RS PE PA S EW NAS Media StudiesRevision Resource2010 NETHERHALL SCHOOL CAMBRIDGE
The SyllabusSection B: Institutions and AudiencesCandidates should be prepared to understand and discussthe processes of production,distribution, marketing and exchange as they relate to con-temporary media institutions, as well as the nature of audi-ence consumption and the relationships between audi-ences and institutions. In addition, candidates should befamiliar with: • the issues raised by media ownership in contemporary media practice; • the importance of cross media convergence and syn- ergy in production, distribution and marketing; • the technologies that have been introduced in recent years at the levels of production, distribution, market- ing and exchange; • the significance of proliferation in hardware and con- Key elements tent for institutions and audiences; • the importance of technological convergence for insti- tutions and audiences; • the issues raised in the targeting of national and local audiences (specifically, British) by international or global institutions; • the ways in which the candidates’ own experiences of media consumption illustrate wider patterns and trends of audience behaviour.This unit should be approached through contemporary ex-amples in the form of case studies based upon one of thespecified media areas. Examples may include the follow-ing:NewspapersA study of the contemporary newspaper market in the UKand the ways in which technology is helping to makenewspapers more efficient and competitive despite dwin-dling audiences. This should be accompanied by study of aspecific online version of a national/local newspaper andthe issues that are raised for the production, distributionand consumption of news. Remember • Definitions • Technical terms • Your personal experience • New technology
Key terms Convergence Examples of convergence Hardware and software coming together Newspapers like across media, and companies coming to- The Guardian and gether across similar boundaries. to make the BBC. The the distinction between different types of Guardian published media and different media industries in- papers (ink-on- creasingly difficult dead-tree model) and was the first to go online. The BBC was a broad- caster with heavy interest in news and now has a news website and email news service very similar to Guardian and others. Other Key DefinitionsABC = Audit Bureau of Circulation - gathers circulation figures of magazines and newspapers,primarily for advertisers but also used by students and researchers.Audience - collective group of people reading or receiving andy media text.Circulation - the number of copies sold or distributed of a newspaper or magazine.Reach - the readership of a newspaper or magazine - must be at least as many as the circulation,and important number for advertisersMedia Studies 2.0/Web 2.0 - the second phase of media/web where the focus has shifted fromthe audience receiving information and services to people creating and sharing material.
The Newspaper IndustryRepresents 75-80% Increasing use of internet andof income (not profit) satellite technology to send news Direct from laptop to page - no more phone in Eco issues Time consuming = 12 Road to regional warehouse hour press to table Van to newsagent Very expensive to build Small boy on bike to customer and run Audience needs •Accurate trustworthy information •In a form they are happy with - right amount of detail •Up to the minute not up to date - constant update •Able to be customised to their needs •Cheap - remember the web is normally free •Increasing numbers od Digital Citizens - permanently connected and online •Multimedia - sound and video •Blogging/interaction to make the audience feel included •Age considerations
= Audit Bureau of Circulation Newspaper dataWorst Best 9.71m 10.22m Key statistics March 2010- March 2011 relative decline on average is -4.9% (vs -4.4% 09/10) Total circulation of all daily papers in UK March 2011 9.71 million (Feb 2010 = 10.22 million) a drop of around 500,000 copies per day The Daily Star - down 15.45% was the worst. The Independent at -1.20% the best See next page for 2001 data - compare the fall over 10 yewars
Newspaper ownershipThis extract is already out of date, with Lebedev taking over the Independentand introducing the i at 20p as a stripped down newspaper.Look at the other media related businesses they are involved in e.g. HowNews International/Murdoch owns a part of Pearson who own publishing, TVand radio, and who in tern own part of BSkyB. Northcliffe own Mail and 18% ofITN, and part of Reuters (one of the biggest News Agencies.
Newspaper models Traditional - Ink-on-dead-treesOnline edition of traditional model - looks very like paper copy ADVANTAGE - QUICK NAVIGATION DISADVANTAGE - MUST BE CONNECTED
•Register online and receive • an up to the minute email which links to the website which itself is continuously updated. •the content can be cus- tomised according to the individuals wishes •You can determine at what time the email is sent •The BBC have a very simi- lar service •Note advertsTimes have really moved on form this model to the iPad downloadable version
Online but downloadable Times which is subscription only and produces a “pdf like” file with embedded video and audio. The big subject for discussion is if other newspa- pers are giving free access to their websites (applies to BBC also), would anyone pay around 50p per day (around half the paper cover price) to obtain it on line to use off line. However this is the only digital newspaper model which can be downloaded and used off line. Excerpt from Times article March 2010Note that there has been much discussion about pricing and charging. It is done for specialist infor-mation services but not for a mass consumption product like The Times. The owners are trying tosuggest that there will be added features if you subscribe.
The DailyLaunched 2010 by News InternationalUS Daily newspaperiPad version only14c per day Subscription is available from iTunes and has it’s own app. A real example of con- vergence - a news organisa- tion not only producing a product for the digital age, but using the same distribu- tion method as music, games and TV/films
The Digital Alternatives Up-to-the-minute, not just up-to-date ABCe - Audit Bureau of eCirculation measures web trafficIn February 2010, ABCe was launched, and for the first time it is possible tomeasure number of visitors to a news site.Mail Online was the most popular in January, with 2.16 million browsers per day(compared with 2.1 million circulation of paper copies). Most importantly this is a13.5% month on month increase, and a 57% year on year increase.The Guardian, the biggest newspaper website had 1.9 million browsers per day(far in excess of it’s 284,000 daily circulation). Like the Guardian, the telegraphposted 1.7 million visitors to it’s site, vs circulation of 685.000/day. The Sun on-line came in 4th at 1.3 million is the only major where paper circulation, at 2.9million, greatly exceeds the web visitors.The major increase in web activity was driven by many late breaking stories, in-cluding iPad launch, the John Terry affair, Jonathan Ross’ departure from theBBC and Tony Blair at the Chilcott enquiry. This reinforces the point that theaudience want up-to-the-minute news, not up-to-date news. BBC On lineThe BBC has one of the biggest and wide ranging websites, and has its ownnews gathering organisation, including BBC News24, Radio and network news.It therefore generates audio, video and written news material, which it distributesvia broadcasting, it’s main core business, and increasingly vis the net. This is agreat example of convergence. When EYJAFLALLAJOKULL the Icelandic vol-cano blew in April, it generated 5.5 million online viewers in one day - audienceswanting specific authoritative up-to-the-moment information. The appeal of theBBC is the ability to embed audio and video footage and link to other backgroundinformation. The BBC have also encouraged feedback from visitors. Web 2.0 Web 2.0 refers the the second generation of the web when it has become 2- way. The web is no longer a method of receiving information, as in a website. Increasingly the web is interactive, with the audience using the web to commu- nicate, and to contribute. This includes the way that we are permanently con- nected via our smart phones, the social networking sites like Facebook, and the ease with which we can blog etc.. As the audiences get to expect interactiv- ity, the traditional newspaper becomes more outdated and potentially doomed.
The New Business ModelThis article discusses how Murdoch views Daily Mail the most visited websitethe future, whereby consumers pay to ac- This article gives The Mail Online the marketcess digital news. He has for a long time leadership of all with 39 million viewers persuggested that the world will adopt the month vs around 60 million/month buying thetablet/iPad model as the preferred viewing ink on dead tree version, and the owners, As-platform sociated Newspapers say they have no plans to charge for it.
Advertising =75-80% of newspaper revenue NOT profit)Monthly readershipWeekly readershipDaily readership Different newspapers attract different age groups and social classes
Up to the recession, advertising spend in newspapers was fairly constant.Cost of big advertising campaign Opportunities to see
News Agencies News Agencies collect news and informa- tion and supply them to newspapers. Reuters is the best known and probably the biggest. It has an excellent reputation, and was the first agency to report the recent plane crash when the president of Poland was killed.
Famous Quotes Lord Leverhulme, founder of Unilever, consumer conglomerate “I know half the money I spend on advertising is wasted, The trouble is I don’t know which half” Chief Exec of Manchester Media - previously Manchester Evening News “I know that MM will be here and in the information business in 10 years time. I just don’t know what it will look like as a business” Rupert Murdoch Chairman of News International, owner of among others, The Sun, The News Of the World, The Times, The Wall Street Journal. “The world is changing and newspapers have to adapt” Sir Martin Sorrell, Chief Executive of WPP, the largest media communica- tions (advertising and PR) company in the world. “I don’t think newspapers will die”Roy Greenslade, writer, Irish Times“These professional news “hubs” will work inconcert with, for want of a better term, amateurjournalists. Call it participation or collaborationor, to borrow a term coined by Alan Rusbridger,the editor of the Guardian , mutualisation. It ishow news gathering is already developing and,in 10 years that will have become the norm.”
The Exam Examination lasts 2 hours INCLUDING 30 minutes viewing time. Therefore each written question has a time allocation of 45 min- utes, and are worth 50 marks eachRemember the question will be very general as it must be able to be answered withreference to any of the above case studies.It will involve the relationship between Audiences and Institutions. Do not betempted to answer the question from another topic. You may however, for exam-ple, refer to the radio as a news source in competition with the newspapers.
The Mark SchemeNote the details belowExplanation/Analysis = 20 marksUse of Examples = 20 marksUse of Terminology = 10 marksYou must use detailed examples from Newspapers Note - although no actual marks allo- cated, the examiner is looking for a well written answer with good English to charaterise the different levels
Planning your answer Develop your own planning techniques An obvious options are to use a mind map. Place the key words from the question in the middle and label the key elements of the answer (from the mark scheme) at main branches. If you prefer to work in a linear fashion, use bullet points, perhaps under different headings. The Opening ParagraphStudents often find the opening paragraph the most difficult. Adviceincludes reword the question and include a definition. In this questionit may be possible to pre-plan an opening paragraph. The followingmight be used for the above question.The relationship between audiences who consume media output andthe institutions who create the output has never been as complex as itis today. As new technologies enable the audiences to access mediaoutput in ever more ways. Technological convergence - the term usedto describe how technologies are becoming ever closer and are com-bining in new and ever more complex ways, is a driving force behindthe changes. I will explore this issue with reference to the newspaperindustry.