Tla.lexicon
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Tla.lexicon Tla.lexicon Presentation Transcript

  • Lexicon
  • TLA Research at the Lexicallevel• the most investigated linguistic area• non-native influence is especially visible at the level of vocabularyWHY?• Evidence of non-native information is mostly overt and easily recognizable (DeAngelis, 2007)
  • Astrid Stedje (1977)• pioneer studies on L3 Acquisition: lexical transfer into L3 German.• one of first studies to point out that transfer from one foreign language to another is also possible• The 55 participants of L1 Finnish/L2 Swedish, transferred function words from their L2 more often than they did from their L1
  • Ringbom (1987)• one of the most comprehensive studies on non-native linguistic influence to this date• collected 11,000 essays written in L3 English by Finnish students of Finnish L1 and Swedish L1
  • Ringbom (1987): Findings• several instances of non-native linguistic influence: referred to as borrowing and lexical transferCONCLUSIONS:• L3 learners often transfer ‘form’ from the L2 and rarely or never do they transfer ‘meaning’
  • Why form and not meaning?Possible explanation Ellis (1994, 1997) :• learning the semantic interpretation of a word is more intellectually demanding since it necessarily involves conscious and explicit learning, whereas the acquisition of form is essentially implicit and unconscious learning.
  • L3 Processing of Vocabulary• Magiste (1979, 1986): one of the first studies to look at multilingual processing• Testing: a number of speeded tasks such as word, number and picture naming as well as some decoding tasks.
  • Magiste (1986)Results: • trilinguals were slower at decoding for word naming as well as some of the decoding tasks. • bilinguals and monolinguals were slower on the naming tasks.
  • More Processing• Van Gelderen et al. (2003)Participants:• Dutch monolingual and bilingual teenagers (of Turkish, Maroccan or Surinam background) learning English.Testing:• word recognition tasks
  • Van Gelderen et al. Results• Although by a very small difference, the results showed that bilinguals were slower in their L2 Dutch and L3 English than monolinguals were.
  • Crosslinguistic InfluenceThree main types of CLI at the lexical level:1. pure code switching1. False Friends2. Word Construction
  • Pure Codeswitching• the borrowing and inclusion of entire words from one language into another)
  • Example: Bardel and Falk(2007)• interaction between the speaker’s German L1, English L2 and Swedish L3EXAMPLE:Isn’t it tycka heisst doch denken?Isn’t it think means MODAL PARTICLE think?(“tycka”: Swedish L3, “heisst doch denken”:German L1)
  • False Friends• words from the background language(s) that are phonologically and/or orthographically identical to the target language.
  • Example: Bardel (2011)• native speakers of Swedish who often use the English word “eventually” in the sense of maybe/possibly• influence could come from L1 Swedish, since the Swedish word “eventuellt” does have the meaning of maybe/possibly
  • Example: Bardel (2011)HOWEVER,• transfer could also be another one of the languages known by the speaker such as Italian and French where “eventuellt” is a true friend for the Italian “eventualmente” and the French “eventuellement”.
  • Word Construction• the process by which words from either background language(s) are adapted and included into the target language at the morphological as well as phonological level.
  • Example: Lindqvist (2006)• from L3 French, Swedish L1 and English L2.• Speakers commonly use *grades in the target language that comes from the English grades.• The correct target language form should be: notes.
  • Example 2: Bardel andLindqvist (2007)• L3 Italian where French is the source language for transfer• *esciarpa, from the French ‘écharpe’ and English ‘scarf’• the correct Italian word is ‘sciarpa’