AIX Virtualization


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  • “best of breed” Unix virtualization hardware and software covers all the reasons you might need virtualization: consolidation, dynamic management, workload balancing, availability, etc
  • we are going to focus mainly on APV tech optional on the smaller systems, standard on the bigger systems IBM Virtualization Engine is an (older?) umbrella marketing term for these features?
  • public access to HMC private network between HMC and managed system(s) managed system LPARs may also have public access
  • source: Advanced POWER Virtualization on IBM System p5 – SG24-7940-02 APV = Advanced POWER Virtualization z/VM = z Virtual Machine PR/SM = Processor Resource / Systems Manager all support capping and uncapped w/ weighting
  • POWER – “backronym” Performance Optimization With Enhanced RISC RISC = Reduced Instruction Set Computer make sure you use marketing terms System p, System p5 and pSeries correctly wiki says POWER4 had dual cores as well AS/400 i5 iSeries – hardware supports this too, but we will not be discussing those features
  • Shared Dedicated oxymoron “tastes great, less filling” “shimmer is a floor wax and a desert topping” “you got chocolate in my peanut butter...” What is it really? dedicated processors may donate unused cycles to the shared processor pool
  • provides security isolation between LPARs “micro” is a misnomer, the granularity is by multiples of 1/10 th for LPAR initial entitlements multiples of 1/100 th for adjustments at runtime
  • source: SG24-7940-02
  • you may be able to avoid buying an HMC if you only have a few CECs or lightweight needs document restrictions of IVM? the handout has a ??? for virtual ethernet adapter
  • CEC – Central Electronic Complex
  • WebSM provides a Java-based subset of HMC function
  • WebSM provides a Java-based subset of HMC function
  • source: Advanced POWER Virtualization on IBM System p5 – sg24-7940-02 Remember that APV only supports LPARs with either dedicated or shared processors – can’t have some of each at the same time. Physical processors are allocated by the server’s firmware and hypervisor, under direction from the HMC. They can either be dedicated to an LPAR or belong to the shared processor pool. When processors are dedicated, the LPAR’s operating system sees 1 logical CPU per physical CPU. (not shown – if SMT is on in firmware and OS, each physical processor may have 2 threads and is thus seen as two logical CPUs) When processors are shared, the LPAR (micropartition) may be defined with a fractional share of a CPU. It may also be capped, or uncapped with an associated weighting. Virtual processors are a part of the LPAR definition for a micropartition. They represent a firmware abstraction layer between the operating system and the shared processor pool. They are allocated in whole units, not fractional units, and they hide the details of fractional, constantly changing processor allocations from the operating system scheduler/dispatcher. The firmware evenly spreads the LPAR’s CPU entitlement among the virtual processors. The minimum allocation per virtual processor is model dependent (our 9115-505 is 0.10) and the maximum is 1. Therefore, if your entitlement is 3.5 processors but you’ve only got 3 virtual processors, you can never get more than 3 processors worth of work done.
  • PURR = Processor Utilization Resource Register These are hardware counter(s), two per physical processor, one per logical processor (thread) the hypervisor virtualizes the PURR for each virtual processor dispatched to the shared processor pool Designed to give better CPU dispatch cycle counting & utilization metrics in an SMT and/or shared processor environment by state/event, not sampling This is an improvement over the pre-5.3 100hz timer-based sampling method. The whole 10ms tick was assigned to whoever was dispatched when the timer popped. This was never that accurate, but it's really lousy when SMT is enabled or when shared processors are in use. All AIX 5.3 accounting, performance commands, and WLM code exploit the PURR Linux still uses the tick, but also reads the PURR and makes it available in /proc AIX commands support access to correctly virtualized metrics and some hypervisor metrics sar , vmstat , iostat , mpstat, ps lparstat topas curt
  • actually vprocs should be greater than entitlement, but not much greater. You can get more multiprocessing at OS level w/ more vprocs, but at the expense of dispatching overhead (and weaker cpus) from the hypervisor’s point of view.
  • The APV book is highly recommended
  • AIX Virtualization

    1. 1. An Intro to AIX Virtualization Philadelphia CMG September 14, 2007 Mark Vitale
    2. 2. Generic disclaimer <ul><li>All trademarks referenced in this presentation are the properties of their respective companies. </li></ul><ul><li>Most diagrams are from IBM Redbook SG24-7940-02 Advanced POWER Virtualization on IBM System p5: Introduction and Configuration </li></ul>
    3. 3. A complete solution <ul><li>Dynamic hardware management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced POWER Virtualization (APV) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Application balancing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Partition Load Manager (PLM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ IRD” for AIX </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workload Manager (WLM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ WLM” for AIX </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Availability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High Availability Clustering Multi-Processing (HACMP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ parallel sysplex” for AIX </li></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Advanced POWER Virtualization <ul><li>available on System p5 and higher </li></ul><ul><li>a marketing umbrella term for a number of hardware and software technologies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic LPAR (DLPAR) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared Processor Pool (Micro-partitioning) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual IO Server (VIO) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simultaneous Multi-Threading (SMT) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual LAN (VLAN) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated Virtualization Manager (IVM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity on Demand (CoD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Live Partition Mobility (POWER6 only) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared Dedicated Capacity (POWER6 only) </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Overview HMC intranet hypervisor firmware AIX LPAR Linux LPAR VIO Server LPAR p5 server
    6. 6. Comparison of virtualization technologies source: Advanced POWER Virtualization on IBM System p5 – SG24-7940-02 Virtual devices Enhanced Multiple Image Facility (EMIF); HiperSockets Virtual IO Server LPAR; hypervisor VLAN I/O (network, disk) Virtual memory Dedicated, dynamic Dedicated, dynamic Memory Virtual Machine Resource Manager (VMRM) Intelligent Resource Director (IRD) Partition Load Manager (PLM) Interpartition load management Virtual – backed by physical dedicated or shared Logical – backed by physical dedicated or shared Virtual - backed by physical dedicated or shared, no mixing Processor allocation “ unlimited” virtual machines Up to 60 LPARs Up to 254 LPARs, max 10 per processor Max virtualized servers z9 z/VM z9 PR/SM p5 APV
    7. 7. POWER architecture <ul><li>RS/6000 (1990) </li></ul><ul><li>POWER2 (1993) </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPC (1993) </li></ul><ul><li>POWER3 (1998) </li></ul><ul><li>POWER4 (2001) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>first use in both AIX and AS/400 servers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>static LPAR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dynamic LPAR (2002) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no resource sharing </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. POWER architecture (cont’d) <ul><li>POWER5 (2004) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>aka pSeries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypervisor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dual cores - Simultaneous Multi-Threading (SMT) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processor Utilization Resource Register (PURR) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shared processor pools (Micro-partitioning) (AIX 5.3 only) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual IO resource sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>POWER5+ (2005) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>aka p5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>quad cores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>faster, smaller, more instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>POWER6 (2007) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Live Partition Mobility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared Dedicated Capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>dedicated processors may donate unused cycles to the shared processor pool </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. POWER Hypervisor <ul><li>system firmware </li></ul><ul><ul><li>introduced w/ POWER5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>always enabled (think “NO BASIC MODE”) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>key features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic LPAR (DLPAR) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>allows dynamic reallocation of resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>... but only if the OS supports it! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shared processor pool (Micro-partitioning) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AIX 5.3 & Linux only (no i5/OS support) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>allows fractional physical CPU entitlement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>virtual device support (VLAN, SCSI, consoles) </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. POWER Hypervisor source: Advanced POWER Virtualization on IBM System p5 – SG24-7940-02
    11. 11. Virtual IO Server <ul><li>a software appliance that runs in a dedicated LPAR </li></ul><ul><li>as the name implies, it provides virtual IO services to other (“client”) LPARs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>virtual disks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>virtual Ethernet adapters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shared Ethernet adapters (SEA) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Integrated Virtualization Manager (IVM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>feature added w/ VIO Server 1.2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provides a browser-based subset of HMC function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>main restriction – all resources are owned by VIO, no dedicated resources </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Hardware Management Console (HMC) <ul><li>hardware appliance to manage one or more managed systems (CECs) </li></ul><ul><li>includes partition management and many other management functions </li></ul><ul><li>provides optional web interface for remote access </li></ul>
    13. 13. Web-based System Manager (WebSM)
    14. 14. Processor allocations
    15. 15. Physical, virtual, and logical processors source: Advanced POWER Virtualization on IBM System p5 – SG24-7940-02
    16. 16. SMT and PURR source: Advanced POWER Virtualization on IBM System p5 – SG24-7940-02
    17. 17. Performance questions <ul><li>SMT on or off? </li></ul><ul><li>dedicated or shared processors? </li></ul><ul><li>real or virtual IO? </li></ul>
    18. 18. Best practices <ul><li>SMT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>usually best to leave it on (default), but for some CPU-intensive loads it may be better to turn it off </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CPU allocation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dedicated for sustained heavy workloads (WebSphere) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shared for light workloads (DNS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>make sure virtual processors are close to entitlement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IO allocation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dedicated disk and network for best performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shared Ethernet adapter and virtual SCSI can be great for light workloads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>use VLAN between LPARs when possible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Virtual IO Server </li></ul><ul><ul><li>if you use it, give it a shared, uncapped processor entitlement </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Prototype chart
    20. 20. Questions and Responses
    21. 21. References <ul><li>Advanced POWER Virtualization on IBM System p5: Introduction and Configuration (IBM Redbook SG24-7940-02) </li></ul><ul><li>IBM System p Advanced POWER Virtualization Best Practices (IBM Redpaper) </li></ul><ul><li>System p Logical Partitioning Guide (SA76-0098-00) </li></ul>
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