Creating Highly Available File and Printer Shares with Windows Cluster Service Richard P. Sasser Premier Support Microsoft...
Agenda <ul><li>Introduction  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clustering basics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LanManServer service </li>...
Agenda  (2) <ul><li>Print Spoolers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction to the spooler resource </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D...
Introduction <ul><li>The basics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared nothing architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources </l...
Shared Nothing Architecture Server A Server B Disk cabinet A Disk cabinet B Heartbeat Cluster management
Resources <ul><li>Smallest unit of management in MSCS </li></ul><ul><li>A resource provides a service to a client, such as...
Dependencies <ul><li>Resources may “depend” on other resources </li></ul><ul><li>This means a resource will not start unti...
Groups <ul><li>Logical collection of resources that must all run on the same node to function properly </li></ul><ul><li>H...
Failover <ul><li>Failover is the process by which a group moves from one server to another </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons for f...
Failback <ul><li>Failback is a user-configured option where a group will “fail back” to a preferred owner when that node r...
Virtual Server <ul><li>A virtual server is considered to be a combination of two resources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IP addre...
Virtual Server Dependency Tree Network Name Resource (VFILE) IP Address Resource (192.168.1.3) Required Dependency Group 1
Virtual Server Namespace Node A 192.168.1.1 VFILE 192.168.1.3 Node B 192.168.1.2
Virtual Server Limitations <ul><li>Q235529 “MSCS Virtual Server Limitations in Windows 2000 Domain Environment”   </li></u...
The LanManServer Service <ul><li>Clustering does not reinvent the wheel; it registers clustered shares with the LanManServ...
Creating a Virtual Server <ul><li>Pick a group, or create a new one </li></ul><ul><li>Create a new IP address resource </l...
Creating a Virtual Server – Walkthrough  (1)
Creating a Virtual Server – Walkthrough  (2)
Creating a Virtual Server – Walkthrough  (3)
Creating a Virtual Server – Walkthrough  (4)
Creating a Virtual Server – Walkthrough  (5)
Creating a Virtual Server – Walkthrough  (6)
Creating a Virtual Server – Walkthrough  (7)
Creating a Virtual Server – Walkthrough  (8)
File Shares <ul><li>Introducing file shares in Windows 2000 clustering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typical file share dependency...
Introduction to File Shares <ul><li>Behave exactly like stand-alone file shares </li></ul><ul><li>Creation and admin is di...
Typical File Share Dependency Tree File Share Resource Network Name Resource IP Address Resource Disk (Storage) Resource G...
Creating a File Share <ul><li>Create Folder to be shared </li></ul><ul><li>Start the new resource wizard </li></ul><ul><li...
Resource Parameters Page: File Share
A Word About Security <ul><li>Two types of permissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NTFS permissions  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Security  (2) <ul><li>NTFS permissions  preferred </li></ul><ul><li>Domain controllers (DCs) can use domain local groups o...
Normal File Shares <ul><li>Default when a file share is first created </li></ul><ul><li>Functions just like a regular shar...
Normal File Shares - Security <ul><li>Share-level permissions administered through Cluster Administrator </li></ul><ul><li...
Share Subdirectories File Shares <ul><li>Ideal for creating home directories </li></ul><ul><li>Shares out subdirectories o...
The Resource
Folder Structure Versus Shares <ul><li>Shares Created: </li></ul><ul><li>users </li></ul><ul><li>guy </li></ul><ul><li>joh...
DFS Shares <ul><li>Required Dependencies: Netname and Storage Class Resource </li></ul><ul><li>One DFS root per cluster </...
DFS Shares (2)  <ul><li>Administered via DFS snap-in </li></ul><ul><li>Domain-based DFS roots better for read-mostly data ...
Security for DFS Trees <ul><li>Significant overhead if a strategy is not identified early </li></ul><ul><li>May point to F...
Print Spoolers <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Dependency tree </li></ul><ul><li>Creating the print spooler resourc...
Introducing the Print Spooler Resource <ul><li>One spooler resource per group </li></ul><ul><li>Required dependencies for ...
Introducing the Print Spooler Resource  (2) <ul><li>Printers published to Active Directory are published  by  the spooler ...
Print Spooler Dependency Tree Print Spooler Resource Network Name Resource IP Address Resource Disk (Storage) Resource Gro...
Creating a Print Spooler  (1)
Creating a Print Spooler  (2)
Creating a Print Spooler  (3)
Creating a Print Spooler  (4)
Adding a Printer: Procedural Overview <ul><li>Connect to the virtual server that the print spooler resource depends on </l...
Adding a Printer Walkthrough  (1)
Adding a Printer Walkthrough  (2)
Adding a Printer Walkthrough  (3)
Adding a Printer Walkthrough  (4)
Adding a Printer Walkthrough  (5)
Adding a Printer Walkthrough  (6)
Adding a Printer Walkthrough  (7)
Adding a Printer Walkthrough  (8)
Adding a Printer Walkthrough  (9)
Adding a Printer Walkthrough  (10)
Adding a Printer Walkthrough  (11)
Adding a Printer Walkthrough  (12)
Adding a Printer Walkthrough  (13)
Adding a Printer Walkthrough (14) rundll32 printui.dll, PrintUIEntry /id
Adding Non-Windows 2000 Drivers <ul><li>Connect to the virtual server </li></ul><ul><li>Open the Printers folder </li></ul...
 
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  • If Network printer is not grayed out, you have connected to the spooler service on your local machine.
  • Creating Highly Available File and Printer Shares with ...

    1. 1. Creating Highly Available File and Printer Shares with Windows Cluster Service Richard P. Sasser Premier Support Microsoft Corporation
    2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clustering basics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LanManServer service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating a virtual server </li></ul></ul><ul><li>File shares </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introducing file shares in Windows ® 2000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Normal file shares </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share subdirectories share </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DFS shares </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Agenda (2) <ul><li>Print Spoolers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction to the spooler resource </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependency Tree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating a spooler resource </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adding printers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adding more non-Windows 2000 drivers </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>The basics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared nothing architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failover and failback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual Servers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The LanManServer service </li></ul><ul><li>Creating a virtual server </li></ul>
    5. 5. Shared Nothing Architecture Server A Server B Disk cabinet A Disk cabinet B Heartbeat Cluster management
    6. 6. Resources <ul><li>Smallest unit of management in MSCS </li></ul><ul><li>A resource provides a service to a client, such as storage, a disk, an IP address, or a network name </li></ul><ul><li>Resources can depend on other resources </li></ul><ul><li>Resources “fail over” or move from one node to another in groups </li></ul>
    7. 7. Dependencies <ul><li>Resources may “depend” on other resources </li></ul><ul><li>This means a resource will not start until all of its dependencies come online </li></ul><ul><li>Defines order of offline and online </li></ul><ul><li>Typically illustrated as dependency trees </li></ul><ul><li>Can only exist for resources in the same group </li></ul><ul><li>Considered to be transitive </li></ul><ul><li>For more information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Q171791 “Creating Dependencies in Microsoft Cluster Server” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Q195462 “WINS Registration and IP Address Behavior for MSCS 1.0” </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Groups <ul><li>Logical collection of resources that must all run on the same node to function properly </li></ul><ul><li>Hint: Build groups around disks </li></ul><ul><li>Unit of failover </li></ul>
    9. 9. Failover <ul><li>Failover is the process by which a group moves from one server to another </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons for failover include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Admin has manually requested a failover </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A resource in the group has failed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The group is configured for failback and the preferred owner has returned to service </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Failback <ul><li>Failback is a user-configured option where a group will “fail back” to a preferred owner when that node returns to service </li></ul><ul><li>For more information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Q197047 “Failover/Failback Policies on Microsoft Cluster Server” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Q171277 “ Information About Microsoft Cluster Server Cluster Resource Failover Time ” </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Virtual Server <ul><li>A virtual server is considered to be a combination of two resources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IP address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network name </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provides a consistent method of access to clustered resources </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing virtual servers into groups provides better granularity and scalability </li></ul><ul><li>Do not use the default Cluster Group virtual server for anything other than administering the cluster </li></ul>
    12. 12. Virtual Server Dependency Tree Network Name Resource (VFILE) IP Address Resource (192.168.1.3) Required Dependency Group 1
    13. 13. Virtual Server Namespace Node A 192.168.1.1 VFILE 192.168.1.3 Node B 192.168.1.2
    14. 14. Virtual Server Limitations <ul><li>Q235529 “MSCS Virtual Server Limitations in Windows 2000 Domain Environment” </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual servers require NetBIOS for browsing to function properly </li></ul><ul><li>Do not restrict NTLM authentication </li></ul>
    15. 15. The LanManServer Service <ul><li>Clustering does not reinvent the wheel; it registers clustered shares with the LanManServer service </li></ul><ul><li>Certain limitations are imposed because of this </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Share names must be unique across the cluster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Q170762 “Cluster Shares Appear in Browse List Under Other Names” </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Creating a Virtual Server <ul><li>Pick a group, or create a new one </li></ul><ul><li>Create a new IP address resource </li></ul><ul><li>Create a new network name resource with a dependency on an IP address </li></ul><ul><li>Refer to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Q195462 WINS Registration and IP Address Behavior for Microsoft Cluster </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Creating a Virtual Server – Walkthrough (1)
    18. 18. Creating a Virtual Server – Walkthrough (2)
    19. 19. Creating a Virtual Server – Walkthrough (3)
    20. 20. Creating a Virtual Server – Walkthrough (4)
    21. 21. Creating a Virtual Server – Walkthrough (5)
    22. 22. Creating a Virtual Server – Walkthrough (6)
    23. 23. Creating a Virtual Server – Walkthrough (7)
    24. 24. Creating a Virtual Server – Walkthrough (8)
    25. 25. File Shares <ul><li>Introducing file shares in Windows 2000 clustering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typical file share dependency tree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating a file share </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A word about security </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Normal file shares </li></ul><ul><li>Share subdirectories shares </li></ul><ul><li>DFS Shares </li></ul><ul><li>Active Directory™ DFS shares </li></ul>
    26. 26. Introduction to File Shares <ul><li>Behave exactly like stand-alone file shares </li></ul><ul><li>Creation and admin is different </li></ul><ul><li>Three different types based on the “Advanced” button in the Resource Parameters dialog box </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Normal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share subdirectories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DFS root </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cluster service account requires NTFS read permissions to create the share </li></ul>
    27. 27. Typical File Share Dependency Tree File Share Resource Network Name Resource IP Address Resource Disk (Storage) Resource Group 1 Virtual Server
    28. 28. Creating a File Share <ul><li>Create Folder to be shared </li></ul><ul><li>Start the new resource wizard </li></ul><ul><li>Choose file share resource </li></ul><ul><li>Add appropriate dependencies </li></ul><ul><li>Provide file share resource parameters </li></ul>
    29. 29. Resource Parameters Page: File Share
    30. 30. A Word About Security <ul><li>Two types of permissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NTFS permissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share-level permissions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Share-level permissions enforced by LanManServer and administered in cluster admin </li></ul><ul><li>NTFS-level permissions enforced by file system and administered through explorer </li></ul><ul><li>ALL types of permissions should be granted to domain groups, not local groups </li></ul>
    31. 31. Security (2) <ul><li>NTFS permissions preferred </li></ul><ul><li>Domain controllers (DCs) can use domain local groups only if all members of the cluster are DCs </li></ul><ul><li>Native-mode domains can use universal groups </li></ul>
    32. 32. Normal File Shares <ul><li>Default when a file share is first created </li></ul><ul><li>Functions just like a regular share, but clients connect to the virtual server name </li></ul><ul><li>Should have a dependency on the network name for consistent access </li></ul><ul><li>If data is located on shared drive, then the resource should depend on that drive </li></ul>
    33. 33. Normal File Shares - Security <ul><li>Share-level permissions administered through Cluster Administrator </li></ul><ul><li>NTFS permissions administered through explorer </li></ul>
    34. 34. Share Subdirectories File Shares <ul><li>Ideal for creating home directories </li></ul><ul><li>Shares out subdirectories one level below the root share automatically without the need for additional resources </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot use share-level permissions here </li></ul>
    35. 35. The Resource
    36. 36. Folder Structure Versus Shares <ul><li>Shares Created: </li></ul><ul><li>users </li></ul><ul><li>guy </li></ul><ul><li>john </li></ul><ul><li>martin </li></ul><ul><li>matt </li></ul><ul><li>mike </li></ul><ul><li>rick </li></ul>Folder Structure
    37. 37. DFS Shares <ul><li>Required Dependencies: Netname and Storage Class Resource </li></ul><ul><li>One DFS root per cluster </li></ul><ul><li>Stand-alone DFS roots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No root-level DFS shared folders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No FRS replication of root shares </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No site preference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May only have a single level of links </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. DFS Shares (2) <ul><li>Administered via DFS snap-in </li></ul><ul><li>Domain-based DFS roots better for read-mostly data </li></ul><ul><li>For more information on DFS see the Distributed Systems Guide in the Windows 2000 Server Resource Kit </li></ul>
    39. 39. Security for DFS Trees <ul><li>Significant overhead if a strategy is not identified early </li></ul><ul><li>May point to FAT partitions – share-level security only for these links </li></ul><ul><li>Best practice: Use NTFS </li></ul>
    40. 40. Print Spoolers <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Dependency tree </li></ul><ul><li>Creating the print spooler resource </li></ul><ul><li>Adding printers </li></ul><ul><li>Adding additional non-Windows 2000 drivers </li></ul>
    41. 41. Introducing the Print Spooler Resource <ul><li>One spooler resource per group </li></ul><ul><li>Required dependencies for network name and storage class resource </li></ul><ul><li>Supports only LPR and SPM </li></ul><ul><li>Printer and port information stored in cluster database </li></ul>
    42. 42. Introducing the Print Spooler Resource (2) <ul><li>Printers published to Active Directory are published by the spooler resource </li></ul><ul><li>Published printers show under owning node </li></ul><ul><li>Print spooler failover </li></ul><ul><li>Share-level permissions administered through virtual server </li></ul>
    43. 43. Print Spooler Dependency Tree Print Spooler Resource Network Name Resource IP Address Resource Disk (Storage) Resource Group 2 Virtual Server
    44. 44. Creating a Print Spooler (1)
    45. 45. Creating a Print Spooler (2)
    46. 46. Creating a Print Spooler (3)
    47. 47. Creating a Print Spooler (4)
    48. 48. Adding a Printer: Procedural Overview <ul><li>Connect to the virtual server that the print spooler resource depends on </li></ul><ul><li>Run the Add Printers Wizard </li></ul><ul><li>Install drivers on the node that does not currently own the print spooler resource </li></ul>
    49. 49. Adding a Printer Walkthrough (1)
    50. 50. Adding a Printer Walkthrough (2)
    51. 51. Adding a Printer Walkthrough (3)
    52. 52. Adding a Printer Walkthrough (4)
    53. 53. Adding a Printer Walkthrough (5)
    54. 54. Adding a Printer Walkthrough (6)
    55. 55. Adding a Printer Walkthrough (7)
    56. 56. Adding a Printer Walkthrough (8)
    57. 57. Adding a Printer Walkthrough (9)
    58. 58. Adding a Printer Walkthrough (10)
    59. 59. Adding a Printer Walkthrough (11)
    60. 60. Adding a Printer Walkthrough (12)
    61. 61. Adding a Printer Walkthrough (13)
    62. 62. Adding a Printer Walkthrough (14) rundll32 printui.dll, PrintUIEntry /id
    63. 63. Adding Non-Windows 2000 Drivers <ul><li>Connect to the virtual server </li></ul><ul><li>Open the Printers folder </li></ul><ul><li>Right-click the printer to add drivers to and select properties </li></ul><ul><li>Select the Sharing tab </li></ul><ul><li>Click the Additional Drivers button </li></ul><ul><li>After the driver has been added, return to the Printers folder </li></ul><ul><li>Fail the group to the other node </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat steps 1 thru 6 </li></ul>

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