is discovered and can be easily added to the Ensemble
    • The Ensemble will automatically re-balance workloads given the new available capacity
    Pooled Resources CPU=a+b+c Mem=x+y+z Scheduler App OS Image App OS Image App OS Image App OS Image App OS Image App OS Image App OS Image
  • Technologies of Scale - Cluster File Systems Compute Node Storage Node NFS/CIFS Client external fabric NFS/CIFS clients Compute cluster NSD storage servers internal fabric SAN
    • Highly Scalable NAS
    Compute cluster NSD storage servers internal fabric
  • SoFS – GTS Offering Similar implementations of varying degrees of maturity found in other vendor’s products.
    • General Parallel Filesystem (GPFS) -
    • IBM’s High end clustered file system
    • CTDB – Clustered Trivial Database Daemon, Controls the cluster and the file service daemons
    • Enhanced CIFS Server with NTFS Semantics to Support Active Directory Integration
    • SoFS Package – Provides Management GUI, Apache file server module, acceleration tools, etc.
    • IBM Hardware
  • Storage Devices Pool 1 Storage Virtualization Archive Replicate Physical Storage Management Virtual Storage Management Backup/HSM Storage Devices Pool 2 Storage Devices Pool N Device Access, Pathing Storage Provisioning Archive Replicate Backup/HSM File Systems Content Management DBMS Applications Device Access, Pathing Storage Provisioning Archive Replicate Backup/HSM File Systems Content Management DBMS Applications Virtual Storage Tier 1 Virtual Storage Tier 2 Virtual Storage Tier 3 Virtual Systems Management Physical Systems Management Virtual Storage as Block Infrastructure
  • Virtual Storage Tier 3 Block Storage Export – FC, iSCSI, IB, … Storage Devices Pool 1 Storage Virtualization Virtual Storage Management Storage Devices Pool 2 Storage Devices Pool N Virtual Storage Tier 1 Virtual Storage Tier 2 Block Storage Clusters Archive Replicate Backup/HSM Physical Storage Mgmtt Fully integrated cluster as a storage block server - Virtual Storage - Thin provisioning - Space-efficient, container based replication - Self balancing, reconfiguration, rebuild - Multiple storage tiers – cost/performance
  • Virtual Storage Tier 3 Block Storage Export – FC, iSCSI, IB, … Storage Devices Pool 1 Storage Virtualization Virtual Storage Management Storage Devices Pool 2 Storage Devices Pool N Virtual Storage Tier 1 Virtual Storage Tier 2 Stacking Storage Ensembles Archive Replicate Backup/HSM Physical Storage Mgmtt Higher layer ensembles built on lower ones - File Built on Block - Archive built on File Cluster File System Content Management
  • Standards for Cloud Storage
    • Service access interfaces
    • Storage service interfaces
      • Provisioning
      • QOS
      • Performance management
      • Chargeback accounting
      • Data protection
      • Storage Security
    • Storage infrastructure management interfaces (SMIS)
    Service Management SOA Application Middleware Virtualized Infrastructure Server / Storage / Network Virtual Image Management Cloud Service User Compute