It IS yoUR CAREER your curiosity and abilities have been great assets. We know that your many interests coupled with a record of achievement in many arenas can render the career decision-making process somewhat challenging. Sometimes you might feel as if it is difficult to create goals when the options are seemingly limitless. At other times, you may feel there are not enough opportunities to satisfy all of your interests. Or perhaps you feel confident about your next step and want support in getting there. While at Duke, you will encounter each of these scenarios, sometimes all in the same day! We invite you to use all of the Career Center resources in your work to identify and make sense of all choices that interest you. Use them to take control of defining and developing a variety of options now and into the future. We at the Career Center recognize that “career” is more than the collection of your degrees, occupations, and proudest achievements. We believe that it is holistic and dynamic. It is the unique integration of a growing range of experiences, shifting influences, accumulation of decisions, and deepening and discarded commitments. You are growing into your career with every experience and all that you learn—about work and about yourself.hoW to USE thIS GUIDE We recognize that you are coming to this guide with a point of view and set of experiences that are uniquely yours. Whether you’re looking for a path or already on one, use this guide as a jumping-off point from wherever you are to wherever you’d like to be. Whether it’s a campus job, research role, internship, fellowship, full-time or volunteer position, or any of the multitudes of opportunities available to you, the advice in this guide applies. Be sure, however, to look beyond the guide. We’ve written this to motivate, inspire, and get you StARtED. turn the page to learn more about the wealth of additional resources that we encourage you to utilize. 3
ABoUt thE We’re Here to Help! Welcome You are invited to take advantage of th from arrive at Duke until after you leave. In perfect reason to introduce yourself. L the Smith Warehouse Director Career Counseling Call us or stop by to schedule an appointment Welcome to the next with a counselor. Use your first appointment to stage in your career introduce yourself and come up with a plan to development process. meet your needs. The fact that you are Call 919-660-1050 reading this introductoryletter implies that you are serious about getting on with your professional Drop-In Advisingdevelopment and that you are ready to take a series of intentional steps to No appointment necessary. Use this convenient resource for all of your time-sensitive needs.get there. I hope the Career Guide serves as a valuable resource, and that Expect to spend 10-15 minutes with an advisor foryou will use it as a portal to access other campus resources available to your specific questions.you. Monday - Thursday 2pm-5pm Fridays 2pm-4pmOne of the most harmful career myths you will encounter duringyour time at Duke is that there are three or four “best ways to Workshopslaunch a career.” Not only is this not true, it has never been true. We will host virtual guests and events in addition to traditional presentations in person. Throughout the year, workshops will include a wide variety ofOur primary assumption is that all Duke students, undergraduate and topics, featuring an interesting range of guests.graduate, are among the most diversely interested and diversely able inthe world. We don’t assume you need assistance figuring out what you Career Center Libraryare interested in but rather, which of your interests, abilities, academic Browse our collection of reference materials andstrengths, and values you will combine and pursue after Duke. Today’s books for inspiration or help in preparation. Mostglobal marketplace can make those choices difficult and exciting. items can be checked out. Monday – Friday, 9am-5pmI say all of this at the beginning of the Career Guide to get you to readfurther, and to encourage you to use the Guide as a transition point to a On-Campus Interviewsmore active engagement with the resources of the Career Center. Meet with employers who come to campus to hire interns or full-time staff. Use your eRecruiting account to apply for opportunities and scheduleAt the Career Center, we work at the intersection of dreams and reality and interviews as they become available.you can find us in Smith Warehouse—see you there soon.Bill Wright-SwadelFannie Mitchell Executive DirectorDuke University Career Center4
CAREER CEntER Duke University he full range of resources available to you from the moment you Career Center fact, we encourage it! Having no sense of what to do next is the Open All Year Monday-FridayLet us be partner in your exploration and decision-making process. 9am-5pm Around Campus online Smith Warehouse Bay 5 Workshops and Drop-In The Career Center Website Second Floor In depth tips, strategies, and resources Advising Come to You are available on the website, and we’re We don’t spend all of our time at the Career 114 S. Buchanan Blvd. always creating more. We also highlight Center. We schedule presentations and meetings Box 90950 some of the best articles and news from all over campus. across print and web media that might Durham, NC 27708 be of interest to you. 919.660.1050 Information Sessions Attend presentations hosted by many types of Subscriptions and career-student@ organizations to learn more about them and studentaffairs.duke.edu opportunities available to you. Databases We sponsor and host a wide variety of Subscribe to our Career tools and databases available to Duke Events students. See the Resources portion of News newsletter for weekly updates. Manage We bring many guests to Duke, often with the each section of this guide for specific your subscriptions within help of fantastic campus partners. Some of our recommendations. For a comprehensive “Administration” in annual events include: overview, visit Resources on our website. eRecruiting. Expert in Residence Program - knowledgeable professionals share their expertise and advice with you ITunesU Our Event calendar is We maintain a library of programs always available on our Career Fairs – Employers who are looking to hire website under “Events” for internships and full-time opportunities attend at Duke’s ITunesU site. Download a and in Duke’s Buzz to meet face to face with students. lecture or presentation to listen or calendar. The Fannie Mitchell event in late January or view on the go. early February – More than 70 Duke alums return Search “Duke University to campus to discuss their careers and decisions Career Center” on made along the way. We sponsor this event in Facebook to Like our page partnership with the Duke Alumni Association. and get updates. Duke Arts Festival – Meet and learn from alums in arts, media, and entertainment and have an opportunity to showcase your own talents. We Q:What do you think the plan this event in partnership with the Duke Career Center’s role is? Alumni Association and Office of the Vice Provost for the Arts. I think the Career Center’s role is Diversity Networking Dinner - Employers twofold. First, for those students who committed to hiring a diverse staff attend have yet to decide on what they want this annual event to meet Duke students in a conversational setting. their future to be, the Career Center is Etiquette Dinners – Dine in style while being there to educate them about the instructed on proper business etiquette. numerous choices they have, and finally, for those who already know what they Presentations By Request want to do, the Career Center is there to Visit our website to request a workshop. We bring guide them. a variety of presentations and discussions to your organization, residence hall, or group of friends. If Either way, the Career Center will help 5 you can gather a crowd, we’ll join you! students go beyond their boundaries. nAnDISh ShAh ‘10
Your Career Development Process Believe it or not, you already know a lot discovery is what is fun! You will continually about yourself and your career. Your career use your past experiences to identify new is something you build every day with the insights, new options, and new steps. habits you establish and break, ideas you explore, people you meet, and decisions You already bring a set of your own you make. All of your life experiences preferences and life experiences to this provide you with insight into process of continual learning and your unique preferences. decision-making. Uncover The key to making what drives you, discover satisfying life choices opportunities, test your is being aware of strengths and interests in the things you the world, and learn to already know about communicate persuasively. yourself and the Being fully engaged in ALL world, and using this aspects of the cycle gives you acquired insight when ownership and control over faced with an opportunity that which comes next for you. or crossroads. Is this hard work? Yes. Is it worth it? You can expect to cycle through a process Absolutely. The Career Center works with of learning about yourself again and again you to make sense of the unknown or to take during your time at Duke, and also the steps toward your goals with success. We are entirety of your career and life. The endless your partners in all steps of this process.6
your Board of AdvisorsAs you learn and build your career path, meeting new people and“enlisting” them to your personal Board of Advisors is a key strategy forsuccess. Think about the many people who have had (or could have!) apositive influence in your life.Look into the future and consider whom you might strategically seek out toadd to your board, in addition to staying in touch with those you alreadyknow. Every person you encounter over time gets to see a different pieceof you at your best (and possibly worst) and can be called upon for insightsinto significant aspects of who you have been and who you are becoming.Build and use your Board of Advisors to learn about yourself and to imagine and discover Here are someYOUR possibilities. The benefits include: suggestions for • Feedback on habits, patterns, and strengths that you haven’t noticed about yourself insight you • Advice on steps to take, people to meet, and resources or strategies to consider could gain: • Insight into how your advisors have made decisions in the past and what other options they considered Family—know you • Inside information about what a typical day is like • Suggestions for opportunities that might excite you deeply and over time • And more Friends—see where you thrive and struggleEnlist a supervisorYour supervisors are great advisors, even when you no longer work at the organization. Many Professors—havewill suggest you stay in touch, or you could ask if they are open to the possibility. insight into yourStaying in touch doesn’t mean having to request something every time you talk. If you come academic mindacross information or do something that might be interesting to the person, share it! Thesentiment, “thinking of you”, goes a long way and can be a great reason to send an email or Coaches—challengepick up the phone. you to overcome obstaclesHere are some great updates to share. I thought of you when: I learned something in class. Advisors—contribute I saw something in the news. to your decision-making I used something I learned when working with you. process I followed your advice. I mentioned you (or your organization) to someone. Community Leaders—see yourEnlist a professor passions engagedFind something you’re genuinely curious about as a reason to talk. People, even professors (!),tend to be flattered when others express interest in something that is important to them. Peers—have workedYou can use the words, “I’m trying to understand…” as a way to start these conversations. alongside youSome other examples might include: You mentioned… in your lecture. I’m trying to better understand how this connects Supervisors—have to… had to give you We worked on… in the problem set. I’m trying to understand why this technique is constructive feedback preferred over… Being a professor seems interesting to me. I’m trying to better understand what it Duke Alums—have a is like. Can you tell me about what you do? How you decided to do this? What else common experience you have considered? Who you work with? This topic is very interesting to me. I’m trying to better understand the ways that it connects to opportunities outside of academic work. Do you know about this or anyone who might? I learned a bit about your research and am intrigued by… Can you tell me more 77 about…
SELF-INQUIRY Values Interests Well- Informed Decisions Personality Skills Uncover What Drives You Through a process of self-inquiry, you will gain insight into your values, interests, skills, personality, and what you have learned from unique experiences. These are the critical data that will drive your career planning and development. Self-Inquiry is not a one-time event. It is the best way to start thinking about your career and a place to return when contemplating transitions and significant decisions about your career. As you grow and change with new experiences and exposure to new ideas, you will return to this process many times. The more aligned your career decisions are with who you know yourself to be, the more likely you will feel fulfilled and successful. Benefits of self-inquiry You will make well-informed decisions to set yourself up for the outcomes that matter to you throughout your career. You will better articulate your strengths and interests to others who can offer valuable guidance, connections, and opportunities. Assess your Values, Skills, Interests, and Personality Values, skills, interests, and personality are lenses through which you can look at your life experience. Each is a different view into you. Use these viewpoints to identify patterns that naturally emerge through the choices you make. The exercises on the following page can help you get started! A career counselor can help you interpret and learn from your responses. Remember! This is only a starting point. Look beyond the guide to other 8 Career Center resources for more.
Explore Your Values Inventory Your SkillsValues are the principles that we find importantand influence the way we live our daily lives. Your skills are the abilities that you possess. Skills are developed and improved with practice and overOur identification with specific values tends not time, though they can be influenced by a natural knack or unique talent. Communicating your skills into grow or diminish instantly or dramatically but a way that builds confidence requires that you give evidence of your past exposure and success.evolve over time. Exercise: Using the list below for inspiration, come up with ten skills that describe your currentExercise: Rank the list of values below in strengths. Next, come up with ten that describe those you expect will be important in your fields oforder of importance for you. Use the blanks to interest. How do they compare? Note overlaps as well as gaps.incorporate values beyond what is included here. Communicating Clearly __________________________ ______________________________Variety Managing a Project __________________________ ______________________________Loyalty Collaborating towards __________________________ ______________________________Fun a Goal __________________________ ______________________________Structure Writing Persuasively____Influence __________________________ __________________________ Learning Quickly____Recognition __________________________ __________________________ Researching Thoroughly____Creativity __________________________ __________________________ Innovating____Financial Compensation __________________________ ______________________________Job Security Compiling a Budget Balancing Priorities __________________________ ______________________________Having Visible Impact____Intellectual Stimulation____Colleague Relationships____Independence____Being an Expert____Respect Assess Your Personality____Taking Risks Your personality is unique to you and includes inherent traits as well as____Relationships habits that you’ve acquired over time in realms like gathering information,____Learning making decisions, and relating to others. Better understanding____ ___________________________ characteristics of your personality can help you to articulate the____ ___________________________ circumstances under which you thrive, or natural strengths that you can____ ___________________________ utilize, regardless of your environment. Identify Your Interests Exercise: Describe yourself at your best and most natural in response to these prompts. Interests run the range from a passing curiosity to something with consistent and lifelong appeal. Your interests can include your passions, hobbies, and What energizes you? _____________________________________________ curiosities. Your career can evolve to include the interests that you have not yet pursued as much as those to which you are already committed. _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ Exercise: Psychologist John Holland identified these six areas of occupational interest. Rank this list from the most to least descriptive of the patterns in your interests. How do you gather information? ___________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ ______ Realistic Practical: Enjoy practical and physical; engage with tools, machines, and gadgets _________________________________________________________________ ______ Investigative Analytical: Enjoy gathering information and What guides your decisions? _______________________________________ analysis; appreciates intellectual activities _________________________________________________________________ ______ Artistic Creative: Enjoy aesthetics and self- _________________________________________________________________ expression; favor unstructured environments ______ Social Connected: Enjoy helping, training, and What approaches do you use to conduct your life? ____________________ counseling; thrive side-by-side with others _________________________________________________________________ ______ Enterprising Influential: Enjoy persuasion and managing; _________________________________________________________________ prefer to lead ______ Conventional Systematic: Enjoy details and accuracy; 99 comfortable within a chain of command
Review your Experience With a little distance (or a lot!) from the collection of your past activities, you can continue to discern the patterns and designs that make up the mosaic of your life’s experiences. And while distance certainly comes with time, you can put some space between yourself and an ongoing experience through active, ongoing reflection, e.g., journaling. To get started, make a list of memorable experiences. Include experiences you consider rewarding as well as those you consider disappointing. Make room for those that may seem irrelevant, unimportant, or too far in the past. __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ Feel free to use the following list of kinds of experiences to help you brainstorm: • On-campus jobs • Sports • Faith community • Academic projects • Volunteer engagements commitments • Research • Campus leadership • Hobbies/recreational • Internships • Student clubs activities • Study abroad • ROTC • Entrepreneurial ventures • Political activities • Job shadowing • Vacations For each experience you list, consider the following questions: What led you to choose that experience? Why did you choose that experience over others? What, if anything, did you sacrifice when choosing that experience? How did you feel about making that sacrifice? Who and/or what influenced your choosing that experience? What did you especially like/dislike about that experience (consider activities, people, environment, etc)? What skills and personal characteristics did you demonstrate or develop during that experience? How was that experience connected or disconnected from other past and subsequent experiences? What was most memorable about that experience? Next Steps and Selected Resources: Self-Inquiry • Use a career counseling appointment to begin exposing patterns in your values, skills, interests, and personality. • Visit the Career Center website for an expanded set of self-inquiry exercises. • Consider the questions identified in the Nine Domains to Find Your Fit article on page 19. • Seek input from members of your Board of Advisors (Page 7). Advice for Graduate Students: Self-Inquiry In choosing to enroll in a graduate program at Duke, you have come a long way toward understanding yourself—the unique abilities, interests, and preferences that influence your academic and personal decisions. Nevertheless, you are not a finished product. If your experience of graduate school at Duke doesn’t transform you in significant ways by broadening and deepening your knowledge and self understanding, it will fail to accomplish its purpose. Earning an advanced degree is not a career answer, but a foundation for further intellectual and personal growth and the discovery of multiple career options. As you progress in your studies, make use of the professional development resources of: • Your department and division • The Office of Graduate School Student Affairs (GSSA) • The Career Center 10 Find members of the Duke community who will encourage you to revisit your goals and priorities and who will support10 the decisions you make about how to best use your graduate education.
Making Career DecisionsREVIEW Take a moment to reflect on why you chose to apply and come to Duke. This decision was likely influenced by a number of factors such as advice from family, interest in a specific academic program, scholarships or financial aid, campus life and sports, geographic location, a campus visit, and others. You may wish to use the diagram below to recall the various factors that influenced YOUR decision. Feel free to create more bubbles if necessary! Looking at the factors that were involved, mark those that were the strongest influence on this important decision and consider the following questions: What does this specific decision teach you about your decision-making style? Have the influences and factors in your decision-making process changed since deciding on Duke? How and why? Are these the factors that drive most of your important decisions? What differs? How and why? With hindsight, do you notice anything significant you may have overlooked at the time? Would you bring different information to the table? Remember! You can always choose to approach future decisions differently. This exercise reveals some of your past patterns and you can use this information to determine how to move forward. Taking Career Risks In addition to all of these factors, go back and think, too, about yourself as a risk taker. What kind of risk taker have you been? Were there elements of deciding to be here that involved a leap of faith? What about other options that you set aside in order to be here? Were they more risky? Less? Taking measured risks by putting yourself out into the world to discover how you fit is a critical part of career discovery. We encourage you to build upon a series of comfortable risks over time, and to learn to identify your boundaries as you go. The series of decisions you make over time can be 11 exhilarating—do not let risk be paralyzing! 11
Discover OpportunitiesEXPLORATION Be a savvy information consumer and research careers while approaching information critically. Embrace a variety of sources and exploration methods to gain deeper insight into new possibilities. Like your academic coursework, you must continuously assess the reliability, validity, and bias of your sources. As your perspective widens, so do your choices. Be sure to take stock of your impressions as you • Did you discover something that interested you in make new career discoveries. some ways but not in others? • What are you motivated to explore further and • What aspects of the experience were you drawn why? to, and what aspects were unappealing, and why? • Are you learning things that are different than you • What else do you want and need to know? expected, and how do you feel about this new • Are there obvious things to learn next that will picture? help you understand other components? Here are some suggested strategies with increasing levels of risk and reward. Be sure to employ all three categories to be comprehensive. READ Look through a professional lens. Some ideas for information sources: You can learn a lot about your areas of interest from • Websites your computer screen or a print publication. • Blogs Some key patterns you’ll want to narrow in on include: • Discussion Boards • Where do people in this field go for professional news • Trade Journals and updates? For jobs and internships? • Reference Books • What memberships, affiliations, or certifications are • Memoirs and Biographies common or relevant? • What qualities or experiences are (in)consistent in the Words of warning! Do not get stuck here. A good histories or profiles of the people who impress you? exploration strategy will get you talking and doing, too. TALK Learn through others’ experiences. Ask for 30 minutes to speak with them about it at a Explore fields of interest through conversations with time and location convenient for them (a phone call people whose work intrigues you. Put yourself in is also an option, but an online conversation is not). their shoes and see how well they fit! Be punctual, prepared, and professional in your Consider any encounter a chance to have such dress and demeanor for the meeting. See below a conversation. No need to wait for the perfect for suggested questions. situation or a formal career-related event. A Take notes while being sure to focus on building waiting room, grocery store line, or a family rapport and making eye contact. gathering are all great places to gain insight from Request referrals to others who would be willing others about their careers. to share information. Keep the conversation on schedule to take It to the next level: Informational acknowledge that their time is valuable! Interviewing Express your gratitude at the conclusion of the Informational interviewing is a great conversation and through a thoughtful thank-you conversational tool for gaining a personal and note afterwards. practical perspective on your career interests and building relationships with individuals in fields you Great Questions for Any Career Conversation: may choose to pursue. • How did you get started in this field? Are there With informational interviewing, the ball is in your other entry points as well? court. Here are the basics: • Will I need more formal training to apply for Identify individuals whose personal career path, positions in this field? What organizations organization, or broader field of work interests provide training on the job? you. Feel free to start with people in your inner • What do you like most/least about your work? circle. After all, do you really know what your uncle • What qualities and skills are needed? does at his cool sounding job everyday or why • What are the possibilities for advancement? your favorite professor chose her field of research? • What new developments are expected in the Introduce yourself or ask a mutual acquaintance to field in the next three to five years? make an introduction to someone you do not know. • What do you read to keep informed of events, Email is one appropriate way to do this. Consider friends’ issues, and openings in your field? parents, Duke alums, or professionals in your community. • What does a typical day look like for you? 12 Briefly explain your curiosity about their work.
The Graduate School OptionDO! You may be considering graduate school because you are passionate about a particular intellectual endeavor or because you know you need a certain set of credentials to move forward in your career development. Depending on your goals and interests, an advanced degree mayYou define experience. be an option to consider. BeforeYour opportunity to reality-test some of the thing you have learned from others is now! taking this step for granted, takeThink broadly and creatively about what defines experience and you will discover ways time to think about the reasonsthat you can dabble in new realms or continue to build your expertise. For example, many you would pursue graduatewriters build and maintain a topical blog to develop their craft, as well as display passion and school, what you would expect toknowledge on a defined topic. gain, whether it is the best way to achieve your goals, and when you would be ready to make theHere are some other ideas: commitment of time and financial • Ask to shadow and observe someone during a normal workday. resources. • Offer to volunteer for an organization, an event, or a person to develop specific abilities. The following are some important • Develop your experience in a club to showcase your strengths. factors to account for when • Invent a project and offer to do it for someone, or do it for you. considering this weighty decision: • Create ways you can contribute to research or work that intrigues you. • The clarity of your short- and • Secure an internship during the school year. long-term career goals • Your expectations around how a graduate education would help you advance some of“I don’t need to explore… I already know what I want!” your goalsAre you sure? We bet you’re not done yet—exploration builds upon itself, so this might be • Whether graduate educationyour opportunity to become more refined in your professional and personal knowledge. is the best way to achieve your desired outcomes andYou may use these questions to guide your learning in order become the most competitive whether there are strongcandidate possible: alternatives, e.g., licensures • Your ability and willingness to take on associated financialWho burdens• Create a detailed profile of the person Where • Your comfort with putting who would thrive in the role(s) to • Where are the areas of change and other interests and goals on which you aspire? Can you do this yet? excitement? Where do experts hold to meet the demands of your program• Are there areas for your own predict the field will be in the next five • Kinds of programs that would improvement? years, 10 years, 20 years? best meet your goals • How do I position myself to be part ofWhat this? Whether you seek to practice a profession that requires a specific• What sources of information and advanced degree or are interested relationships do the professionals in Why in a path where there is a less this field use to keep up with news, • Why do people go into this field, definitive need for such, the issues above are critical. While the trends, and colleagues? Are you initially? Does it remain the same or majority of Duke undergraduates paying attention to these, regularly? change over time? eventually go on to pursue• What are the strategies used in this field • Why do people leave or come back? advanced degrees, such a decision to identify and bring on new talent? Are there patterns to notice here? should be based on individual circumstances, interests, and goals. What are there motivators, timelines, If you have decided that an resources, strategies, or techniques How advanced degree is right for you, that you need to be aware of? • How did you decide that this was your the next step is to contact the best option? appropriate resource at Duke to assist you:When • How have you challenged or tested • http://trinity.duke.edu/• When are important events that I this choice? advising/preprofessional should make myself aware of, e.g., a • Office of Health Professions Advising conference? • Prelaw Advising Office• When is the typical hiring cycle? Are • PreBusiness Advising Office there things that I should prepare for? • Pregraduate Advising
Next Steps and Selected Resources: Exploration Use a career counseling appointment to devise a research game plan. Work with a counselor to identify the best resources to use first. Participate in the Expert-in-Residence Program (year-round) and The Fannie Mitchell event (early spring semester) to learn from Duke alums visiting campus. Use the Occupational Network (online.onetcenter.org), especially the “skills search” to match job titles to your interests. Identify and reach out to a variety of professionals using DukeConnect (www.DukeConnect.com) and by joining the “Duke University Alumni Network” group after making a profile on LinkedIn (www.LinkedIn.com). Familiarize yourself with the variety of information resources available to you as a Duke student. A few to get you started: Career Insider by Vault (http://www.studentaffairs.duke.edu/career/resources/vault-career-insider) Access profiles of professions, companies, and industries. Content ranges from a few paragraphs to book length and also includes videos. Job & Career Research Library Guide (http://guides.library.duke.edu/careerresearch) A thorough overview of the best research tools available across Duke. GoingGlobal (http://www.studentaffairs.duke.edu/career/resources/goingglobal) Essential insights and resources for exploring by location; domestically or abroad eRecruiting (http://www.studentaffairs.duke.edu/career/resources/erecruiting) Register for Career News and email lists that match your interests Advice for Graduate Students: Exploration Having enrolled in a specific program of study, you become an explorer discovering new knowledge through research. But you shouldn’t neglect to use your research skills to discover and explore career op- tions that were initially off your map. If historical research is your forte, investigate the career of a business historian. If teaching about the envi- ronment commands your energy and creativity, explore the advantages of teaching for special programs that offer undergrads hands-on fieldwork experience. If you’ve discovered that you’re good at coordinating large-scale events/conferences, scout out career opportunities with academic associations or job announce- ments in trade magazines for event planners. Explore the requirements for positions in more than one kind of organization and be open to new avenues to exercise your particular abilities. Every sector of the economy has a place for someone with your developing interests—whether they will be fulfilled through the traditional academic research, teaching, and administrative roles or through others com- mon to the business, governmental, and nonprofit sectors. Our distinguished faculty and staff working in the Graduate School, the offices of Student Affairs (including the Career Center), the Duke libraries, the research centers, and our alumni are ready to point you in the right direction when you are ready to ask.1414
Making the Most ofthe Experience BuffetPicture a delicious buffet with your favorite dishes as well as delicacies thatyou have heard of but never had the opportunity to try. Food and drink fromaround the globe, each prepared to perfection. How do you approach thisbuffet?Would you start at the beginning piling on everything that looks delicious asit passes before you? But then you would be too full to enjoy your favoritedessert at the end. You could take only a tiny taste of a few things to keepyour options open, only to find yourself still hungry in the end. Perhaps youare already imagining another, more strategic approach as you read.When it comes to the vast and tantalizing smorgasbord of experiences accessible to Duke students, itis not difficult to understand why Dukies tend to behave like hungry diners piling their plates as high aspossible. We also know that one of the reasons you were admitted to Duke was because of your diverseexperiences, which demonstrated that you were an intellectually curious and interesting person.You may deftly balance your overloaded plate, but are you getting the most enjoyment and benefit fromyour meal? Or is your palette overrun by all of the flavors and textures, unable to distinguish savoryfrom sweet, crisp from creamy? Do you conclude your meal feeling satiated or stuffed? Well nourishedor just full?Let’s go back to the buffet. What’s your best strategy?Scan your options. Based on what you know about your tastes and preferences, what must youhave? Do you see anything that hadn’t previously piqued your curiosity but does now? What dishes areavailable that you have not seen or heard of before now?Make your selections and enjoy. Choose a balance of nutritious and indulgent options, old favoritesand something new. Not too many selections on one plate—you can always go back for more! Tasteeach item on its own, then see how the flavors blend or complement each other. Enjoy slowly and savor.Assess your satisfaction. Are you still hungry? Was your anticipated favorite less tasty than you hadhoped? Leave it on the plate to save room to eat something else.Go back for more. You are even more prepared this time around. You know what you like andwhat you have yet to try. You have gotten feedback about the things that others have enjoyed. Yourpreferences are more specific and you are scanning for particular items that will satisfy you.Talk about the meal. After leaving the meal you are still talking about it. What did you like and why?Did you skip anything appealing because you were no longer hungry? Would something else havehelped round out the meal for you? Would you go back for more? If so, what would you have? Whatwould you pass over?Your career development process is like a buffet. It entails tasting and trying, learning what youlike and what you find unappealing, and even experiencing moments of hunger and excess. You are alsolearning how to satiate an appetite that changes with time, and how to get more out of your experienceby discussing and reflecting with others. 1515Bon appétit!
ACQUISITION test your Strengths and InterestsEXPERIENCE in the World Duke students are renowned for being super-involved on and off of campus; filling their schedules with research, volunteer work, student organizations, creative endeavors, entrepreneurial ventures, studying abroad, internships. You name it, Duke students are doing it! With each experience you select, you are choosing to develop and utilize particular skills, work with or for certain people, function within a specific structure and environment, acquire particular kinds of knowledge, and grapple with particular problems. The Career Center recommends you examine each of your opportunities to better understand: What you want to learn or gain? How you want to challenge yourself? What you want to do more (or less) of? What curiosities do you want to satisfy? By looking at your array of choices with a critical eye, you will be well equipped to determine your next steps, whether your goal is to enhance current knowledge and skills or set forth in a newly-discovered direction. think Differently About Experience Once you have determined what you want to learn next by reflecting on your past experiences and future aspirations, there are many ways to pursue your immediate goals. Opportunities abound on campus and in the local community to develop specific knowledge and skills, to build relationships, and to generate further insight about who you are becoming. The key is to be discerning in your choices: the value of any given experience can only be measured in relation to YOUR unique goals and interests. The list below suggests some of the avenues for gaining experience. Keep in mind that no single club, project, or activity has a monopoly on the knowledge and skill development you seek! • Student organizations (active participation • Significant projects, in class or out and/or leadership) • Athletics • Community engagement and • Hobbies volunteering • Honors thesis • Research with a professor • Campus and national competitions • Independent research • Tutoring • Job shadowing • Military 16 16 • Entrepreneurial venture
Career Center advisors are eager to talk with youabout how these and other experiences may be theright fit for your personal priorities and interests. Internships 85% of Duke seniors Think of internships as a broad set of additional experiences that may complement your on- and off-campus activities and coursework or help you bridge gaps in your responding to a 2010 exploration, learning, and development. Internships are most often explicitly pre- survey reported having professional in nature and are one more tool for gaining self-insight, knowledge, had at least one internship and skills. before graduation. As with your other activities and courses, it is essential that you take a critical approach when pursuing and selecting from the range of internship choices. There is no objective measure for a good internship. The best internships are those that align with your unique values, skills, interests, and personality and that make sense given what else you have learned and experienced thus far. As you learn more and clarify your interests with each experience, your priorities and goals will likely change. Over time, you may choose to mix and match a variety of internship experiences along with your coursework and other experiences to best meet your needs and interests. Start Investigating Internships Don’t rule out an unpaid • Meet with a career counselor to clarify what you hope summer opportunity! There to learn from an internship and develop a personalized are many options if you act strategy—the earlier you begin the conversation, the early: Apply for competitive better! Continue periodic check-in meetings throughout your exploration and search. funding to cover your costs, • Request time to talk with members of your Board of stay close to home, take Advisors for advice and perspective. Keep your advisors on a part-time, paid job up to date throughout your exploration and search. • Talk to other students about their internship experiences. alongside an internship, or build up your savings before Consider Professional Fellowships the summer begins. Though many students only associate “fellowships” with academic pursuits, professional fellowships are a great option for those seeking short-term work experience, training, and mentorship after graduation. These competitive opportunities—found throughout the world—are typically geared toward cultivating young leaders in various professional fields. As such, they can serve as a fantastic springboard for your career. For more information about post-graduate professional fellowships, make an appointment with a career counselor and explore from our website: http://www. studentaffairs.duke.edu/career/resources/short-term. For academic fellowships, e.g., Rhodes Scholars Program, the Office of Undergraduate Scholars and Fellows at Duke and its website are excellent resources. 17
Next Steps and Selected Resources: Experience Acquisition Schedule a career counseling appointment to identify steps toward experiences that strategically align with your curiosities. Create an account and set up personalized searches in each of these Duke databases to become more aware of the options. eRecruiting (http://www.studentaffairs.duke.edu/career/resources/erecruiting) inet (http://www.studentaffairs.duke.edu/career/resources/inet) Internship Exchange (http://www.studentaffairs.duke.edu/career/resources/internship-exchange) Use Dukelist (dukelist.duke.edu) to identify volunteer, research, and work opportunities at Duke. Attend a career fair. Look for leads and ideas using these consolidated lists: Internship Series online (http://www.studentaffairs.duke.edu/career/resources/internship-series) Internship feedback Database (http://www.studentaffairs.duke.edu/career/resources/internship- feedback-database) e-leads (http://www.studentaffairs.duke.edu/career/resources/e-leads) Advice for Graduate Students: Experience Acquisition As a graduate student, it is crucial that you use opportunities provided by the university and your own ingenuity to get experience in organizations outside the university. Fulfilling the curricular requirements of your study program and earning an advanced credential will not be enough to convince many employers that you are qualified to assume positions with more responsibility than those offered to BA/BS graduates. Curricular requirements do not always satisfy employers for these reasons: Faculty search committees may want tenure-track candidates with more than one area of research expertise. Biotechnology firms may prefer candidates who can perform research and also demonstrate experience leading research teams. Liberal arts colleges will select faculty candidates who have designed their own courses and received excellent student evaluations. Government contractors may not only require security clearances, but will also favor applicants who have had relevant internship experience. Engineers who apply for jobs with smaller investment firms must demonstrate not only quantitative modeling skills, but also exposure to operations in one or more of the sub-fields of finance, such as risk management, derivatives pricing, or econometrics. Your challenge will be to find ways to apply your knowledge to actual problems encountered in the workplace at the same time you are pursuing your graduate degree. Gain experience outside the department, the laboratory, and the library through formal internship programs or by taking on projects you create for yourself. Your applied learning experiences will convince your first employer after graduate school that you have not used your18 graduate years to hide out, but to reach out.
nine Domains to find your fit ?? ? ??It is both challenging and exciting to imagine your career options. For one thing, ?? ?? ?your career is and will continue to be multi-faceted, just like you! Whether youare working on your next move, or figuring out your longer-term aspirations, youwill gain traction by fleshing out the nine intersecting domains, or elements, thatcomprise your career. ??? ?Spend time with the questions below; each refers to a specific domain relatedto your personal career fulfillment. You do not need to work all of this out inone sitting, but we do encourage you to put your thoughts on paper. Free ?yourself to be in the present moment with an understanding that your answersto these questions will change over time. This can be a great starting point foran intentional conversation with a career counselor or member of your Board ofAdvisors (Page 7).Domains: Knowledge: In what areas of knowledge, intellectual, personal, experiential, can you claim a particularly strong grasp and find great enjoyment? What do you want to learn next? What do you ultimately want to know? Skills: What can you do well? Among your capabilities, which do you enjoy using? Which do you prefer NOT to use? What skills do you wish to acquire (short and long term)? Goals: What do you want to accomplish in the short- and long-term? Values: What are your personal and work values and how do you want them to intersect with your work? Which of your values do you want to hold in common with the people with whom you work? Environment: In what physical environments do you thrive? In what physical environments do you struggle? Relationships: What types of relationships do you want in your work (with colleagues, managers, constituents, customers, etc.)? Who do you envision your colleagues to be? Compensation: What kind of financial compensation do you need or want? What sorts of benefits or perks are important to you? What do you want to learn in your work? What are the sources of your joy? Location: Where do you want to be? What geographic factors are important to you? Challenges and Barriers: 19 19 What real difficulties do you see ahead for you?
SEARCH SKILLS Are you Search Characteristics of a Savvy Internship and Job Seeker Ready to move forward with your search? here are a few characteristics that successful and savvy experience seekers possess and implement throughout the search process. these characteristics apply whether you are pursuing an internship, job, volunteer role, fellowship, or membership in a student organization. Successful seekers REFLECT! Time to search for an opportunity. But wait! What type of experience are you seeking? Why? Take time to think carefully about your skills, strengths, likes/dislikes, and what you want to learn next. Being able to articulate the above will allow you to conduct a search with purpose and direction, ultimately saving you time and minimizing frustration. Reflection is a key component that should be used throughout the process. Successful seekers conduct a TARGETED SEARCH! Pursuing any and every opportunity you find will produce results that may not align with the direction you would like to head with your career. Target organizations and industries that are of genuine interest to you and tailor your approach (resume, cover letter, proposal, and pitch) to reflect the experiences and skills most relevant and salient for those opportunities. Successful seekers RESEARCH! You may know the top five employers in your industry of interest, but who are the top 10? Top 20? Don’t limit your knowledge of the world to what you already know. Take time to expand upon this base of knowledge and learn about opportunities and experiences that are interesting to you. Researching organizations and employers allows you to learn about their culture, values, and specific opportunities for career development. Your research will help you determine whether or not there is a potential fit between you and the opportunity or organization, helping you make an informed decision about your next step! Successful seekers are ORGANIZED! Some searches are especially time consuming. You should anticipate spending several hours a week on your internship, job, or fellowship search. The same may be true of other opportunities. Develop a system that allows you to keep all of your contacts and notes in one place and keep a calendar of relevant events and deadlines. Consider having an email address, folder, or use tags dedicated to your search-related communications. Store your search-related documents electronically in a centralized folder so they are easy to access if needed immediately. Successful seekers have ENDURANCE and PATIENCE! Since some searches can last several months, be prepared to participate in a process that may not always agree with your preferred timeframe. We are used to immediate gratification in our society, but each organization, employer, or funder works at their own pace for legitimate (if obscure) reasons. As a candidate for the opportunity, you will 20 benefit from being aware of and sensitive to this fact. 20
Savvy?Successful seekers FOLLOW UP! Following up on your applications and conversations can be the difference between securing an opportunity and remaining in an undifferentiated pile of resumes. By following up, you can confirm that your application is in the right hands, restate your serious interest in the position, and demonstrate follow-through skills so important in professional roles. As with all communications with employers, it is critical to act in a timely, professional, and courteous manner. While you may be eager to know the status of your application, be aware that they may not be able to provide much information at any given time. Your follow-up will nonetheless make a positive impression.Successful seekers MANAGE SETBACKS WITH POSITIVITY! Being told “no” in your search is never fun, but it’s bound to happen at some point. Rejection can hinge on a number of factors, many of which are out of the your control. While rejection can be frustrating, it is very important to remain positive and not let a setback with one opportunity effect how you present yourself for another prospective experience. Transform rejection into motivation, staying confident that you have many strong characteristics to contribute.Successful seekers project PROFESSIONALISM AND MATURITY! You are more than the sum of your skills and previous experiences. Professionalism and maturity can take you a long way. As you connect with people throughout your search, there are many opportunities to demonstrate this, including how you communicate and present yourself. 21 21
Professional Networking Intentional, sustained, and effective networking is a powerful tool when searching for interesting internships, jobs, and other experiences. It can significantly augment other methods for learning about and pursuing career options, such as on-campus recruiting, social networking, and online searches. Believe it or not, networking is something you already do well! Think about your first weeks on campus, meeting fellow students and exchanging information related to your discoveries about Duke life, (bus routes, campus dining facilities, interesting activities, great professors, etc). By sharing information, you were assisting or receiving help yourself (getting from East to West Campus on time, finding something fun to do on Thursday night, etc.). Beyond information, perhaps you introduced your math-whiz roommate with your calculus-confused friend for some informal tutoring. Exchanging useful information and seeking and creating helpful introductions are the essence of networking. The Value of Networking Strategically connecting with people enables you to: • Gain insider knowledge and insight into the career field, industry, or organization and the day-to-day experiences, career paths, terminology, organizational culture, sources of industry information, and more. • Build confidence over time in speaking about yourself, career interests, and future goals. • Expand the number of people you know who are doing things you are curious about. • Learn about opportunities, sometimes before they become publicized (Note: Networking is NOT the same as asking for a job). • Refine your goals, make well-informed decisions in your search, and make a positive impression on employers and those who are evaluating your candidacy.22
networking Basics With practice comes improvement. Ever hear the phrase, “fake it ‘till you make it?” no one needs to know that you’re nervous or that you’ve never done this before. onManaging Your Online Reputation the other hand, if it makes you more comfortable, feel free to tell people this is new for you. It’s okay. Even after yearsYou know that employers use the Internet to research potential job of practice, introducing yourself to someone new can feelcandidates. Thus, a necessary part of any job or internship search is risky. But it is worth it. Students we talk to most commonlyto create and maintain a positive online reputation. Use the following say that their level of nervousness far exceeded the actual task, and that the conversation was fun! Just remembersteps to move from damage control towards proactive ownership of that almost any interpersonal encounter can be an opportu-your online first impression. nity for intentional networking. • Know yourself: skills, interests, values, personality,Increase Your Awareness. Be sure you know what information and accomplishments.is or could be available about yourself online, where it is, and what • Make a list of your current relationships—impression it may create. personal, professional, academic, and beyond. Add • Search your name (and different versions of it) on the major Duke alums to your list! your first-degree contacts search engines, on different social networks, and sites where will be instrumental in connecting you with other you comment. A few not-so-obvious sites to check: Tumblr, people you do not yet know, your second-degree Netflix, Flickr, Match, Delicious, Amazon, Yelp. contacts. • Know the privacy agreement and settings for the various • Do not discount individuals because you think they online communities of which you are a member. do not know the right people. they do not need • Request feedback from peers and professionals on to be in the area you are pursuing to have valuable impressions based your online presence alone. Would they relationships to share. hire you? Why or why not? • Create a plan for reaching out to your first-degree • Familiarize yourself with sites where your potential colleagues contacts and for keeping track of your communica- or supervisors gather and participate online. tions. you might want to start with people who seem to have the closest connections to your interest area oR with those whom you feel most comfortableProtect Your Image. Ensure potential employers only see with. Either way will work. the point is to create ainformation that conveys a positive image. You do not want them to plan you can act on!question your professionalism, judgment, or ability to represent their • Do your homework. learn a little bit about eachorganization. person you contact (profession, current projects, • Adjust the privacy settings for all online accounts. company, relevant personal information, etc.). Use • Remove content and tags that could negatively influence a the power of the Internet to your advantage. potential employer’s first impression. • Draft and practice your opening communication • Hide or delete old accounts that do not best represent you. (verbal introduction, email, etc). Discuss this with a • Request that information about you posted by others be friend, career advisor, or someone from your Board removed if you are opposed to it. of Advisors (Page ##). • Make your move! Send an email or letter first; followBuild a Professional Presence. Present your name, with a phone call. or simply CAll! Assign yourself aaccomplishments, and aspirations in ways that can be accessible to daily quota. Be persistent but not pushy.others. • Follow up! Call again within a week if you receive no • Use social networks to create and maintain a public profile response. Arrange a meeting in person or by phone. that represents your accomplishments and a sense of the Ask for 30 to 45 minutes only. you could get even professional you are becoming and you are comfortable with luckier! the public seeing. • Set the tone. Know and explain why you are calling • Display a copy of your resume and a portfolio of your and what you hope to learn (industry information, accomplishments online. career exploration, job search advice, graduate or • Promote your profiles and/or website, e.g., add a link to your professional school guidance, etc.) you are not ask- ing for a job! email signature. • Contribute to conversations relevant to your fields of interest • Ask for referrals. one of your most important ques- tions is, “Whom do you recommend I contact for through media like blogs, LinkedIn groups, and/or Twitter. additional information?” • Send a thank-you note within 48 hours! Email is oK!Own Your Presence. Assert greater control of your online identity A personal letter can be very effective, too!by owning it yourself. • Maintain connections. nurture the relationships by • Create a personal website that serves as a professional staying in touch and letting them know where you resume and portfolio. Update this regularly with new content. land! • Continue your activities online and watch your name and • Be patient. networking yields results that often accu- professional identity become more prominent in search mulate over time. never stop networking! engines. Set a goal to take over the whole first page of Google when someone searches your name. 23 23
Top Search Strategies Ethical Conduct in Your SearchBefore you jump into your search, consider While you are keeping track of all the elements of your search, be surea few recommendations that will help you your ethical conduct remains a constant the whole way through. Shouldto search smart, manage your time, and you have questions about the ethical thing to do in a given situation,implement an effective plan. please contact the Career Center. We are here to help clarify andA search is a long-term process. Longer explain whatever may seem muddy. If you are in a pinch for time, always than many people anticipate. Plan to err on the side of caution. spend four or more months gearing up and The following are expectations for how to conduct yourself in a way that implementing a search for a full-time or is ethical so as to prevent situations that could result in a permanent highly competitive internship opportunity. scar on your professional reputation within an industry as well as Many students have compared this damage to the reputation of Duke students as a whole: commitment to taking an additional class.Set aside time on a regular basis. Unlike Be 100 percent truthful and accurate on your resume. a paper or project that can be postponed Embellishments and exaggerations are considered lying. Employers or worked on in surges, the best searches often look beyond candidates’ resumes to verify information that are spread over time. Put time on your candidates have provided. Don’t falsify, stretch, or bend information calendar each week—an hour or so for such as your GPA, SAT scores, involvement in activities, leadership roles downtime and a few hours during peak you have held, or results in competitions in which you have participated. periods. On-Campus Recruiting Policy: Falsifying your resume may result inPrioritize your interests. Spend time being reported to Duke’s Office of Student Conduct and subject to exploring to effectively target your sanctions, being banned from the Career Center’s on-campus recruiting search to your interests. Three fantastic program permanently, and forfeiting employment opportunities. applications to great-fit opportunities tend to reap more rewards than 100 scattershot Attend interviews to which you have committed. By applications. agreeing to an interview (whether through eRecruiting, email, or phone),Learn what an optimal candidate profile you are making a commitment. Should you need or desire to withdraw from an interview, timely notification is a must. includes. The better picture you have of On-Campus Recruiting Policy: You may remove yourself from an the person who would be selected for your interview schedule no less than two business days prior to your desired role, the more effective you will be interview. Students who withdraw any later or do not show up will be at presenting your own experiences. Utilize barred from the On-Campus Recruiting program. Reinstatement will the three exploration methods discussed require a letter of apology to the recruiter and a meeting with a Career earlier in this guide to get a well-rounded Center staff member. view.Practice presenting yourself in writing Communicate in a timely manner with employers. Don’t and in conversation. Your ability to ignore phone calls and emails from employers as you go through the articulate what you want and why comes process of accepting or declining interviews or job offers. If you need only through reflection and practice. Create more time when determining details such as start dates, relocation opportunities to rehearse before you find information, etc., it is best to be in touch, be straightforward about the yourself in an interview for that coveted reason for delay or uncertainty, and request more time. position.Get feedback. Have others read your resume Consider your verbal or written acceptance of an offer and guess what kind of position you are seeking. Practice introducing yourself and a binding contract. Reneging on an offer is when you accept an offer then turn it down. This behavior typically ends any chances of expressing your professional interests to employment with that organization in the future. family or friends. Ask your roommate to On-Campus Recruiting Policy: Students that renege on a job offer will role-play an interview with you. have their eRecruiting account inactivated and will have to meet withTrack your progress. Keep records so that Career Center staff to discuss the particular situation as well as take you know what applications and documents steps to repair the relationship with the employer. have gone where and when. Track whom you have talked to, when, how you have followed up, and whether more follow up End your search upon accepting a position. Once you have accepted a job or internship, whether verbally or in writing, you must is expected. This helps you when preparing terminate any other recruiting-related activity with other employers. for an interview or actively managing This includes contacting employers with whom you are scheduled to your conversations and professional interview and removing yourself from candidate pools. relationships. It also gives you a record of On-Campus Recruiting Policy: Continuing to pursue other your progress for days that feel stalled. opportunities once you have accepted a position is a violation of the Career Center’s on-campus recruiting policies. Your account in eRecruiting will be deactivated and you will be expected to meet with a Career Center staff member to discuss the situation and to work on 24 repairing the relationship with the organization.
Connect with Employers It is important to understand the value in using multiple strategies as you think about connecting with employ- ers. In the beginning of a search, much of the contact with employers begins with you, the job seeker, be- ing proactive in making the first contact. As you begin hearing back from employers, it is just as important to respond to them in a timely manner. Your communication with employers should embody professionalism and maturity, right down to your email address and the message on your voicemail. And keep in mind, even during the process of connecting with employers, your candidacy is being evaluated. Use the following as an introduction to some of the resources and programs available to you and find more detail on the Career Center website. eRecruiting Search and Apply for Internships and Jobs Duke eRecruiting is a job and internship database exclusive to Duke students. You can search this dynamic system for local opportunities during the school year, national and international summer internships, and post- graduation positions. iNet and The Internship Exchange Selective Access to More Internship Listings iNet and The Internship Exchange are dynamic databases containing listings for thousands of unique intern- ships throughout the United States and abroad. Developed in partnership with two groups of selective col- leges and universities, these databases enable the Career Center to expand experiential opportunities for Duke students. Career Fairs The Career Center hosts or sponsors a variety throughout the year. Whether you are actively seeking a position or casually exploring options, a career fair is an excellent opportunity for you to: Learn about specific organizations and the kinds of candidates they are seeking. Explore career fields that may be of interest to you. Gain confidence networking with employers, some of whom are Duke alums. (Use this bar like you have it and cut the screen shot of eRecruting) 2010-2011 Career Fairs: 2010-2011 Career Fairs: TechConnect September 14 TechConnect Fall .................................................... September 15 Career Fair September 14 Nonprofit & Government Career Fair October 15 Fall Career Fair................................................. September 15 N.C. Master’s and Ph.D. Fair November 19 Nonprofit Career & Summer Opportunities Fair January & Government Career Fair ............. October 15 N.C. Master’s and Ph.D. Fair ............................ November 19 Just-in-Time Career Fair April Career & Summer Opportunities Fair .............. January Just-in-Time Career Fair ................................... April Employer Information Sessions Some employers choose to hold information sessions to build awareness about their organizations and posi- tions (internships and jobs) they are seeking to fill. These sessions are meant to be educational for any student who is considering positions at these organizations. Information sessions are also useful for students who are simply exploring career paths and want to learn more about specific industries. Make a great impression on employers at their information sessions! Dress to impress! A business suit or business casual attire is appropriate. For certain organizations, demonstrat- ing an understanding of their brand and image is also26
Writing a Resume It is tempting to jump to the resume as the first step when kicking off your search process. However, the resume is a culminating effort, not a first step. It serves as a professional introduction that links your background and qualities to a specific opportunity. A successful resume will pique enough confidence and curiosity about you to secure an interview. The key questions your resume answers for its readers are: What are you capable of and what do you know? How well suited are you for the role that is being filled? A carefully constructed, well edited, and focused resume will create a compelling depiction of your patterns of qualities, skills, and accomplishments in response to these underlying questions. Five Tips for a Successful Resume 1) THINK CREATIVELY about experience. Your meaningful accomplishments will come from across a variety of endeavors in your life. Consider businesses you’ve run, projects that you complete, longstanding hobbies and pursuits, and contributions you have made, or other defining experiences in your life. All of these can be aspects of your resume. 2) Format your resume with FIRST THINGS FIRST. The top and left-hand side of your resume are the most valuable spaces when someone is visually scanning your document and forming a first impression. Use the first section heading strategically to ensure that your most compelling experiences are at the top of the page. Thoughtfully choose verbs that are descriptive of your actions and contributions to start each bullet. Order your bullets so the most compelling comes first. 3) Illustrate your PATTERNS of success. Showcase the skills you have developed through experience, what you have learned or know through classroom or practical exposure, positive qualities you will bring to the work, and a mastery of the language and culture of the realms to which you apply. 4) Articulate the ImPACT of your contributions. Include measures of your success wherever possible. Use individual resume bullets to highlight your outcomes in ways that will resonate with the readers’ point of view. For example, using measurable, quantified results for a bottom-line-driven industry. 5) Write mULTIPLE RESUmES if you have multiple interests. Your varied interests may require equally varied presentations of you at your best. Change the categories, order, and descriptions of different experiences to ensure that unique readers of your resume recognize right away that you excel in areas that are meaningful to them. The Curriculum Vitae: What do I need to know? Internationally, the terms curriculum vitae, CV, and resume may be used interchangeably. However, in the context of academic or research-based work, a CV refers to a document with very specific content detailing the research, teaching, and administrative expertise required of post-secondary faculty job applicants or of applicants for research positions outside of academia. The best resources for designing a CV are the Career Center graduate student counselors, the samples on the Career Center website, or those found in The Academic Job Search Handbook by Julia Vick and Jennifer Furlong, available in the Career Center Resource Room collection and at Perkins Library. 2828
A Compelling Cover LetterThe cover letter is your opportunity to bring additional specificity and focus to your resumewith a specific reader in mind. You will write a unique and well-researched letter for everyopportunity to which you apply. This is your chance to present a compelling case, withevidence, that you have unique skills and perspectives that give you the ability to thrive in aspecific role.Before you put words to the page, paint a mental picture. Go with us on this; this step is critical. Get into the mindset of the person making the hiring decision. Who is the candidate that gets the interview? What are the most important qualities needed to be incrediblysuccessful in this role? Use these images to identify the most important messages that youneed to convey about yourself in this document.The secret about cover letters is that they are essays and we know you have written an essayor two while at Duke! What are the components? Present a clear thesis, provide evidence tosupport your claims, and wrap things up with a succinct and compelling conclusion. This isalso exactly how you write a cover letter.Not sure a cover letter is necessary? Think of the cover letter as part of the resume. Ifsomeone asks for a resume, send a resume plus a cover letter, unless there is an explicitrequest otherwise. This is standard practice.Five Tips for a Successful Cover Letter 1) make a STRONG FIRST ImPRESSION in the first sentence and the first paragraph. A persuasive first sentence tells the reader that you are serious and keeps them reading. Interesting and compelling information about your candidacy should be introduced in your first paragraph. The final paragraph is too late. 2) GO BEYOND general statements that could be true for the majority of candidates. Common qualities or characteristics will not help you to uniquely stand out. Trust the resume to cover the basics and use the cover letter to highlight bigger patterns of success or share an anecdote about your achievements. 3) Tell the reader about YOU. Communicate your interest and motivation to apply by connecting your background and interests to your knowledge of the organization. Avoid reporting facts. The reader already know their organization but want to know about you and why you are applying. 4) Write a SPECIFIC THESIS sentence. Put it at the end of your first paragraph. It will probably read something like this: I am confident that my (ability to, background in, experience with, etc.) and (knowledge of, skills in, etc.) give me the ability to succeed with your organization. 5) USE EVIDENCE to build credibility around every claim in your letter. The reader wants to believe you and needs plausible and detailed illustrations of your past success to do so. If you have included more than a couple of claims (literally, two would be good!) about your ability to thrive in the job, you are sacrificing depth for breath and duplicating the work that the resume should do. Move extra information from the cover letter to the resume to improve it and then trust the resume. 29 29
Anatomy of a Cover Letter Resumes and cover letters are very personal documents. The examples here are meant to illustrate possibilities—some of which may not pertain to you. Use your judgment to best suit your experiences and goals. Consider using your resume heading as an alternate. Your Mailing Address Do your research to find an appropriate name. In a situation Today’s Date where you haven’t been able to find this, a replacement like Full Name of Recipient “hiring committee” can be used. Title “ Do not use To Whom it May Company Concern” or “Dear Sirs!” Mailing Address Discuss what appeals to you Dear Mr./Ms. Last Name: about the work or program by going beyond the website to clients, projects, news, etc. Write a first paragraph to introduce two main points: • I am a serious candidate and care about this opportunity BRIEFLY mention any action • I have the knowledge and skills to thrive in this role with your organization that you’ve taken to be a better applicant, e.g., people you have met or talked to. Write second and third paragraphs to provide illustrations from your experience that back up the claims in the first paragraph. Use a separate paragraph for each of Set up the next two paragraphs two claims. of your letter with a thesis Detail a point from your resume. sentence. Make connections across points listed on your resume Repeating information from your resume without added context or insight is not a Example: “I am seeking an opportunity good strategy. to work in this positive, collaborative environment, as Use the final paragraph to conclude the letter and discuss next steps. Reiterate any well as to take on the varied themes from the letter that you would like to emphasize, thank the reader for their responsibilities that this position time, include any contact information that is not already on the page, and present has to offer. My experience actions that you will take after sending this letter, if any. working with children, managing large-scale projects, and designing curriculum may make Sincerely, me a good fit.” Avoid: “I am seeking an opportunity like this and If you scan your Examples my experience and your requirements may be a good fit.” Signature signature and save the might include Typed Name .jpg file, you can insert when you will Maintain a separate document it into digital files! be in town for a with all of your topical enclosure: resume visit or a follow paragraphs. Copy from and up call. (any other application items) paste into it to keep a useful record of your cover letter paragraphs. What you say, for example, about how you have managed a number of significant projects and deadlines as a leader in DUU can be applied to any opportunity where projects and deadlines are critical to being effective at the work. 3030
Anatomy of a ResumeSomeone may have to mailyou documents or haveyour address for officialcorrespondence. Keep Address Best Phone Number your address simple. Only FULLNAME BIG&BOLD Best Email Address include multiple addresses if necessary. Duke University Durham, NC This can include major, Education Your Degree Graduation Month and Year minor, certificates, • What have been your meaningful educational accomplishments while at Duke? specializations, or other • Include highlights-‐ you don’t have to be comprehensive. degree components. • Consider GPA, honors, study abroad, thesis, projects, research, relevant courses, or other components You can use this section to Other Universities Location feature your study abroad Degree or Program Dates of Study experiences. • What were the main benefits to you inside and out of the classroom? High School Location A high school section is Degree, GPA, or other characteristics Dates of Study most used by first and • What were your primary accomplishments, educationally? second year undergrads or those who attended schoolswith a large or passionate Interesting Job Location network of alumni. Specific Experience Category #1 Role Dates • Bullets include an active and specific verb that describes this contribution, learning, skills or outcome, and details and data Think creatively about how that make it tangible. you design your categories. • Prioritize, with the most important and relevant bullets first. This is an opportunity to • Use concise and clear language and industry-‐specific language only if applying to that industry. bring attention to patterns in your interests or skills. Look Student Organization Location at example resumes more Current Role Dates for ideas, but two general • Write about being elected (what for!) or ways you contribute more over time. Earlier Role Dates categories could be common • Include a variety of experiences and contributions; no need to replicate information in similar roles. However, repeating type of organization, e.g., something and presenting it in a new way can serve as an enhancement. Media Experience or function, e.g. Research Experience. Internship Location Specific Experience Category #2 Role Dates e.g. researcher, founder, • The number of bullets under each experience does not need to be consistent. However, the space that something takes on volunteer, consultant the resume does give a sense of its level of importance. Independent Project Location Specific Experience Category #3 Role Dates • Describe your initiative, managing a huge endeavor, overcoming obstacles, getting support from others, and other challenges you overcame when managing something new! Use a skills section to bring added attention to RELEVANT skills. Be sure Language: these skills are evident Skills Computer: throughout your resume Lab: as well. Highlight unique aspects of your background, personality, or attention to professional topics. Interests No need to add a line about references being available. This has been seen on resumes, historically, but is no longer expected. Save that space for interesting content. 31
Interviewing From Interview to Offer While a sharp resume and persuasive cover let- ter will get you an interview, you’ll need excellent interviewing skills to close the deal and land your desired position. All too often, job and internship seekers invest large amounts of time to write their application documents but give short shrift to inter- view preparation. An interview can be conversational (that is what you hope for!) but it is NOT just a conversation. Even the most confident and personable people person will benefit dramatically from thoughtful interview preparation. You have come this far; be sure you keep up the momentum and build upon your pre- liminary success. Read over this advice and find more detail on the Career Center website. Research industry, employer, and role. Follow the relevant news, learn the organization’s website backwards and forwards and scope out your interviewers on LinkedIn and Google. Reach out to employees—maybe even Duke alums—in the company. Rehearse your introduction. What will you say to create a positive and compelling first impression when you are asked the question, “Tell me about yourself”? No matter how it is phrased, expect that you will open the interview with a platform to talk about your interest in the opportunity and how it fits with your strengths and experiences. Connect your experiences. Practice telling short stories that give evidence to your success. Mentally connect these stories to the qualities they best represent. Prepare your own questions. You will be given the oppor- tunity to ask questions during your interviews. This is a valuable part of the interview, not just a polite gesture. Consider questions about the role, company specifics (but never salary or benefits— not yet), the personal experiences of people that you meet, or questions that relate to current events or news. Send thank-you notes. Send them the very next day to each person or group that you meet. Refer to something interesting or unique from the conversation to create an opportunity for the reader to think of you again. Paper makes a stronger impression, but email is the way to go if a hiring decision will be made before snail mail can reach its destination.32
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Behavioral Interviews The vast majority of interviews are behavioral in nature. Frequently, behavioral questions will include some form of, “Tell me about a time when…” and will relate to tasks, scenarios, and qualities that will be significant to the position you are now seeking. Through this method, the interviewer hopes to gauge your potential for success. The premise of behavioral-based interviews is that your past actions are the best predictor of your future performance. The appropriate response is to share a concise, but detailed story about a relevant experience. Behavioral Interview Success • Provide well thought-out examples with successful endings. Even a story about your biggest failure can conclude with what you learned from the experience! • Refer to specific examples rather than broad characterizations. • Be sure that your story has a beginning, middle, and end. See the STAR method for responding on the next page. • Prepare your stories in advance by anticipating the expected strengths needed for the role and matching them with your own accomplishments. • Address and contextualize your own contributions when discussing a group project. • Pull examples from across your range of experiences. Using just one or a few can cre- ate a sense that others have not been valuable. • Speak positively about yourself, colleagues, supervisors, and peers.34 • Use the most recent examples when possible.
The STAR MethodSTAR is formula for creating your best response tobehavioral-based questions. Interviewers expect youto present your thoughts and experience in this manner. A fewDon’t worry, however. You’ll see that the STAR method is importantno different than the basics of any good story composition. tips: • A strong STARQuestion: Tell me about a time when you had to response willprovide difficult feedback to a team member?S last one to two “last semester I took a psychology course minutes. that required a group project to examine • Be brief in your motivation. the professor assigned each set-up. Give Situation student to a 4-person group. My group decided to look at what motivates college just enough Set the scenario for students to participate in community background your example. service activities.” or contextualT information for “As a group, we developed a plan to your story to make distribute the work between us. however, after the first few weeks, it became sense. Task apparent that one of our team members • The result is was not completing her part of the critical. Everything Describe the specific project and she missed one of our group challenge or task meetings. the rest of the team decided in your example that relates to the question. that we needed to reengage her.” builds towards thisA component. “I took the initiative to set up a meeting with her where we discussed her interest • Use the structure Action in the project as well as the other of the acronym Talk about the ac- academic responsibilities. After talking for direction if you with her, it was clear that if we changed tions that you took forget what you her contributions to tasks that better fit to accomplish the were saying. If all her skills and interests, she would most task. likely contribute at a higher level.” else fails, skip toR the R, result. “It turned out that the team could redistribute tasks without compromising Result so every member got to work on the pieces of the project that were of Present the results most interest to them. In the end, we that followed be- completed the project and received cause of the chosen positive feedback from our professor.” action. 35 35
Case Interviews Case interviews are a specialized type of interview common in the consulting industry. In a case interview, the interviewer presents a dilemma, and the candidate must analyze and discuss the problem and propose a solution. Employers use case interviews as a way to evaluate a candidate’s qualitative, problem-solving, and analytical skills and often their business acumen. In addition they will evaluate the communication skills, listening skills, enthusiasm and non-verbal cues, e.g., eye contact, of the candidate. The way in which a candidate arrives at a solution to the question, which demonstrates to an employer how the candidate thinks through a dilemma, is as important as the actual solution the candidate provides, if not more. Case Question Types Typical case questions fall into four categories: Calculations/Computational Scenario – Devise a solution given a problem statement, data elements, and possibly a formula Business Operation Scenario – Devise a solution given a problem related to operational effectiveness. Example: How can you increase efficiency of Starbuck’s ordering process by decreasing wait time during peak hours? Business Strategy Scenario – Devise a solution given a problem related to strategy and new markets. Example: How will airlines remain competitive with rising fuel costs and increased regulations? Brainteaser – Two primary types including the estimation case, How many golf courses exist in Wisconsin? and the random fact analysis, Why are manhole covers round? Resources for students preparing for a case interview are the following: • Case In Point: Complete Case Interview Preparation by Marc Casentino • Mock interviews through the Career Center • Practice cases and interactive online cases on employers’ websites 3636
Next Steps and Selected Resources:Search Skills and Strategy Schedule a career counseling appointments to be sure you are presenting yourself effectively in writing and speech as well as finding opportunities that match your interests. Utilize drop-in advising at Smith Warehouse, Monday through Thursday 2pm–5pm and Fridays 2pm–4pm, to get advice the same day you need it, no appointment necessary! Create an account and routinely check each of these Duke databases to become aware of internships, jobs, and employers. eRecruiting (http://www.studentaffairs.duke.edu/career/resources/erecruiting) iNet (http://www.studentaffairs.duke.edu/career/resources/inet) Internship Exchange (http://www.studentaffairs.duke.edu/career/resources/internship- exchange) Use these lists and databases to increase your awareness of opportunities at Duke and beyond. Leadership Development Programs (http://www.studentaffairs.duke.edu/career/resources/ leadership-development-programs) Short-Term Opportunities (http://www.studentaffairs.duke.edu/career/resources/short-term) e-leads (http://www.studentaffairs.duke.edu/career/resources/e-leads)Advice for Graduate Students:Search Skills and Strategy Graduate students who concentrate on building the life they want, not on finding the perfect job, tend to have special qualities that enable them to endure the inevitable frustrations of the post-graduation job search and to persuade employers that they can exceed expectations. These graduate students are: • Resourceful, persistent, and resilient. These skills, developed in the trial-and-error process of research, are essential to succeed in the job search, in interviews, and in the offer-negotiation process. • Good communicators. They can write organized, focused, concise, and persuasive CV’s, resumes, and cover letters. They can engage their interviewers as colleagues, not as interrogators. • Analytical. They are able to prioritize job search tasks, answer complex interview questions readily, and estimate the risks and benefits of their job offers. • Independent and self-motivated. Such abilities enable them to weigh and act on good career advice from multiple sources: family members, peers, faculty and staff, career counselors, recruiting professionals, alumni, colleagues, and professional advisors. Yet they insist on finding ways to do what excites them most. 37
Where to go from hereSelf-Inquiry: pgs. Exploration: pgs.Uncover What Drives You 8-11 Discover Opportunities 12-14 • Start a notebook or file where you keep all of • Create accounts on eRecruiting, iNet, and The your thoughts in one place. Use it as you think of Internship Exchange. things. • Attempt the values, interests, skills, personality, • Sign up for Career News and other newsletters and experience exercises. fifteen minutes apiece is that match your interests. a great start. • Attend career center events. The Fannie • Draw a timeline of your life. Mark all of the Mitchell Career event happens annually and memorable experiences. look for patterns in the brings over 70 alums back to campus to talk things that have been compelling and exciting for about their careers. you. • Map out the influences on your decision to • Create a list of people you would ask to be come to Duke. Know that your decision-making on a personal Board of Advisors. Ask someone on your list to have a conversation and style impacts how you should plan to explore provide advice based on his or her life careers. experiences. • Use a career counseling appointment • Use a career counseling to devise a research game plan. appointment to begin exposing Work with a counselor to identify patterns in your values, skills, the best resources to use first. interests, and personality.Search Skills & ExperienceStrategy: Acquisition:Learn to Test Your StrengthsCommunicate pgs.Persuasively 20-37 and Interests pgs. in the World 16-18 • Draft and redraft resumes, cover letters, and other application materials. • Develop a list of things you want to learn Accelerate your learning curve and comfort level about or to be able to do. with this new type of presentation by getting feedback from multiple people. • Use the DukeGroups directory to identify student • Tell everyone you know that you are searching, organizations that match your interests. try out and what for. Be as specific as you are certain. something that builds a skill that you would like to • Create a LinkedIn.com account, learn the features, develop. and join the Duke University Alumni network group. your network has just expanded to over • Research opportunities to pursue your interests in 10,000 professionals. Durham and the broader community. • Practice your “elevator speech”, a thirty-second • Assess whether your time is being filled by the introduction that concisely shares your background, most meaningful commitments. Use the Buffet of interests, and goals. Use the nine Domains to expand your thinking. Experience as food for thought. • Use career counseling appointments throughout • Use a career counseling appointment to identify to be sure you are improving continuously steps toward experiences that strategically align with throughout your search. your curiosities.
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+Better. Together.You know a winning combination when you see one. That’s whyjoining our team is a smart move. With outstanding benefits, aninnovative culture and growth opportunities, Capital One® is the perfectplace to start your career.Available Career Opportunities:• Analyst Development Program - Business AnalystFor more information, contact: Anna Reed, Campus Recruiter, firstname.lastname@example.org/careerswww.facebook.com/capitalonecampuscareersWe are an equal opportunity employer committed to diversity in the workplace.We promote a drug-free work environment. If you require an accommodationto apply for a U.S. employment opportunity, please contact Recruitingat 1-800-304-9102.