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The Cambridge Experience / Madrid Secondary - Developing Productive Skills - Cambridge English: First for Schools

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Developing Productive Skills for Cambridge English: First for Schools …

Developing Productive Skills for Cambridge English: First for Schools

Writing
Typical pitfalls
Suggestions on how to correct these pitfalls
Suggested activities

Speaking
Typical pitfalls
Suggestions on how to correct these pitfalls
Suggested activities

Evaluating, marking and correcting

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  • 1. © UCLES 2013 Developing productive skills for Cambridge English: First for Schools
  • 2. © UCLES 2013 Overview 1. Writing: • Typical pitfalls • Suggestions on how to correct these pitfalls • Suggested activities 2. Speaking: • Typical pitfalls • Suggestions on how to correct these pitfalls • Suggested activities 3. Evaluating, marking and correcting
  • 3. © UCLES 2013 Criteria for Productive Activities 1. Fit for purpose: • Practice what is necessary • Don‟t go beyond the level • Positive washback 2. User-friendly: • Materials light • Explanation light • Transferable 3. Engaging, interesting and physical
  • 4. © UCLES 2013 Writing What are the typical problems that adolescents have when writing compositions for FCE? As teachers, how do you help them overcome these difficulties?
  • 5. © UCLES 2013 Typical FCE writing problems Not reading the rubric properly Using the input directly Not knowing the text type Not knowing how to start Not knowing what to say Not knowing how to finish Not knowing what matters and what doesn‟t
  • 6. © UCLES 2013 Writing Activity 1 WWW.RUBRIC.COM Who are you writing to? Why are you writing? What do you want to get and what are you writing? Your school is collecting information on how mobile phone apps can be used to improve your English. Write a __________ about an app you have recently downloaded for this reason. Include information about the app and its special features (if any), what you think the pros and cons of the app are, and whether you would recommend other people to use it. Write your __________ (120-180 words)review review
  • 7. © UCLES 2013 Writing Activity 2 Out with Input
  • 8. © UCLES 2013 I‟d love to come see you Front row tickets would be good as I‟m a little short- sighted as you know I absolutely adore Reg D. Hunter. Is there any chance we can get to see him? Apart from going to the castle, can we go shopping on the Royal Mile?
  • 9. © UCLES 2013 Writing Activity 3 Know your Enemy Part One: is a ____________________ (either formal or informal). In Part Two: there‟s a wider choice of text types, but the common ones are __________, ____________________, __________, ____________________ and __________. articles Transactional letter non-transactional letters reports discursive compositions short stories
  • 10. © UCLES 2013 Letters have __________ and __________ formulae (Dear Mrs. Smith…Yours sincerely for a formal letter and Dear John… Best wishes for an informal letter, are two examples) and you need to use them. Remember also that addresses are __________ required in the exam, so you can save time by not writing them. By the way, you won‟t lose marks if you DO write addresses but every second is precious so don‟t waste them unnecessarily. opening closing not
  • 11. © UCLES 2013 Reports should have a __________ and _______________ and good candidates who remember to use these tend to score well. However, remember that you need to use appropriate headings which fit the question! It‟s also important when writing a story that you remember to read the question carefully; for example, does it ask you to __________ or __________ with the sentence you‟re given? title sub-headings begin end
  • 12. © UCLES 2013 Writing Activity 4 Running dictation
  • 13. © UCLES 2013 Writing Activity 5 Disappearing Text (Marienbad Game)
  • 14. © UCLES 2013 Well, first of all I guess the places are quite similar. They both show places that you could call rural. You certainly couldn‟t describe either of them as cities. Both places seem fairly green, and I would imagine that they‟re pretty peaceful and have clear air. They both have water as well, although the top one appears to be the sea and the other a small river. I suppose the most obvious difference is climate. The first looks much colder! Text to cover up
  • 15. © UCLES 2013 Writing Activity 6 Well, first of all I guess the places are quite similar. They both show places that you could call rural. You certainly couldn‟t describe either of them as cities. Both places seem fairly green, and I would imagine that they‟re pretty peaceful and have clear air. They both have water as well, although the top one appears to be the sea and the other a small river. I suppose the most obvious difference is climate. The first looks much colder! Bueno, en primer lugar me imagino los lugares son bastante similares. Ambos muestran lugares que usted podría llamar rural. Obviamente, no podría describir cualquiera de ellos como ciudades. Ambos lugares parecen bastante verde, y me imagino que son bastante tranquilo y tienen buen aire. Ambos tienen agua, así, a pesar de la superior parece el mar y el otro a un pequeño río. Supongo que la más obvia diferencia es el clima. El primero se ve mucho más frío!
  • 16. © UCLES 2013 Writing Activity 7 The Power of Pictures 1. Choose a favourite from a selection 2. Give a reason why 3. What can you say about the „life story‟ of the picture 4. Write a review
  • 17. © UCLES 2013
  • 18. © UCLES 2013 PUNCTUATION An English professor wrote the words, "Woman without her man is nothing," on the blackboard and directed the students to punctuate it correctly. The men wrote: The women wrote: "Woman, without her man, is nothing." "Woman! Without her, man is nothing."
  • 19. © UCLES 2013 during many years of teaching philosophy at harvard university robert nozick 1938 2002 wrote a series of rich and varied works including philosophical explanations 1981 the examined life 1989 the nature of rationality 1995 and socratic puzzles 1997 the book for which he is best known however remained his first the seminal critique of john rawls theory of justice anarchy state and utopia 1974 their philosophical dialogue over the conditions of a just society helped to define american politics for a generation
  • 20. © UCLES 2013 During many years of teaching philosophy at Harvard University, Robert Nozick (1938-2002) wrote a series of rich and varied works, including Philosophical Explanations (1981), The Examined Life (1989), The Nature of Rationality (1995), and Socratic Puzzles (1997). The book for which he is best known, however, remained his first: the seminal critique of John Rawls‟ theory of justice, Anarchy, State and Utopia (1974). Their philosophical dialogue over the conditions of a just society helped to define American politics for a generation.
  • 21. © UCLES 2013 Speaking What are the typical problems that adolescents have when doing the speaking activities in FCE? As teachers, how do you help them overcome these difficulties?
  • 22. © UCLES 2013 Typical FCE speaking problems Translating literally and not parsing what they are saying Describing the pictures Turn taking Showing interest, expressing disagreement, etc. (i.e. talking!) Not listening to the examiner or their partner Starting a sentence without knowing how they are going to end it
  • 23. © UCLES 2013 Speaking part 1 Activity 1
  • 24. © UCLES 2013 How long have you been learning English? Where do you study? Have you ever studied abroad? Have you got any brothers and sisters? What do they do? Where do you live? What do you usually do in the evenings? Do you get a lot of homework? Who do you spend time with at the weekends? Do you have any interests or hobbies? Have you been to the cinema recently? What do you like doing on holiday?
  • 25. © UCLES 2013 Speaking part 1 Activity 2 YOU Family (Parents, brothers and sisters, etc.) Friends (Best friend, boyfriend / girlfriend, teams, etc.) Home (Address, street, neighbour- hood, etc.) School / University (Name, public / private, size, etc.) Physical (Age, height, physique, hair, eyes, etc.) Character (Likes / dislikes, sense of humour, etc.) Future (Plans, dreams, work aspirations, etc.) Work (Company / institution, training, skills, etc.)
  • 26. © UCLES 2013 …………………………………………………………? I have a brother and a sister both of whom are older than me. …………………………………………………………? My local rugby team. …………………………………………………………? El Born, Barcelona. …………………………………………………………? Sheffield University. …………………………………………………………? 47. …………………………………………………………? According to my „friends‟ I am stubborn. I am not, of course. So there. …………………………………………………………? Retire to the country, go for long walks, read and drink good wine. …………………………………………………………? Cambridge Assessment and the EIM. Where do you work Who are your best friends Where do you live Which university did you go to How old are you How would you describe yourself What are your plans for the future Have you got any brothers or sisters
  • 27. © UCLES 2013 Speaking part 2 Activity 1
  • 28. © UCLES 2013 Vocabulary generation: Nouns living room armchair book shelves coffee table floor rug / carpet books pictures bedroom window curtains table / desk book shelves bed / mattress files / papers
  • 29. © UCLES 2013 Vocabulary generation: Adjectives light / airy living room red / retro armchair white / IKEA book shelves plastic / transparent coffee table pale / wooden floor white / woolly rug / carpet hardback / second-hand books family / framed pictures pokey / messy bedroom dirty / misted window patterned / heavy curtains untidy / small table / desk wooden / cheap book shelves Futon / unmade bed / mattress disorganized / stacked files / papers
  • 30. © UCLES 2013 Vocabulary generation: Contrasts Tidy Clean Wealthy Employed Young Fashion conscious Hygenic Meticulous Untidy Messy Poor Student Teenager Chilled (hippy) Dirty Sloppy
  • 31. © UCLES 2013 Speaking part 2 Activity 2 Repetition Hesitation Er.. Irrelevance Mistakes
  • 32. © UCLES 2013 1. People are essentially good. 2. Power corrupts. 3. Everyone has a right to free medical attention when ill. 4. It is more important for the law to protect the innocent than to punish the guilty. 5. It is better to tax spending than to tax earning. 6. Market forces are a better regulator of the economy than government control. 7. People who cannot find work should turn to their family and friends for support and not the government. 8. There‟s no changing human nature. 9. The use of weapons can never be justified. 10. Private education creates divisions in society, and should be forbidden by law. 11. Books, newspapers, films and TV should be free of all censorship on moral grounds. 12. The group is more important than the individual. 13. My highest duty is to my country. 14. There should be a minimum wage. 15. There should be a maximum wage. 16. Unearned income should be taxed more heavily than earned income. 17. Democracy is an illusion. 18. Parents should be held responsible and punishable for their children‟s actions until the children are at least 14 years of age. 19. Everyone should have the right to vote at the age of 16. 20. Passports should be abolished.
  • 33. © UCLES 2013 Speaking part 3 Activity 1
  • 34. © UCLES 2013 Speaking part 3 Activity 2 Group discussion / pair work Pronunciation: compare the differences
  • 35. © UCLES 2013
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  • 39. © UCLES 2013 Speaking part 3 Activity 3
  • 40. © UCLES 2013 Speaking part 3 Activity 4 Structuring turn-taking
  • 41. © UCLES 2013
  • 42. © UCLES 2013 Speaking part 4 Some observations Part 4 is a three-way conversation The answers should be full The conversation can be redirected or handled The answers can be inclusive
  • 43. © UCLES 2013 Conversation vs Exchange A. How much are the oranges? B. 18 pence each, madam. A. I‟ll have two please. B. That‟s 36 pence, please. A. I saw Jane yesterday. B. Oh, yeah. How was she? A. Radiant! I think she‟s got a new boyfriend. B. Really! Oh, tell me more.
  • 44. © UCLES 2013 Adjacency Hello! Hi! Greeting - Greeting Dinner‟s ready! Coming. Call - Answer Is your name Tom? Yes. Question - Answer
  • 45. © UCLES 2013 Speaking part 4 Activity 1 Extending answers: chaining “Do you think people make more time nowadays for their leisure time?” “No.”
  • 46. © UCLES 2013 Answer e.g. “No.” Qualify answer e.g. “I don‟t think so.” Clarify definition e.g. “What I mean to say is…” Expand e.g. “It‟s important to note …” Exemplify e.g. “In the case of my parents …” Conclude e.g. “So, I guess, what I‟m saying is …” Question e.g. “So, X, what do you think?” Demonstrate listening e.g. “Umm, really?” Comment e.g. “Yes, I completely agree.”
  • 47. © UCLES 2013 Evaluating, marking and correcting
  • 48. © UCLES 2013 Marking Criteria Content – This sub-scale focuses on how well the candidate has met the requirements of the task, in other words, if they have done what was asked of them Communicative Achievement – This sub-scale focuses on how appropriate the writing is for the task Organisation – This sub-scale focuses on the way the candidate has put his answer together Language – This sub-scale focuses on the candidate‟s use of appropriate vocabulary and grammar
  • 49. © UCLES 2013
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  • 52. © UCLES 2013 Examiner‟s comments and grade Text B Text A Band 5 Band 2
  • 53. © UCLES 2013
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  • 56. © UCLES 2013 Examiner‟s comments and grade Text C Text E Band 4 Band 3
  • 57. © UCLES 2013 Examiner‟s comments and grade Text D Band 4
  • 58. © UCLES 2013 Speaking Assessment Grammar and vocabulary • accuracy, range, appropriacy Pronunciation • sounds, stress, intonation Interactive communication • initiating, responding, maintaining and developing the interaction Discourse management • extent, relevance, coherence, cohesion
  • 59. © UCLES 2013 RECOGNITION Has a mistake been made? DESCRIPTION What kind of mistake? How serious is it? EXPLANATION What caused it? REMEDY Should I act? How should I act? When should I act? Four steps to error correction
  • 60. © UCLES 2013 With a partner decide how you would deal with the errors in these situations. Discuss each situation and decide: Would you correct the error or mistake? How exactly would you correct it? When exactly would you correct it? Situation 1 You are doing a drill to practise the present perfect and past simple. You ask, “Have you ever been to the mountains?” A student responds, “I’ve went to the mountains on France last year.”
  • 61. © UCLES 2013 Situation 2 You are doing a warm up activity with your class. In the activity a student says, “Last week was my mother‟s birthday, she is five and fifty .” Situation 3 Your learners are working in groups; their task is to plan what to do together at the weekend. Several learners in different groups are making the same mistake, saying “We go to the restaurant” or “We go on a trip.” Situation 4 Your class has just been introduced to the function „Let’s do something’. You are organising a trip with your class and you are discussing what to do; a learner says, Let go swimming. Situation 5 Your learners are writing a postcard in pairs about their summer holiday to a friend at home. One pair has written, „I am go to restaurant every day.‟
  • 62. © UCLES 2013 If, Why, When, How If = Has an error been committed? How does it affect the task? Does it interfere with comprehension? Why = Why has the student made this mistake? What is it‟s cause? Is it a student mistake or a teacher mistake? When = When is the best time to correct? When should we NOT correct? How = What is the best way to correct the mistake? Should we correct or „guide‟? What different ways of correcting are there?
  • 63. © UCLES 2013 Online Speaking Practice
  • 64. © UCLES 2013 Overview of Online Speaking Practice Students can: • get authentic preparation for a Speaking test with real examiners and tasks • record up to ten answers for each task • share their best answers with a teacher • receive comments from their teacher • compare their answers with sample answers from the „real‟ test • get tips about how to approach the test and improve answers • see what happens in each part of a real test • see how the Speaking test is assessed
  • 65. © UCLES 2013 Teaching Support website www.cambridgeenglish.org/teach Newsletter for Teachers www.cambridgeenglish.org/es/c ambridge-english-for/teachers
  • 66. © UCLES 2013 Teaching Together Cambridge English Blog www.teachingtogether-cambridgeenglish.blogspot.com.es
  • 67. © UCLES 2013 • Courses Earn a certificate from Cambridge. • Webinars Interact with expert trainers. • Knowledge Articles with industry-leading ideas. Join at www.cambridgeenglishteacher.org Online Professional Development
  • 68. © UCLES 2013 Further information Cambridge English Language Assessment Spain and Portugal Alcalá 21 - 3º Izda. 28014 Madrid Tel: +34 91 541 24 22 / 91 559 50 10 Fax: +34 91 454 01 48 Email: info@cambridgeenglish.es Keep up to date with what‟s new via the Cambridge English website: www.cambridgeenglish.org/es