Migration of Computing Environments 분산시스템연구실 김은성 2006-11-06
Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual Computer </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Suspend/Resume (ISR) </li></ul...
Introduction <ul><li>Multiple work-site environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Required identical work environment </li></ul></...
Introduction <ul><li>Migration of computing environments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capsule : the state of a machine </li></ul>...
Virtual Computers <ul><li>VM migration-based computing environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>V irtual machine technology </li>...
Virtual Computers <ul><li>Several issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The time taken to migrate the entire state of a computer </...
Internet Suspend/Resume (ISR) <ul><li>Assumption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A user suspends operation on one machine, travels t...
Internet Suspend/Resume (ISR) <ul><li>S everal problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>T he need to change the IP address to access...
MobileIP Network Mobile End-system Internet Router Router Router End-system FA HA MN Home Network Foreign  Network (Physic...
MobileIP in Action Internet Sender FA HA MN Home Network Foreign Network Receiver 1 2 3 1. Sender sends to the IP address ...
MobileIP in Action Internet Receiver FA HA MN Home Network Foreign Network Sender 1 1. Sender sends to the IP address   of...
The Stanford Collective Project <ul><li>“ Push ” model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A  capsule is sent to the destination compute...
The Stanford Collective Project <ul><li>Reducing memory state before migration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>B alloon  program </l...
The Stanford Collective Project <ul><li>R e ducing the size of the transmitted packet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>T he state rep...
The Stanford Collective Project University Capsule Department1 Capsule Department12 Capsule Student1 Capsule Student2 Caps...
The Stanford Collective Project <ul><li>R educing start-up time on a resume </li></ul><ul><ul><li>O n demand fetch for the...
The Stanford Collective Project <ul><li>R educing transmission time and bandwidth by exploiting redundancy in disk blocks ...
The Stanford Collective Project <ul><li>Results of experiments </li></ul>
Migration of Virtual machines in VMotion <ul><li>VirtualCenter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I nfrastructure management software t...
Migration of Virtual machines in VMotion <ul><li>VMotion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>P art of the VirtualCenter for migration </...
Migration of Virtual machines in VMotion <ul><li>Restriction of VMotion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The source and destination c...
Migration of Virtual machines in VMotion <ul><li>VMotion actions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I t first ensures that the virtual ...
MobiDesk: Mobile Virtual Desktop Computing <ul><li>A mobile virtual desktop computing hosting infrastructure </li></ul><ul...
MobiDesk: Mobile Virtual Desktop Computing <ul><li>Moving across end-devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Users interact with Mob...
MobiDesk: Mobile Virtual Desktop Computing <ul><li>Migration across servers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sessions can be checkpoi...
MobiDesk: Mobile Virtual Desktop Computing <ul><li>How MobiDesk accomplish this </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For client migration...
MobiDesk: Mobile Virtual Desktop Computing <ul><li>MobiDesk architecture </li></ul>
MobiDesk: Mobile Virtual Desktop Computing <ul><li>Display virtualization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed as a  virtual vid...
MobiDesk: Mobile Virtual Desktop Computing <ul><li>Operating system virtualization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a unique ...
MobiDesk: Mobile Virtual Desktop Computing <ul><li>Operating system virtualization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Session virtualiz...
MobiDesk: Mobile Virtual Desktop Computing <ul><li>Operating system virtualization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Session migration...
MobiDesk: Mobile Virtual Desktop Computing <ul><li>Network virtualization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Issues </li></ul></ul><ul>...
MobiDesk: Mobile Virtual Desktop Computing <ul><li>Network virtualization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All servers on different s...
MobiDesk: Mobile Virtual Desktop Computing <ul><li>Network virtualization </li></ul>
MobiDesk: Mobile Virtual Desktop Computing <ul><li>Benefits over current computing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High-availability...
Thank you <ul><li>Any questions or comments? </li></ul>
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ch10. Emerging Applicaion

  1. 1. Migration of Computing Environments 분산시스템연구실 김은성 2006-11-06
  2. 2. Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual Computer </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Suspend/Resume (ISR) </li></ul><ul><li>The Stanford Collective Project </li></ul><ul><li>Migration of Virtual machines in V m otion </li></ul><ul><li>MobiDesk: Mobile Virtual Desktop Computing </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Multiple work-site environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Required identical work environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In the 1960s, mainframe servers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple, “dumb” terminals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central data storage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Portable devices such as laptop computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two significant disadvantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The user is required to carry a physical device to transport the environment. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The user is responsible for the physical security of the portable device at all times. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>Migration of computing environments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capsule : the state of a machine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The state of the resources used by the OS and the applications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The code and data belonging to the OS and applications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This requires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All this state information to be encapsulated, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transmitted across a network, and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Installed on the other computer before the user can take over operation at a second computer. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Virtual Computers <ul><li>VM migration-based computing environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>V irtual machine technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>P rovides the ability to capture the entire state of a computer system. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>F acilitates migration of a full computing environment. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual machine itself can server as a capsule. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Virtual Computers <ul><li>Several issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The time taken to migrate the entire state of a computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>N ot necessary to send the entire state from one computer to another initially </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I nformation already available on the second computer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C ompression and encryption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>T o reduce the amount of data transmitted </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>T o transmit it securely </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different hardware architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The different ISA between the user’s VM and the host computers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Binary translation and optimization techniques </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Internet Suspend/Resume (ISR) <ul><li>Assumption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A user suspends operation on one machine, travels to another machine, and resumes execution on the other machine. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>V M ware GSX Server </li></ul><ul><li>Migration using a distributed file system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VMM keeps a capsule in a file on a distributed file system. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2.5-30 seconds from distributed file system at LAN speeds </li></ul>
  8. 8. Internet Suspend/Resume (ISR) <ul><li>S everal problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>T he need to change the IP address to access the network and all references to this address in the saved environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MobileIP technology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long migration time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>T he organization of the state information in modules that are loaded incrementally </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Pull ” model: long latency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>D estination computer reading in the environment state file on demand </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>P roactively copying in the state to the local machine even before the user requests it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O nly the changes to the environment need be loaded. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R eusing the environment of other users already on the system </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. MobileIP Network Mobile End-system Internet Router Router Router End-system FA HA MN Home Network Foreign Network (Physical home network for the MN) (Current physical network for the MN) CN
  10. 10. MobileIP in Action Internet Sender FA HA MN Home Network Foreign Network Receiver 1 2 3 1. Sender sends to the IP address of MN, HA intercepts packet (proxy ARP) 2. HA tunnels packet to COA, here FA, by encapsulation 3. FA forwards the packet to the MN CN
  11. 11. MobileIP in Action Internet Receiver FA HA MN Home Network Foreign Network Sender 1 1. Sender sends to the IP address of the receiver as usual, FA works as default router CN
  12. 12. The Stanford Collective Project <ul><li>“ Push ” model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A capsule is sent to the destination computer directly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T he user can have instantaneous access to his or her environment at the destination site. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>V M ware GSX Server </li></ul><ul><li>Tunneling of network packets over a VPN </li></ul><ul><li>20 minutes at DSL speeds </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Stanford Collective Project <ul><li>Reducing memory state before migration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>B alloon program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>R equests a large number of pages on a virtual machine. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expectation is that t hese pages are released from the currently inactive processes that do not need to respond instantaneously on a resume at the destination. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>T he size of the memory state which is transferred is now reduced. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Several subtle policy issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>R eduction of memory size vs. overhead of resume operation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A ctive pages that are easily compressible </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The Stanford Collective Project <ul><li>R e ducing the size of the transmitted packet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>T he state represented by the disk is rather formidable. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B y maintaining differences between capsules rather than the full disk image for each capsule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capsule hierarchy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I ncremental disk with the copy-on-write concept </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many different versions to share a single copy of the actual data </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>P articularly effective when these versions are largely the same and differ in only some small aspects. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>W hen the student moves to anothe r computer, the currently open incremental disk image is transferred to the new computer. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. The Stanford Collective Project University Capsule Department1 Capsule Department12 Capsule Student1 Capsule Student2 Capsule Student3 Capsule Department2 Updated Capsule Student4 Capsule Root node : the state of the disk is saved in its entirety Child node : Save the incremental states of the parent and the child The state of the disk at any node can be derived from the disk info contained in the nodes along the path from the root. Student1 Working Capsule
  16. 16. The Stanford Collective Project <ul><li>R educing start-up time on a resume </li></ul><ul><ul><li>O n demand fetch for the information in the capsule, rather than being prefetched completely </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All accesses to disks are intercepted by the VMM and forwarded to a disk server. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>T he disk server translates the request to an access in one of the nodes in the hierarchy. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>L ocal shadow copies </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. The Stanford Collective Project <ul><li>R educing transmission time and bandwidth by exploiting redundancy in disk blocks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hashed copy scheme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I nstead of transferring the actual data blocks, transmits the computed hash values of the data blocks. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>W hen a disk block is needed, checks to see whether a block with the same hash value is available locally. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I f the block is not available locally, the computer broadcasts a request for a copy. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. The Stanford Collective Project <ul><li>Results of experiments </li></ul>
  19. 19. Migration of Virtual machines in VMotion <ul><li>VirtualCenter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I nfrastructure management software that manages a cluster of Intel IA-32 virtual machine systems connected in a local-area network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deployment and monitoring of virtual machine </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Migration of Virtual machines in VMotion <ul><li>VMotion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>P art of the VirtualCenter for migration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Load balancing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>T o improve the response time of the system through better utilization of resources </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>T o quarantine a virtual machine that has been attacked </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collocation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>T o bring communicating virtual machines close together </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fault tolerance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>T o move a failing host to another processor </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Power management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>T o move the load away from an overheated processor </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>T o move the load away from some processor while it is upgraded </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Migration of Virtual machines in VMotion <ul><li>Restriction of VMotion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The source and destination computers must be in the same server cluster managed by the same VirtualCenter manager. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The file systems on the source and destination computers must be identical and located on shared disks in a SAN. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The processors must have the same architecture and be provided by the same vendor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The virtual machine supports a Gigabit Ethernet adapter. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The virtual machines should be running only stand-alone applications. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Migration of Virtual machines in VMotion <ul><li>VMotion actions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I t first ensures that the virtual machine is in a stable state on the current host. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I t then copies the contents of the memory belonging to the virtual machine to the destination host. ( baseline copy ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The virtual machine on the original host is suspended. ( incremental capsule ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It then activates the virtual machine on the new host. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. MobiDesk: Mobile Virtual Desktop Computing <ul><li>A mobile virtual desktop computing hosting infrastructure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar with the Windows Remote Desktop Connection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Users can move across different end-devices while keeping their computing sessions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computing sessions can be migrated from one hosting server to another. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low overhead </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. MobiDesk: Mobile Virtual Desktop Computing <ul><li>Moving across end-devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Users interact with MobiDesk sessions through session viewer . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upon 1st login, authentication is performed and the session view is connected to a session server through a proxy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When the user disconnects, the sessions continues to run on the session server. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On next connection, the session will be in the same state it was when the user last disconnected. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. MobiDesk: Mobile Virtual Desktop Computing <ul><li>Migration across servers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sessions can be checkpointed and migrated transparently at any point in time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This feature is useful when the hosting server needs to be updated. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. MobiDesk: Mobile Virtual Desktop Computing <ul><li>How MobiDesk accomplish this </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For client migration – decouples a user’s computing session from the display. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By moving all application logic to hosting providers (session servers) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For session migration – decouples the computing session from the underlying OS and the network resources. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. MobiDesk: Mobile Virtual Desktop Computing <ul><li>MobiDesk architecture </li></ul>
  28. 28. MobiDesk: Mobile Virtual Desktop Computing <ul><li>Display virtualization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed as a virtual video device driver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wrap the display commands from session applications, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>And send them to a remote client over the network. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Session server keeps the state of the virtual display. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deploys a server-push model for sending display updates to the client. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. MobiDesk: Mobile Virtual Desktop Computing <ul><li>Operating system virtualization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a unique name-space for each session. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OS resources are now identified with virtual identifiers . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In each name-space, a traditional environment is provided to the application. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sessions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Virtualization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Migration </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. MobiDesk: Mobile Virtual Desktop Computing <ul><li>Operating system virtualization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Session virtualization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The virtualization layer associates a virtual name to an appropriate OS physical name . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>System call interposition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wrappers around system calls that translate virtual names to physical names and prevent accesses across the session boundary </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>chroot utility and file system stacking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide each session with its own file system namespace </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. MobiDesk: Mobile Virtual Desktop Computing <ul><li>Operating system virtualization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Session migration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Using a checkpoint-restart mechanism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To avoid dependencies on low-level kernel details, processes are required to be suspended before checkpoint. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The new hosting server use a session cookie to notify the proxy. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limitation of session migration: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Migrate between machines with a common CPU architecture </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kernel differences are limited to maintenance and security patches. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. MobiDesk: Mobile Virtual Desktop Computing <ul><li>Network virtualization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple sessions on the same server may run the same service. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ongoing network connections must be preserved when a session is migrated from one server to another. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All servers on same subnet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each session gets an IP address from the DHCP server and uses it as an alias on the NIC on the attached server </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gratuitous ARP is used to resolve MAC address change when sessions are migrated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proxy re-directs traffic to and from aliased addresses corresponding to individual sessions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. MobiDesk: Mobile Virtual Desktop Computing <ul><li>Network virtualization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All servers on different subnets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot migrate an aliased address obtained in one subnet to another ( Inconsistency ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solution: use virtual addresses for proxy mapping and map these virtual addresses to physical (aliased) addresses dynamically at the proxy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The aliased address may be reused in old subnet, confusing the proxy ( Conflict ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solution: each session is bound to a different virtual NIC at the proxy, and labels in packets are used to identify the virtual NIC to which the session is bound </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. MobiDesk: Mobile Virtual Desktop Computing <ul><li>Network virtualization </li></ul>
  35. 35. MobiDesk: Mobile Virtual Desktop Computing <ul><li>Benefits over current computing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High-availability and reliable application services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persistence and continuity of business logic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secure, low-cost global access and transparent user mobility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On-demand access to application and computational resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bridging the information gap </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Thank you <ul><li>Any questions or comments? </li></ul>
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