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Criminology chapter 06
Criminology chapter 06
Criminology chapter 06
Criminology chapter 06
Criminology chapter 06
Criminology chapter 06
Criminology chapter 06
Criminology chapter 06
Criminology chapter 06
Criminology chapter 06
Criminology chapter 06
Criminology chapter 06
Criminology chapter 06
Criminology chapter 06
Criminology chapter 06
Criminology chapter 06
Criminology chapter 06
Criminology chapter 06
Criminology chapter 06
Criminology chapter 06
Criminology chapter 06
Criminology chapter 06
Criminology chapter 06
Criminology chapter 06
Criminology chapter 06
Criminology chapter 06
Criminology chapter 06
Criminology chapter 06
Criminology chapter 06
Criminology chapter 06
Criminology chapter 06
Criminology chapter 06
Criminology chapter 06
Criminology chapter 06
Criminology chapter 06
Criminology chapter 06
Criminology chapter 06
Criminology chapter 06
Criminology chapter 06
Criminology chapter 06
Criminology chapter 06
Criminology chapter 06
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Criminology chapter 06

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  • 1. CRIMINOLOGY TODAY AN INTEGRATIVE INTRODUCTION sixth edition By FRANK SCHMALLEGERPearson Education, Inc.
  • 2. CRIMINOLOGY TODAY AN INTEGRATIVE INTRODUCTION sixth edition By FRANK SCHMALLEGER Chapter 6 Social Structure TheoriesPearson Education, Inc.
  • 3. Major Principles of Sociological Theories • Social groups, social institutions, the arrangement of society, and social roles are the focus of criminological study • Group dynamics, group organization, and subgroup relationships form the causal nexus from which crime develops • Society’s structure and its relative degree of organization or disorganization are important factors contributing to the prevalence of criminal behavior • SpecificCriminology behavior of of given individual cannot be of the probability a statistical estimates group characteristics and predicted, butToday: An member of a given group will engage in a specific type of that aIntegrative are possible crimeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 3 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 4. Major Principles of Sociological Theories • Social structure theories examine institutional arrangements within a social structure and social processes as they affect socialization and have an impact on social life • MacroCriminology focus: stress types of behavior likelyToday: An exhibited by group members to beIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 4 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 5. Key Sociological Explanations of Crime • Social structure theories: Crime is the result of an individual’s location within the structure of society • Social process/social development theories: Crime is the end product of various social processes.Criminology • Conflict theories:Today: An Crime is the product of class struggleIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 5 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 6. Definition of Social Structure Theories • Look at formal and informal economic and social arrangements of society as the root causes of crime and deviance • See the negative aspects of social structure as producers of criminal behavior • Highlight arrangements within society thatCriminologyToday: An contribute to low SES of identifiable groupsIntegrative as significant causes of crimeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 6 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 7. Types of Social Structure Theories • Social disorganization theory (ecological approach • Strain theory • Culture conflict theory (cultural deviance theory)CriminologyToday: AnIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 7 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 8. Social Disorganization Theory • Associated with the ecological school of criminology • W.I. Thomas and Florian Znaniecki – Found crime rates rose among displaced persons – Suggested cause was social disorganizationCriminology resulting from immigrants’ inability toToday: An successfully transplant norms and values fromIntegrative home cultures into the new oneIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 8 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 9. Chicago School • Social ecology movement – Focused on how the structure of society adapts to the quality of natural resources and to the existence of other human groups – Developed disease model based on social pathology • Aspects of society may be somehow pathological and produce deviant behavior among groups and individuals who are exposed to such conditions • Social disorganization and pathology may arise when a group is faced with significant social change • Robert Park and Ernst Burgess –Criminology American cities caught up in swift social change – ideal focus Saw for study of social disorganizationToday: An – Viewed cities as having five concentric zones, each with uniqueIntegrative characteristics and populationsIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 9 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 10. Chicago’s Concentric Zones Figure 6-1CriminologyToday: AnIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 10 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 11. Shaw and McKay • Applied concentric zone model to the study of juvenile delinquency • Found offending rates remained constant over time within zones of transition – Criminal activity associated with urban transitional zones – Typified by social disorganization, turmoil, lower property values, poverty, lack of privacy • Cultural transmission: Traditions of delinquency are transmitted through successive generations of the same zoneCriminology • Key contribution of ecological school: society has a majorToday: An influence on human behaviorIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 11 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 12. The Criminology of Place • Environmental criminology – Emphasizes the importance of geographic location and architectural features as they are associated with the prevalence of victimization – “Hot spots” of crime • Broken windows thesis (Wilson and Kelling) – Physical deterioration and unrepaired buildings lead toCriminology increased concerns for safety among area residentsToday: An to increase in “order maintenance policing” and – LedIntegrative crackdown on quality-of-life offensesIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 12 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 13. The Criminology of Place • Defensible space – The range of mechanisms that combine to bring an environment under the control of its residents – Architectural changes that enhance barriers, define boundaries, and remove criminal opportunity can reduce the risk of crime • Location can be as predictive of crime as the lifestyles of victimized individuals or social features of victimized householdsCriminologyToday: AnIntegrative • Places can be criminogenicIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 13 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 14. Strain Theory • Strain: The pressure that individuals feel to reach socially determined goals • Anomie (Robert K. Merton) A disjunction between socially approved means to success and legitimate goalsCriminology • Crime results from attempts to achieveToday: AnIntegrative legitimate goals through illegitimate meansIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 14 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 15. Goals and Means Disjuncture Table 6-1CriminologyToday: AnIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 15 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 16. Relative Deprivation • Messner and Rosenfeld blame crime on inconsistencies in the American Dream • Relative deprivation: The economic and social gap that exists between rich and the poor who live in close proximity • Distributive justice: An individual’s perception of his or her rightful place in the reward structure of societyCriminologyToday: An of relative deprivation • TypesIntegrative – PersonalIntroduction, 6/e – GroupFrankSchmalleger 16 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 17. General Strain Theory (GST) • Robert Agnew reformulated strain theory into a comprehensive perspective • Crime seen as a coping mechanism enabling those who engage in it to deal with the socioemotional problems generated by negative social relationsCriminologyToday: AnIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 17 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 18. Central Propositions of GST • Strain refers to events and conditions that are disliked by individuals • Strains increase the likelihood of particular crimes primarily through their impact on a range of negative emotional states • Those strains most likely to cause crime (a) are perceived as high in magnitude or (b) as unjust; (c) are associated with low self-control; and (d) createCriminologyToday: An pressure or incentive to engage in criminal some copingIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 18 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 19. Central Propositions of GST • The likelihood that individuals will react to strains with criminal behavior depends on a range of factors influencing the individual’s (a) ability to engage in legal coping, (b) costs of crime, and (c) disposition of crime • Patterns of offending over the life course, group differences in crime, and community and societal differences in crime can be partly explained in terms of differences in the exposure to strains conducive to crimeCriminology can be reduced by reducing individuals exposure to • CrimeToday: An that are conducive to crime and reducing their strainsIntegrative likelihood of responding to strains with crimeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 19 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 20. General Strain Theory • GST expands upon traditional strain theory – Widens focus to include all types of negative relations between individual and others – Strain may have a cumulative effect on delinquency – Gives a more comprehensive account of adaptations to strain – More fully describes wide variety of factors affecting choice of delinquent adaptations to strain • GST has been further refined to incorporate the possible existence of biological factors that mayCriminologyToday: An some individuals particularly susceptible to makeIntegrative of strain effectsIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 20 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 21. Culture Conflict Theory • Thorsten Sellin – Root cause of crime found in different values about what is acceptable or proper behavior – Conduct norms provide the valuative basis for human behavior and are acquired early in life through childhood socialization – Clash of norms between variously socialized groups results in crime • TypesCriminology of culture conflict – Primary: a fundamental clash of culturesToday: An – Secondary: smaller cultures within the primary one clashIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 21 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 22. Subcultural Theory • Subculture: A collection of values and preferences communicated to participants through a process of socialization • Subcultural theory: Sociological perspective emphasizing theCriminology contribution made by variously socializedToday: An cultural groups to the phenomenon of crimeIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 22 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 23. Focal Concerns • Walter Miller identified existence of a lower class culture: – A long established, distinctively patterned tradition with an integrity of its own – Behavior that upholds lower class norms may be seen by the middle class as deliberately nonconforming • Violation of middle-class norms is aCriminologyToday: An byproduct of actions primarily orientedIntegrative to the lower-class systemIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 23 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 24. Focal Concerns • Trouble • Excitement Getting in, staying out, Search for thrills dealing with trouble • Fate • Toughness The concept of luck, Concern with being lucky masculinity • Autonomy • SmartnessCriminology Taking care of oneself,Today: AnAbility to outsmart or not getting pushedIntegrative others and avoid con around being dupedIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 24 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 25. Delinquency and Drift • Sykes and Matza • Members of delinquent subcultures also participate in the larger culture • Offenders use neutralizing self-talk to mitigate shame and guilt associated withCriminology violating social normsToday: AnIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 25 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 26. Techniques of Neutralization Figure 6-2CriminologyToday: AnIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 26 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 27. Delinquency and Drift • Delinquents tend to drift between crime and conventional action – choose the most expedient • Use techniques of neutralization to keep from being alienated from larger society • SoftCriminologydeterminism:Today: An Delinquents are neither forced to make choicesIntegrative nor entirely free to make choicesIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 27 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 28. Violent Subcultures • Ferracuti and Wolfgang • Violence is a learned form of adaptation to problematic life circumstances • Learning to be violent takes place within the context of a subculture emphasizing violence over other forms of adaptationCriminology • Group’s value system constitutes a subculture ofToday: An violenceIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 28 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 29. Violent Subcultures • Southern subculture of violence – Certain violent crimes may be more acceptable in the southern U.S. than in northern parts of the country – Violence may be a traditional tool to maintain social order • Black subculture of violenceCriminology –AnToday: Created by generations of white-on-black violenceIntegrative – Seek status through ability to harm, intimidate,Introduction, 6/eFrank dominate othersSchmalleger 29 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 30. Differential Opportunity Theory • Cloward and Ohlin (1960) - blended subcultural thesis with strain theory • Two types of socially structured opportunities for success – Legitimate – IllegitimateCriminology • Members of lower-class subcultures mayToday: An beIntegrative denied access to legitimate opportunitiesIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 30 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 31. Differential Opportunity Theory • Illegitimate opportunity structure – Pre-existing subcultural paths to success not approved of by the wider culture • Delinquent behavior results from – Ready availability of illegitimate opportunities – Replacement of cultural norms with expedientCriminology subcultural rulesToday: AnIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 31 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 32. Delinquent Subcultures • Criminal subcultures: Criminal role models readily available • Conflict subcultures: Status through violence • Retreatist subcultures:CriminologyToday: AnDrug use and withdrawal from wider societyIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 32 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 33. Types of Lower Class Youth • Type I: • Type III: Desire entry into middle Desire wealth without class by improving their entry to middle class economic position • Type IV: • Type II: Dropouts who retreat Desire entry to middle from mainstream class but not through drug and improvement inCriminology alcohol useToday: Aneconomic positionIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 33 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 34. Reaction Formation • Albert Cohen – Youth held accountable to norms of wider society through “middle class measuring rod” of expectations – Not everyone is prepared to effectively meet such expectations • Reaction formation:CriminologyToday: An process in which a person openly rejects TheIntegrative which he wants, or aspires to, but cannot thatIntroduction, 6/eor achieve obtainFrankSchmalleger 34 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 35. The Code of the Street • Elijah Anderson – Contemporary street code stresses a hyperinflated notion of manhood resting on the idea of respect – Street culture’s violent nature means a man cannot back down from threats • Decent vs.Criminology street familiesToday: AnIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 35 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 36. Gangs Today • Modern gangs are involved in serious and violent crimes • Gangs can be big business – Traditional criminal activities – Drug dealing • Distinctions between gangs and violenceCriminologyToday: An • Co-offending especially prevalent in the lives ofIntegrative gang membersIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 36 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 37. Policy Implications of Social Structure Theories • Chicago Area Project attempted to reduce social disorganization in slum neighborhoods by creating community committees • Mobilization for Youth provided new opportunities and tried to change the fundamental arrangements of society, addressing the root causes of crimeCriminology • WarToday: An on Poverty tried to reduce crime rates by redistributing wealth in American societyIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 37 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 38. Critique of Social Structure Theories • Some argue the inverse of the “root causes” argument – suggest poverty and social injustices are produced by crime • If so, addressing poverty and social inequity as the root causes of crime is and ineffective crime prevention strategyCriminologyToday: AnIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 38 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 39. Critique of Ecological Theories • May give too much credence to the notion that spatial location determines crime • Seems unable to differentiate between social disorganization and the things it is said to cause • ManyCriminology crimes occur outside of sociallyToday: An disorganized areasIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 39 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 40. Critique of Strain Theories • Original formulation less applicable to modern society • Delinquents do not report being more distressed than other youthCriminologyToday: AnIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 40 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 41. Critique of Subcultural Theories • Seen as lacking in explanatory power • Seen as tautological (circular) • Hs been criticized or being racistCriminologyToday: AnIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 41 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 42. Other Critiques of Social Structure Theories • Social structure theories link low SES to high delinquency – not supported by empirical studies • Overemphasis on environments creates bias against looking elsewhere for possible causes • Cannot predict which individuals, or whichCriminology proportion of given population, will turn to crimeToday: AnIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 42 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved

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