Mastering Financial Management
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Mastering Financial Management

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Mastering Financial Management Mastering Financial Management Presentation Transcript

  • Mastering Financial Management Ratna Gardina (201350612) Tamia Shahab (201350619) Suliana (201350629)
  • WHAT IS FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT Financial management is all the activities concerned with obtaining money and using it effectivelly. THE NEED FOR FINANCING Money is needed both to start a business and to keep it going.
  • Financing SHORT-TERM FINANCING Short-term financing is money that will be used for one year or less. There are many short-term financing needs, but two deserve special attention. First, certain business practices may effect a firm's cash flow and create a need for short-term financing. Cash flow is the movement of money into and out of an organization. A second major need for short-term financing is inventory. LONG-TERM FINANCING Long-term financing is money that will be used for longer than one year.
  • FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT DURING THE ECONOMIC CRISIS Proper financial management during both good and bad times must ensure the following: -Financing priorities are establish in line with organizational goals and objectives -Spending is planned and controlled -Sufficient financing is available when it is needed, both now and in the future -A firm's credit customers pay their bills on time, and the number of past due or delinquent accounts is reduced -Bills are paid promptly to protect the firm's credit rating and its ability to borrow money -The funds required for paying the firm's taxes are available when needed to meet tax deadlines -Excess cash is invested in certificates of deposit, governmemt securities, or conservative, marketable securities
  • THE NEED FOR FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT FINANCIAL REFORM AFTER THE ECONOMIC CRISIS At the time of publication of this text, it has been more than a year since the financial crisis peaked during 2009. As the economy began to improve, it became apparent that something needed to be done stabilize the financial system and prevent future economic meltdowns. THE RISK-RETURN RATIO The risk-return ratio is a ratio based on the principle that a high-risk decision should generate higher financial returns for a business and more conservative decisions often generate lower returns. CAREERS In FINANCE At executive level, most large business firms have a chief financial officer for financial management. CFO is a high-level corporate executive who manages a firm's finances and reports directly to the company's chief executive officer or president.
  • PLANNING-THE BASIS OF SOUND FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT Financial plan is a plan for obtaining and using the money needed to implement an organization's goals. DEVELOPING THE FINANCIAL PLAN Begins with establishing a set of valid goals. Financial managers must then determine how much money is needed to accomplish each goal. Finally, financial managers must identify available sources of financing and decide which to use.
  • DEVELOPING THE FINANCIAL PLAN ESTABLISHING ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS A goal is an end result that an organization expects to achieve over a one to ten year period. if goals are not specific and measurable, they cannot be translated into dollar costs, and financial planning cannot proceed, goals also must be realistic. BUDGETING FOR FINANCIAL NEEDS Budget is a financial statement that projects income, expenditures, or both over a specified future period. Cash budget is a financial statement that estimates cash receipts and cash expenditures over a specified period. Zero-base budgeting is a budgeting approach in which every expense in every budget must be justified. Capital budget is a financial statement that estimates a firm's expenditures for major assets and its long-term financing needs. IDENTIFYING SOURCES OF FUNDS The four primary sources of funds are sales revenue, equity capital, debt capital, and proceeds from the sale of assets. Monitoring and Evaluating Financial Performance
  • SOURCES OF SHORT-TERM DEBT FINANCING 1. Sources of unsecured short-term financing unsecured financing is financing that is not backed by collateral. a. Trade Credit is a type of short-term financing extended by seller who does not require immediate payment after delivery of merchandise b. Promissory Notes Issued to Suppliers. A promissory note is a written pledge by a borrower to pay a certain sum of money to a creditor at specified future date c. Unsecured Bank Loans. Banks and other financial institutions offer unsecured short-term loans to business at interest rates that vary with each borrower’s credit rating. The prime interest rate is the lowest rate charged by a bank for a short-term loan d. Commercial paper. Commercial papre is a short-term promissory note issued by a large corporation. Comercial paper is secured only by the reputation of the issuing firm, no collateral is involved
  • Sources of secured short-term financing a. Loans secured by inventory b. Loans secured by receivables c. Factoring accounts receivable d. Cost comparisons
  • Sources of equity financing Selling stock 2. Intial public offering and the primary market An initial public offering (IPO) occurs when a corporation sells common stock to the general public for the first time. Primary market is a market in which an investor purchases financial securities (via an investment bank) directly from the issuer of those securities. Investment banking firm is an organization that assists corporations in raising funds, ussualy by helping to sell new issues of stocks, bonds, or other financial securities. 1.
  • Sources of equity financing 3. The secondary market The secondary market is a market for existing financial securities that are traded between investors. A securities exchange is a marketplace where member brokers meet to buy and sell securities. The over-thecounter (OTC) market is a network of dealers who buy and sell the stocks of corporations that are not listed on a securities exchange.
  • Sources of equity financing 4. Common stock Common stocks is stock whose owners may vote on corporate matters but whose claims on profits and assets are subordinate to the claims of others. Every corporation must hold an annual meeting, at which the holders of common stock may vote for the board of directors and approve or disapprove major corporate actions. Among such actions are: - Amandements to the corporate charter or corporate by-laws - Sale of certain asset - Mergers and acwuisitions - New issues of preffered stock or bonds - Changes in the amount of common stock issued
  • Sources of equity financing 5. Preferred stock Preferred stock is a stock whose owners usually do not have voting rights but whose claims on dividends and assets are paid before those of common-stock owners. The par alue is an assigned (and often arbitary) dollar value printed on a stock certificate
  • Sources of equity financing 6. Retained earnings Retained earnings is the portion of a corporation’s profits not distributed to stockholders 7. Venture capital and private placements Private Placement occurs when stock and other corporate securities are sold directly to insurance companies, pension funds, or large institutional investors.
  • Sources of Long-Term Debt Financing Long-Term Loans  Term-Loan Agreement. Term-Long Agreement is a promissory note that requires a borrower to repay a loan in monthly, quarterly, semiannual, or annual installments.  The Basic of Getting a Loan 1.
  • Sources of Long-Term Debt Financing 2. CORPORATE BONDS Corporate Bonds a corporation’s written pledge that it will repay a specified amount of money with interest.
  • Type of bonds     Registered bond is a bond registered in the owner’s name by the issuing company. Debenture bond is a bond backed only by the reputation of the issuing corporation. Mortgage bond is a corporate bond secued by various assets of the issuing firm. Convertible bond is a bond that can be exchanged, at the owner’s option, for a specified number of shares of the corporation’s common stock.
  • Repayment Provsions for Corporate Bonds     Bond indenture is a legal document that details all the conditions relating to a bond issue. Serial bonds is bonds of a single issue that mature on different dates. Sinking fund is a sum of money to which deposits are made each year for the purpose of redeeming a bond issue. Trustee is an individual or an independent firm that acts as a bond owner’s representative.
  • QUESTIONS!! What is Financial Management? Financial management is all the activities concerned with obtaining money and using it effectivelly. 1.
  • QUESTIONS!! 2. Mention the 3 types of bonds! A registered bond, debenture bond, convertible bond
  • QUESTIONS!! 3. What is Short-Term and Long-Term Financing? SHORT-TERM FINANCING Short-term financing is money that will be used for one year or less. LONG-TERM FINANCING Long-term financing is money that will be used for longer than one year.
  • THANKYOU 