FC Draft 8.15.2008




RHEL and Xen on Itanium: Open Source Virtualization with Enterprise Class
Features




Red Hat Ente...
FC 8.15.2008




Red Hat Enterprise Linux Virtualization and Intel Itanium


Table of Contents
Executive Summary ............
FC 8.15.2008




Red Hat Enterprise Linux Virtualization and Intel Itanium


Executive Summary
Server virtualization is a ...
FC 8.15.2008




Red Hat Enterprise Linux Virtualization and Intel Itanium

estimates indicate that only 10% of all server...
FC 8.15.2008




Red Hat Enterprise Linux Virtualization and Intel Itanium

Configuring a redundant I/O infrastructure is ...
FC 8.15.2008




Red Hat Enterprise Linux Virtualization and Intel Itanium

Background and History of Xen
Xen is a hypervi...
FC 8.15.2008




Red Hat Enterprise Linux Virtualization and Intel Itanium

access to I/O, the device drivers run in “Doma...
FC 8.15.2008




Red Hat Enterprise Linux Virtualization and Intel Itanium




                             Figure 2: High...
FC 8.15.2008




Red Hat Enterprise Linux Virtualization and Intel Itanium

information model provider for the Distributed...
FC 8.15.2008




Red Hat Enterprise Linux Virtualization and Intel Itanium

Features
All processors have to perform some l...
FC 8.15.2008




Red Hat Enterprise Linux Virtualization and Intel Itanium

Xen hypervisor. The value of logging and handi...
FC 8.15.2008




Red Hat Enterprise Linux Virtualization and Intel Itanium

paravirtualized, their operating system to kno...
FC 8.15.2008




Red Hat Enterprise Linux Virtualization and Intel Itanium


FOCUS Assessment
Integrating the Xen hypervis...
FC 8.15.2008




Red Hat Enterprise Linux Virtualization and Intel Itanium



 About FOCUS
 Anne Skamarock, Research Direc...
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Desktop and Application Delivery Alternatives

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Transcript of "Desktop and Application Delivery Alternatives"

  1. 1. FC Draft 8.15.2008 RHEL and Xen on Itanium: Open Source Virtualization with Enterprise Class Features Red Hat Enterprise Linux Virtualization and Intel Itanium: Linux Open Source Virtualization with Enterprise-Class Features A FOCUS White Paper August 2008 FOCUS Consulting 2008 FOCUS Consulting www.focusonsystems.com Page 1
  2. 2. FC 8.15.2008 Red Hat Enterprise Linux Virtualization and Intel Itanium Table of Contents Executive Summary .................................................................................... 2 State of the Industry.................................................................................... 2 Drivers for Virtualization ........................................................................................... 2 Drivers for Enterprise-Class Features on Servers .................................................. 3 Drivers for Open Source............................................................................................ 4 Background and History of Xen ............................................................................... 5 Solution Overview – Red Hat Enterprise Linux on Itanium .................... 5 Xen and Red Hat Enterprise Linux ........................................................................... 5 Key Features ................................................................................................................................... 6 Guest Operating Systems ................................................................................................................ 6 Management.................................................................................................................................... 7 Licensing ......................................................................................................................................... 8 Intel Itanium Overview ............................................................................................... 8 Features .......................................................................................................................................... 9 Intel VT-i ........................................................................................................................................ 10 Key Benefits and Challenges ................................................................... 11 Conclusions and Recommendations ...................................................... 11 FOCUS Assessment .................................................................................. 12 References ................................................................................................. 12 Other Related FOCUS Reports ................................................................ 12 About FOCUS............................................................................................. 13 2008 FOCUS Consulting www.focusonsystems.com Page 1
  3. 3. FC 8.15.2008 Red Hat Enterprise Linux Virtualization and Intel Itanium Executive Summary Server virtualization is a powerful enabling technology that offers a compelling business case for consolidating multiple server workloads onto one physical server using server virtualization software. Leveraging this capability increases the criticality of the server hardware — if a server fails, many applications/workloads are affected rather than just one. As a result, consolidating business-critical workloads drives a need for enterprise mainframe-like features into the server. In a virtual environment, obtaining enterprise mainframe-class features requires tightly interconnected hardware, firmware, virtualization software, and guest operating system solutions. Red Hat Enterprise Linux Virtualization on Intel Itanium with VT-i extensions is a good example of a powerful combined solution. The use of multiple technologies from the open source community, including Linux, Xen, libvirt, and others, brings the work of the best and brightest together in this solution. Additionally, Red Hat leverages standards, such as libvirt and common information model (CIM), to provide management based on open standards, allowing organizations to select the tools that best fit their environment. This software combination, coupled with Intel’s highly reliable, available, and serviceable Itanium processor with Machine Check Architecture (MCA) and Intel VT-i virtualization assist, provides a foundation for mainframe-class computing, without mainframe pricing and maintenance expenses. This white paper discusses the state of the industry, detailing market drivers for mainframe- class features on a server and the benefits of open source technology solutions, explaining the background and history of open source virtualization, beginning with the Xen hypervisor. It details Red Hat Enterprise Linux Virtualization for Itanium, describing salient features and provides the architectural overview of both the hardware and software components of the solution. Key benefits and challenges are covered, as well as conclusions and recommendations. State of the Industry The compelling business case around server consolidation using server virtualization has gained the attention of C-level executives around the world. Drivers for Virtualization It is estimated that most servers today are utilizing less than 10% of available capacity. Using server virtualization to consolidate these underutilized resources drives up utilization on the remaining systems. This increases the return on the server investment and reduces the total cost of server ownership through reductions in space, power, cooling, management, and hardware maintenance. IDC estimates that 90% of all very large corporations (companies with more than 10,000 employees) and between 70% and 80% of medium-to-large corporations (with 1,000 to 10,000 employees) have implemented server virtualization in one form or another. However, current 2008 FOCUS Consulting www.focusonsystems.com Page 2
  4. 4. FC 8.15.2008 Red Hat Enterprise Linux Virtualization and Intel Itanium estimates indicate that only 10% of all servers are currently virtualized. This means that there is still substantial growth yet to occur for server virtualization throughout corporate enterprises. In addition to the early dominance of VMware and other niche offerings, the market is continuing to mature with the entry of many new server virtualization solutions, including Microsoft Hyper- V and a list of companies incorporating the Xen hypervisor, including Red Hat, Novell, Citrix, Virtual Iron, Sun, and Oracle. Server consolidation forces the requirement to make the system highly available. This section describes the market drivers for mainframe-class servers and for open source server virtualization, including a brief history of the Xen Open Source Hypervisor. Drivers for Enterprise-Class Features on Servers The need for enterprise-class features in servers has been growing over the past 10 years, starting with the explosive growth of the Internet. Additionally, the shift to a more global market has accelerated the need for cost-effective, commodity servers that have to be up and running 24x7. The cost of downtime is high and constantly increasing. More recently, the popularity of consolidating servers using virtualization has raised the issue of “putting all your eggs in one basket.” As a result, the need for high reliability, availability, and serviceability of servers running virtual workloads has moved to the forefront. With the single application per server model used by most IT organizations in the past, when a server failed, only one application was at risk. Today, with many application workloads consolidated on a single server using server virtualization (see Figure 1), a failure at the server level can lead to disastrous results. Figure 1: Server virtualization consolidates physical servers and their application workloads onto one server 2008 FOCUS Consulting www.focusonsystems.com Page 3
  5. 5. FC 8.15.2008 Red Hat Enterprise Linux Virtualization and Intel Itanium Configuring a redundant I/O infrastructure is Definition of Terms fairly standard, but processor and memory ECC – Error Correcting Code memory tests the redundancy usually comes at the cost of accuracy of the data passing in and out of memory. another physical system with high availability Full Virtualization – Allows guest operating systems (HA) failover techniques employed. to run unmodified in a virtual environment. Rather The combination of systems configured with than using the traditional emulation approach, open source solutions, such as Xen and KVM, support full the Intel Itanium chipset and Red Hat virtualization using a platform incorporating Enterprise Linux (RHEL) 5.2, running the Xen processor chipsets with virtualization hardware hypervisor native across a cluster of physical assist, such as Intel VT-i. servers, is a good example of a Hypercall – The interface a paravirtualized guest hardware/software pairing that provides this operating system uses to access hardware mainframe-class reliability and resilience, resources, bypassing the emulation layer. without incurring the complete costs of moving Hypervisor – A virtualization layer loaded onto bare to a mainframe. metal, which interacts with the hardware directly and creates and manages virtual machines in which Drivers for Open Source operating systems, either paravirtualized or not, are run. The hypervisor virtualizes or abstracts the Businesses are finding significant value using hardware resources, such as CPU, memory, and I/O technologies developed by the open source devices, for the virtual machine and its guest community on a number of fronts. The open operating system. Hypervisors are also called virtual source projects typically have some of the best machine monitors. and brightest minds in the industry, from many Live Migration – The ability to very quickly move a different vendors, contributing to make the virtual machine and its entire contents (OS and best possible technologies available. applications) from the system where it is running to another physical system without requiring a restart In addition, well-defined application of the OS or applications. When the move is programming interfaces (APIs) are established complete, the OS and applications resume execution. This is performed fast enough to avoid and published so that anyone can create application/service timeouts. added-value software conforming to the APIs, such as management software. Paravirtualization – A virtualization approach in which the guest OS is modified to know it is running Furthermore, once the core of the technology in a virtualized environment. Paravirtualization is has been developed, it undergoes great used to increase the performance of a guest operating system when it is running in a virtual scrutiny from many people, producing high- machine. quality base solutions. Thereafter, the market greatly benefits from the breadth of add-on Virtual Machine (VM) – A virtual or logical system (hardware) running under the control of work produced (again contributed by the best virtualization software, such as a hypervisor. The and brightest) to further the capabilities of the virtual machine nomenclature is also used to technology, rather than multiple vendors describe the virtualization of processes. In this spending this time and energy working on paper, virtual machine is used in the context of duplicating hardware. duplicate, separate efforts. The base Linux code used by Red Hat and the Xen hypervisor are Virtual Machine Monitor – Another term for products of the open source community. hypervisor. 2008 FOCUS Consulting www.focusonsystems.com Page 4
  6. 6. FC 8.15.2008 Red Hat Enterprise Linux Virtualization and Intel Itanium Background and History of Xen Xen is a hypervisor, or virtual machine monitor, which is a thin layer of software that is loaded onto bare-metal hardware and that enables multiple virtual machines (or domains) to run concurrently on the same system hardware. The Xen hypervisor grew out of the open source community after it began as a research project at England’s University of Cambridge. The first release became generally available in 2003 after the presentation and publication of “Xen and the Art of Virtualization” at the ACM Symposium of Operating System Principles. The Xen virtual machine monitor was originally developed for the x86 architecture to be very efficient and to host up to 100 virtual machine instances, simultaneously, on both Windows and Linux, with little-to-no performance overhead (as compared with an unvirtualized environment). The Intel x86 and Itanium processors were not originally designed to support a virtualization environment. This made creating a hypervisor difficult, forcing increased complexity and requiring large amounts of code, thereby reducing performance. One way of overcoming these challenges was to modify the guest operating system to understand that it is running in a virtual environment (paravirtualization). In late 2005, Intel delivered hardware-assists for virtualization, known as Intel VT-x (x86) and Intel VT-i (Itanium) extensions to its chipsets. These extensions improved performance and removed the need for modified/paravirtualized guest operating systems. The Xen 3.0 release (December 2005) took full advantage of these enhancements to the chipset, enabling support for more guest operating systems. In 2003, with the first release, Xen was placed in open source and the Xen community was formed. Since that time, some of the industry’s top technologists have been working together to continue to create, update, and improve releases of Xen. Solution Overview – Red Hat Enterprise Linux on Itanium The 5.1 release of Red Hat Enterprise Linux comes with the Xen hypervisor integrated and has support for guest operating systems built using the Intel Itanium processor with the VT-i extensions. This release combines the value of several open source technologies, including Linux, Xen, libvirt, and others, into a server-based solution that offers many mainframe-class features, such as high availability, superior error handling, and dynamic management. Xen and Red Hat Enterprise Linux Combining two strong open source technology solutions — Linux and Xen — RHEL 5.1 and later versions ship with the Xen hypervisor included. As shown in Figure 2, the Xen hypervisor is loaded on the bare metal and runs on the Intel Itanium chipset both with and without the Intel VT-i extensions. However, only the paravirtualized guest operating systems can run on the Itanium hardware without support for Intel VT-i. The Xen architecture defines the virtual machine monitor separate from the device drivers. To gain access to the plethora of device drivers already available and to maintain high-performance 2008 FOCUS Consulting www.focusonsystems.com Page 5
  7. 7. FC 8.15.2008 Red Hat Enterprise Linux Virtualization and Intel Itanium access to I/O, the device drivers run in “Domain0” (dom0) or host domain, which runs RHEL. This domain provides the I/O infrastructure for all virtual machines that request I/O using hypercalls. All I/O requests from the guest operating systems go through the parent partition’s device drivers. Key Features Red Hat supports both paravirtualized and fully virtualized (unmodified) guest operating systems. To deliver the highest levels of performance and scalability, the kernel of the guest virtual machine can be optimized to run in a virtual environment. In this model, the virtual machine “cooperates” with the hypervisor, eliminating the overhead of emulation and delivering near bare-metal performance. With paravirtualization, the guest operating system becomes “virtualization-aware,” allowing the guest to benefit from advanced features not possible in traditional emulation-based solutions. One example is dynamic resource allocation, or allowing the hardware resources of the guest to be changed on the fly — adding or removing memory, CPUs, disks, and even network interfaces — without requiring a reboot. Live migration allows an administrator to dynamically relocate a virtual machine from one host system to another without service interruption — the virtual machine continues to operate and service user requests during the migration. This can be used to perform hardware maintenance without application downtime by moving the virtual machine to a new host during a maintenance window. Additionally, live migration is used to dynamically balance resources within a cluster to gain optimal utilization of the resources. Red Hat also provides high-availability clustering and failover to enable automated restart of the virtual machines and associated environments in the event of hardware failure. Guest Operating Systems As shown in Figure 2, the guest operating systems are run in virtual machines, also known as unprivileged domains (domU). Red Hat offers a paravirtualized version of RHEL 5 that can run on Intel Itanium and with the VT-i extensions. This provides for the lowest overhead and highest performing operating system support for applications that require this level of performance. 2008 FOCUS Consulting www.focusonsystems.com Page 6
  8. 8. FC 8.15.2008 Red Hat Enterprise Linux Virtualization and Intel Itanium Figure 2: High-level RHEL 5.1 for Itanium architecture Red Hat also provides a number of supported guest operating systems that only run on Itanium chipsets with the Intel VT-i Itanium extensions. Additionally, the RHEL 4 and 5 guest operating systems can include paravirtualized I/O, improving I/O performance running on the Intel Itanium with the VT-i extensions. For customers who are already running versions of RHEL 3, 4, or 5 and wish to consolidate using Red Hat Virtualization, full virtualization of these unmodified guest operating systems is also supported. Additionally, Windows Server 2000 and Server 2003 are supported. Management There are two important aspects to the Red Hat management offerings for RHEL 5 and virtualization that are worth discussing here. One aspect is Red Hat’s time, money, and dedication in developing the libvirt virtualization API, and then releasing it to open source. The other is the management capabilities that are shipped with the RHEL 5.1 release. The libvirt API is a C toolkit that was developed by Red Hat to be a stable interface that interacts with the virtualization capabilities of a number of hypervisors. It provides for local and remote management of the entire virtual environment, including machines, networks, and storage. Remote management is secured using transport layer security certificates, authenticating with Kerberos and Simple Authentication and Security Layer (SASL). It was first released to open source by Red Hat in late 2005, providing basic management of existing Xen environments. Today, libvirt supports Xen, KVM, QEMU, Linux Containers (LXC), OpenVZ, and Solaris Logical Domains (LDoms). It is available for free under the GNU Lesser General Public License (www.libvirt.org) and comes with a set of bindings for common languages and a common 2008 FOCUS Consulting www.focusonsystems.com Page 7
  9. 9. FC 8.15.2008 Red Hat Enterprise Linux Virtualization and Intel Itanium information model provider for the Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF) virtualization schema. Libvirt is shipped with all leading Linux distributions, including Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Novell's SUSE Enterprise Linux, Canonical's Ubuntu, and many others. Libvirt is also included within Sun Solaris to manage Logical Domains and Sun's xVM platform. Red Hat delivers a number of management tools built on libvirt, including: virsh – A command line shell enabling customers to script and automate virtualization management Virtual Machine Manager (virt-manager) – A graphical tool for managing local and remote virtual hosts, including network configuration, storage configuration, installation, and full life cycle management Red Hat Network, which provides automated management capabilities for the entire Red Hat Enterprise from a centralized console, has been extended to support virtualization, providing complete life cycle management for both virtual and physical machines, including provisioning, patch management, configuration management, and monitoring. Licensing Customers running previous releases of Red Hat Enterprise Linux (e.g., versions 2.1, 3, and 4) can upgrade to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 for free. Red Hat subscriptions allow the customer to run any release of RHEL. Using Red Hat's virtualization with Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server, customers can run four RHEL virtual machines for no additional cost; these subscriptions are included with the base product. Red Hat Enterprise Linux Advanced Platform supports an unlimited number of guest environments, constrained only by physical hardware resources. Red Hat does not limit the number of virtual machines run on the host system, but third-party operating system guests, such as Windows, must be licensed in compliance with the respective vendor’s licensing practices. Intel Itanium Overview The need for reliable hardware platforms has never been greater. As the number of virtual machines or domains being run on a system increases, the damage a hardware failure can cause greatly increases. Rather than affecting just one application/user, hardware failures in virtual environments affect many applications and users. To provide the level of high reliability required in a virtual environment, tight integration of hardware, software, and firmware collaborating on a number of levels — including error detection, correction, and management, as well as virtualization. The Intel Itanium VT-I chipset incorporates these features to provide proactive high reliability for virtual platforms. 2008 FOCUS Consulting www.focusonsystems.com Page 8
  10. 10. FC 8.15.2008 Red Hat Enterprise Linux Virtualization and Intel Itanium Features All processors have to perform some level of error/fault handling. One of the critical differentiators between different processors is their ability to detect, automatically correct, and report these errors. Intel Itanium processors were designed for high-end reliability, availability, and serviceability (RAS) of business-critical applications environments supported by a virtual infrastructure. This is accomplished in the Itanium-based systems utilizing a sophisticated, layered error handling architecture called Machine Check Architecture. A key component of the MCA is its firmware layer called the processor abstraction layer (PAL). PAL is capable of correcting and logging all one-bit errors (see Table 1) and handling over 99.99% of all processor hardware errors, potentially including multiple errors simultaneously. Typical Intel Itanium Intel Xeon Intel Xeon RAS Feature Mainframe Platforms MP Platforms Platforms Cache ECC coverage     Memory single-device error correct     Memory retry on double-bit error     Error recovery on data bus (ECC)    Internal logic soft error checking   Bad/poisoned data containment   Cache reliability    Memory sparing     Memory mirroring     Hot plug I/O (PCI-X, PCI Express)     Memory hot swap   Table 1: Dual-core Itanium processor error coverage With the Itanium MCA, memory and processing errors can be resolved within the chipset (see Table 1). If the errors cannot be resolved within the chipset, the errors are logged in the systems abstraction layer (SAL) to be processed by the Xen hypervisor (see Figure 3). Guest operating systems can also access the SAL tables through a Xen API called a hypercall (system call to the hypervisor). Processors with fewer error handling capabilities than the Intel Itanium processor must send more errors directly to the operating system for handling. Reducing the number of errors sent to the operating system both improves error handling performance (and system performance) and reduces the opportunities for system-level failures. For cases where the PAL is not able to handle the error, it is handed to the system abstraction layer for handling or to be passed to the 2008 FOCUS Consulting www.focusonsystems.com Page 9
  11. 11. FC 8.15.2008 Red Hat Enterprise Linux Virtualization and Intel Itanium Xen hypervisor. The value of logging and handing off error information to the SAL is that the system is made aware of these errors/faults and can react to faulting processor(s) or memory proactively, before a downtime-inducing failure occurs. The ability to log and monitor these errors allows the system to be alerted to failing hardware prior to a hard failure, providing systems administrators or policy-based software the ability to proactively move virtual machines (live migrate) off the failing hardware to perform preventative maintenance. Once the failing part has been replaced, the virtual machines can be moved back onto the system hardware. Figure 3: Red Hat/Xen interaction with Itanium/ VT-i with machine check architecture Intel VT-i The Intel VT-i extensions bring virtualization hardware assist to the Itanium-based chipsets because they were originally developed to support one OS per server, not multiple operating systems running on top of a hypervisor. This new paradigm brought with it some difficulties around privileged access to the hardware. Unmodified OS kernels are expected to run at the most privileged levels (Ring 0) to access hardware, including the CPU, memory, and I/O devices. The Xen hypervisor, as a bare-metal virtual machine monitor, by definition, had to run at the most privileged level. This caused conflict between unmodified guest operating systems and the hypervisor. Initially, to solve this conflict, operating systems vendors modified, or 2008 FOCUS Consulting www.focusonsystems.com Page 10
  12. 12. FC 8.15.2008 Red Hat Enterprise Linux Virtualization and Intel Itanium paravirtualized, their operating system to know it was being run in a virtual environment and to use hypercalls to the hypervisor to gain privileged access to hardware and/or services. Unmodified guest operating systems did not work in this environment. In 2005, Intel introduced the Intel VT-i extensions to Itanium processor hardware and the PAL firmware. The hardware extensions consist of the addition of a new bit that signals whether an instruction came from a hypervisor (privileged) or a guest (non-privileged). This allows the guest operating system to run, unmodified, at its expected privilege level, giving the hypervisor the flexibility to use multiple privilege levels. The processor abstraction layer extensions include a consistent programming interface to the hypervisor across multiple processor generations (and possibly different implementations). These extensions also define how the PAL interacts with the virtual machine environments. Key Benefits and Challenges For Linux customers who need mainframe-class systems hardware to support a consolidated server infrastructure, RHEL 5.1 with Xen running on Intel Itanium platforms combines the benefits of open source technology innovation with Itanium’s advanced reliability, availability, and serviceability. With the availability of Intel’s VT-i extensions to Itanium chipsets, IT can run paravirtualized guest operating systems to realize greater gains in performance, or they can run unmodified guest operating systems, including Linux and Windows, with minimal overhead to solve a breadth of computing needs, all on one physical system. Applications on RHEL and Itanium continue to run unmodified, with the addition of the Xen hypervisor. Red Hat provides a consistent application binary interface (ABI) between bare-metal deployments and virtualized deployments, guaranteeing application compatibility. As with all virtualization environments, applications requiring very tight integration with the systems hardware may not be the best candidates for virtualization. Conclusions and Recommendations The combination of Red Hat Enterprise Linux virtualization and Itanium brings high performance plus high reliability, availability, and serviceability (RAS) to the Linux server consolidation market. For customers who are looking to consolidate servers and are running in a mixed or predominantly Linux environment with applications that support Itanium, the combined solution of RHEL 5.1 on Intel Itanium with VT-i extensions is a very strong candidate for this environment. By providing virtualization at no added cost and with guest virtual machine subscriptions for free, an organization can save thousands of dollars in software license costs. 2008 FOCUS Consulting www.focusonsystems.com Page 11
  13. 13. FC 8.15.2008 Red Hat Enterprise Linux Virtualization and Intel Itanium FOCUS Assessment Integrating the Xen hypervisor with the market-leading Red Hat Enterprise Linux will contribute to virtualization becoming ubiquitous in the market. For RHEL customers, it makes the move to virtualization as easy as enabling a feature. The consolidation of multiple server workloads onto one physical server should be a strong motivator for IT to look to platforms with higher performance plus higher reliability and availability to run the multiple workloads now being placed upon them. A combined RHEL/Xen/Itanium solution offers a high-end RAS choice for Linux workloads, with mainframe features but without mainframe prices. References “Xen and the Art of Virtualization,” Paul Barham, Boris Dragovic, Keir Fraser, Steven Hand, Tim - Computer Laboratory, Society of Operating Systems Principles (SOSP), 2003, http://67.207.140.65/wp-content/uploads/2008/02/xen-and-art-of-virtualization-2003- paper.pdf. “Optimizing IT Value by Mixing and Matching Industry-Standard Server Platforms — Itanium® 2- based Solutions and the x86 Architecture,” Itanium Solutions Alliance. Other Related FOCUS Reports FOCUS has published the following related reports. For more information, please see details at http://www.focusonsystems.com/research/. FOCUS White Paper: Dynamic Hardware Partitioning – Intel, Microsoft, NEC FOCUS Market Landscape Report: Desktop and Application Delivery Alternatives FOCUS Solution Profile: Microsoft Hyper-V and System Center Virtual Machine Manager FOCUS Solution Profile: Citrix XenServer FOCUS Solution Profile: VMware Desktop Solutions All trademarks are the properties of their respective owners. 2008 FOCUS Consulting www.focusonsystems.com Page 12
  14. 14. FC 8.15.2008 Red Hat Enterprise Linux Virtualization and Intel Itanium About FOCUS Anne Skamarock, Research Director with FOCUS, has spent nearly 30 years in software engineering and technical marketing, as an end-user, vendor, analyst, and author, with Sun, SRI, Solbourne, StorageTek, and Enterprise Management Associates (EMA). For the past several years, she has focused on virtualization and blade systems, as they have moved from servers to desktops. As an analyst for the past decade, she has covered systems, software, storage, storage networking, and storage management solutions, and the intersection points between systems, software and storage. She has been a regular expert columnist for Network World and TechTarget and is co-author of the book, Blade Servers and Virtualization: Transforming Enterprise Computing While Cutting Costs. A frequent speaker at conferences, she is co-chair of Interop’s Virtualization Track, was co-creator and Program Manager for the ROI Planning Lab at the 2007 Server Blade Summit on Blades and Virtualization, and chaired Interop's Network Storage Track for several years. Barb Goldworm, president and chief analyst of FOCUS, has spent 30 years in technical, development, marketing, sales, senior management, and industry analyst positions with IBM, Novell, StorageTek, EMA, and multiple startups. Barb is virtualization chair for Interop and Blade Systems Insight, chaired the 2007 Server Blade Summit on Blades and Virtualization, created and chaired the Network Storage Track of Interop, and has been one of the top ranked expert speakers at Data Center Decisions and SNW. Barb is on the advisory board for several TechTarget sites, and has been a regular expert columnist and speaker for TechTarget, Ziff-Davis, Computerworld Storage Networking World Online, Network World and Virtual Strategy Magazine. Co-author of Blade Servers and Virtualization: Transforming Enterprise Computing While Cutting Costs, she has published extensively, including research reports, market studies, landscape reports, and white papers. FOCUS delivers research, analysis and consulting, focused on systems, software and storage in the enterprise, SMB, and government markets. FOCUS areas include: Systems, Storage and Enterprise Management (Physical and Virtual); Server, Desktop and Application Virtualization/Streaming; High Availability, Disaster Recovery, Business Continuity, Backup, Data Protection; Storage Networking (NAS, SAN, Fibre Channel, iSCSI); Storage, Networks, I/O and File Virtualization; Storage Technologies (Clustered File Systems, data de-duplication, VTL, etc.); Blade Systems (Server, Workstation and PC Blades); and Business Benefits of Technology (ROI, TCO). www.focusonsystems.com 2008 FOCUS Consulting www.focusonsystems.com Page 13

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