CRIMINOLOGY               TODAY            AN INTEGRATIVE INTRODUCTION                     sixth edition            By FRA...
CRIMINOLOGY               TODAY            AN INTEGRATIVE INTRODUCTION                     sixth edition            By FRA...
Key Terms        • Forensic psychology:                        The application of the science and profession of           ...
Major Principles of Psychological        Theories        •             The individual is the primary unit of              ...
Major Principles of Psychological        Theories        •             Criminal behavior may be purposeful for            ...
Early Psychological Theories        • Two main threads:                  – Behavioral conditioning                        ...
The Psychopath        • Psychopathy:                        A personality disorder characterized by                       ...
The Mask of Sanity (1941)        • Hervey M. Cleckley – developed the concept          of a psychopathic personality      ...
Psychopathic Characteristics        • Superficial charm and                           • Ongoing antisocial          “good ...
The Psychopath        • Psychopathy Checklist (PCL) – modern          measure of psychopathy        • Recent research sugg...
Antisocial Personality Disorder        • Antisocial/asocial personality                  – Individuals who are basically u...
Causes of ASPD        • Somatic causes - based on physiological          features                  – Malfunction of CNS   ...
Early Psychiatric Theories        • Psychiatric criminology                  – Also called forensic psychiatry            ...
The Psychoanalytic Perspective        •             Sigmund Freud        •             Psychoanalysis:                    ...
Psychoanalytic Structure ofPersonalityCriminology Today: An Integrative Introduction, 6/e   15   Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2...
The Psychoanalytic Perspective        •             Sublimation:                  –           A process in which one item ...
The Psychotic Offender        • Psychosis: mental illness characterized by          a lack of contact with reality        ...
The Link Between Frustration and        Aggression        •             Freud: Aggression is a natural response to        ...
Crime as Adaptive Behavior        • Crime fulfills a certain aim or purpose for the offender                  – The need t...
Modeling Theory        •             The role of imitation and modeling in                      shaping behavior        • ...
Modeling Theory – Albert Bandura        •             Everyone is capable of aggression but                      must lear...
Modeling Theory        •             Aggression can be activated or provoked in                      various ways        •...
Behavior Theory        •       Behavior is determined by the environmental consequences produced        •       Rewards in...
Attachment Theory        • Healthy personality development requires          that children have a warm, intimate, and     ...
Self-Control Theory        • Self control: A person’s ability to alter his          or her own states and responses       ...
Self-Control Theory        • Gottfredson and Hirschi – general theory of crime                  – Low self-control is the ...
Self-Control Theory        • Grasmick identified characteristics of individuals          with low self-control            ...
Insanity and the Law        • Insanity is a legal concept – has no direct          counterpart in psychology/psychiatry   ...
Insanity and the Law        • Foucha v. Louisiana (1992)                  – Recognized divergence between law and         ...
Insanity and the Law        •       M’Naughten Rule:                  – Individuals cannot be held criminally responsible ...
Guilty But Mentally Ill (GBMI)        • Individual may be held responsible for a criminal act,          even though a degr...
Confinement of Individuals Found        NGRI        • Mandatory psychological/psychiatric examination          and hearing...
Social Policy and Forensic        Psychology        • Psychological theories continue to evolve        • Focus on using pa...
Social Policy and Forensic        Psychology        • Selective incapacitation                  – Policy based on the noti...
Social Policy and the Psychology of        Criminal Conduct        • Donald Andrews and James Bonta                  – Pra...
Criminal Psychological Profiling        •             Psychological profiling:                              The attempt to...
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Criminology chapter 05

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Criminology chapter 05

  1. 1. CRIMINOLOGY TODAY AN INTEGRATIVE INTRODUCTION sixth edition By FRANK SCHMALLEGERPearson Education, Inc.
  2. 2. CRIMINOLOGY TODAY AN INTEGRATIVE INTRODUCTION sixth edition By FRANK SCHMALLEGER Chapter 5 Psychological and Psychiatric Foundations of Criminal BehaviorPearson Education, Inc.
  3. 3. Key Terms • Forensic psychology: The application of the science and profession of psychology to questions and issues relating to law and the legal system (also called criminal psychology) • Forensic psychiatry: A medical subspeciality applying psychiatry to the needs of crime prevention and solution, criminal rehabilitation, and issues of the criminal lawCriminology Today: An Integrative Introduction, 6/e 3 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  4. 4. Major Principles of Psychological Theories • The individual is the primary unit of analysis • Personality is the major motivational element • Crimes result from abnormal, dysfunctional, or inappropriate mental processes within the personalityCriminology Today: An Integrative Introduction, 6/e 4 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  5. 5. Major Principles of Psychological Theories • Criminal behavior may be purposeful for the individual insofar as it addresses certain felt needs • Normality is generally defined by social consensus • Defective, or abnormal, mental processes may have a variety of causesCriminology Today: An Integrative Introduction, 6/e 5 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  6. 6. Early Psychological Theories • Two main threads: – Behavioral conditioning The frequency of a behavior can be increased or decreased through reward, punishment or association with other stimuli – Personality disturbances and diseases of the mind Psychopathy and mental diseaseCriminology Today: An Integrative Introduction, 6/e 6 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  7. 7. The Psychopath • Psychopathy: A personality disorder characterized by antisocial behavior and lack of affect • Psychopath/sociopath: An individual who has a personality disorder, especially one manifested in aggressively antisocial behavior and who is lacking in empathyCriminology Today: An Integrative Introduction, 6/e 7 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  8. 8. The Mask of Sanity (1941) • Hervey M. Cleckley – developed the concept of a psychopathic personality • Psychopath as “moral idiot” • Poverty of affect – inability to accurately imagine how others think and feelCriminology Today: An Integrative Introduction, 6/e 8 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  9. 9. Psychopathic Characteristics • Superficial charm and • Ongoing antisocial “good intelligence” behavior • Absence of delusions • Poor judgment • Absence of nervousness • Self-centeredness and inability to love • Inability to feel guilt or • Social unresponsiveness shame • Poorly integrated sex life • Unreliability • Failure to follow a life plan • Chronic lyingCriminology Today: An Integrative Introduction, 6/e 9 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  10. 10. The Psychopath • Psychopathy Checklist (PCL) – modern measure of psychopathy • Recent research suggests psychopaths do know the difference between right and wrong • Recent study of adolescent psychopaths found treatment was linked to reduced violent recidivismCriminology Today: An Integrative Introduction, 6/e 10 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  11. 11. Antisocial Personality Disorder • Antisocial/asocial personality – Individuals who are basically unsocialized and whose behavior pattern brings them into repeated conflicts with society – Individuals who exhibit an antisocial personality are said to be suffering from antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) • Individuals with ASPD characteristics are likely to run afoul of the lawCriminology Today: An Integrative Introduction, 6/e 11 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  12. 12. Causes of ASPD • Somatic causes - based on physiological features – Malfunction of CNS • Psychogenic causes – rooted in early interpersonal experiences – Inability to form attachments early in life – Sudden separation from mother early in life – Other forms of early insecurityCriminology Today: An Integrative Introduction, 6/e 12 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  13. 13. Early Psychiatric Theories • Psychiatric criminology – Also called forensic psychiatry – Envisions a complex set of drives and motives that operate from within the personality to determine behavior – Crime is caused by biological and psychological urges mediated through consciousness – Little emphasis on the role of the external environment • Psychiatric theories are derived from the medical sciences – Focus on the individual as the unit of analysisCriminology Today: An Integrative Introduction, 6/e 13 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  14. 14. The Psychoanalytic Perspective • Sigmund Freud • Psychoanalysis: Criminal behavior is maladaptive, the result of inadequacies inherent in the personality of the offender • Psychotherapy: The attempt to relieve patients of their mental disorders through the application of psychoanalytic principles and techniquesCriminology Today: An Integrative Introduction, 6/e 14 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  15. 15. Psychoanalytic Structure ofPersonalityCriminology Today: An Integrative Introduction, 6/e 15 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  16. 16. The Psychoanalytic Perspective • Sublimation: – A process in which one item of consciousness is symbolically substituted for another – Improper sublimation may lead to crime • Thanatos – a death instinct or death wish • Neurosis: – Individuals are in touch with reality but may be anxious or fearful of certain situations – Most neuroses do not lead to crime but some mayCriminology Today: An Integrative Introduction, 6/e 16 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  17. 17. The Psychotic Offender • Psychosis: mental illness characterized by a lack of contact with reality • Characteristics of psychotic individuals – A grossly distorted conception of reality – Inappropriate moods and mood swings – Marked inefficiency in getting along with others and caring for oneself • Schizophrenics and paranoid schizophrenicsCriminology Today: An Integrative Introduction, 6/e 17 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  18. 18. The Link Between Frustration and Aggression • Freud: Aggression is a natural response to frustrating limits • Frustration-aggression theory – Direct aggression toward others is the most likely consequence of frustration – Aggression can be manifested in socially acceptable ways or engaged in vicariously by watching others act aggressivelyCriminology Today: An Integrative Introduction, 6/e 18 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  19. 19. Crime as Adaptive Behavior • Crime fulfills a certain aim or purpose for the offender – The need to be punished – Adaptation to life’s stresses – Provide a sense of power and purpose • Types of adaptation – Alloplastic adaptation: Crime reduces stresses that the individual faces by producing changes in the environment (empowerment) – Autoplastic adaptation: Crime leads to stress reduction as a result of internal changes in beliefs and value systems • Stress as a causative agent in crime commission – Stress may lead to aggression towards others and oneself – Societal stress levels heighten levels of aggressionCriminology Today: An Integrative Introduction, 6/e 19 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  20. 20. Modeling Theory • The role of imitation and modeling in shaping behavior • Gabriel Tarde’s three laws of imitation and suggestion: – People in close contact tend to imitate each other’s behavior – Imitation moves from the top down – New acts and behaviors either reinforce or replace old onesCriminology Today: An Integrative Introduction, 6/e 20 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  21. 21. Modeling Theory – Albert Bandura • Everyone is capable of aggression but must learn how to behave aggressively • Social learning factors determine what forms aggressive behavior takes, its frequency, the situations in which it is displayed, and the targets selected for attack • People learn to act by observing othersCriminology Today: An Integrative Introduction, 6/e 21 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  22. 22. Modeling Theory • Aggression can be activated or provoked in various ways • Disengagement: people who devalue aggression may engage in it by constructing rationalizations to overcome internal inhibitions – Attributing blame to the victim – Dehumanization – Vindication of aggression by legitimate authorities – Desensitization from repeated exposure • Theory has been criticized for lacking comprehensive explanatory powerCriminology Today: An Integrative Introduction, 6/e 22 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  23. 23. Behavior Theory • Behavior is determined by the environmental consequences produced • Rewards increase the frequency of approved behavior – Positive rewards add something desirable – Negative rewards remove something distressful • Punishments decrease the frequency of unwanted behavior – Positive punishments add something undesirable – Negative punishments remove something desirable • B.F. Skinner focused on patterns of responses to external stimuli • Behavior theory has been criticized for ignoring the role of cognition in human behaviorCriminology Today: An Integrative Introduction, 6/e 23 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  24. 24. Attachment Theory • Healthy personality development requires that children have a warm, intimate, and continuous relationship with their mothers • Forms of attachment: – Secure attachment (a healthy form) – Anxious-avoidant attachment – Anxious-resistant attachmentCriminology Today: An Integrative Introduction, 6/e 24 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  25. 25. Self-Control Theory • Self control: A person’s ability to alter his or her own states and responses • Four types of self control – Impulse control – Control over the contents of the mind – Control over emotional and mood states – Performance controlCriminology Today: An Integrative Introduction, 6/e 25 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  26. 26. Self-Control Theory • Gottfredson and Hirschi – general theory of crime – Low self-control is the primary individual-level cause of crime – Self control: the degree to which a person is vulnerable to temptations of the moment • Stability theory: The argument that self-control develops early in childhood and persists over time • The link between self-control and crime is probabilistic and depends upon criminal opportunityCriminology Today: An Integrative Introduction, 6/e 26 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  27. 27. Self-Control Theory • Grasmick identified characteristics of individuals with low self-control – Impulsive; lack diligence, tenacity, persistence – Want “money without work, sex without courtship, revenge without court delays” • Research supports the thesis that self-control plays a key role in crime • Hayslett-McCall and Bernard suggest the gender/crime relationship is related to low self- control among males, which results from gendered differences in attachment disruptionsCriminology Today: An Integrative Introduction, 6/e 27 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  28. 28. Insanity and the Law • Insanity is a legal concept – has no direct counterpart in psychology/psychiatry • Insanity (legal): A legally established inability to understand right from wrong or to conform one’s behavior to the requirements of the law • Insanity (psychological): Persistent mental disorder or derangementCriminology Today: An Integrative Introduction, 6/e 28 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  29. 29. Insanity and the Law • Foucha v. Louisiana (1992) – Recognized divergence between law and psychiatry • 1984 Insanity Defense Reform Act (IDRA) – Defined insanity – Burden of proving insanity placed on defendant • “Not guilty by reason of insanity” (NGRI)Criminology Today: An Integrative Introduction, 6/e 29 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  30. 30. Insanity and the Law • M’Naughten Rule: – Individuals cannot be held criminally responsible if they did not know what they were doing or did not know that what they were doing was wrong • Irresistible-Impulse Test – Defendant is not guilty if by virtue of his/her mental state s/he was unable to resist committing the action • Durham Rule – Accused is not criminally responsible if the unlawful act was the product of a mental disease or defect • Substantial-Capacity Test – Insanity is present when a person lacks the mental capacity to understand the wrongfulness of his act or to conform his behavior to the law • Brawner Rule – Delegates responsibility to the juryCriminology Today: An Integrative Introduction, 6/e 30 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  31. 31. Guilty But Mentally Ill (GBMI) • Individual may be held responsible for a criminal act, even though a degree of mental incompetence is present • Requirements for verdict – Every statutory element necessary for conviction proven beyond a reasonable doubt – Defendant found to have been mentally ill at the time of the crime – Defendant not found to have been legally insane at the time of the crime • Offenders found guilty, sent to psychiatric hospital for treatment – if “cured” may be transferred to prison to serve rest of sentenceCriminology Today: An Integrative Introduction, 6/e 31 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  32. 32. Confinement of Individuals Found NGRI • Mandatory psychological/psychiatric examination and hearing • Individual committed if release creates risk to persons or property due to present mental disease or defect • Individual discharged when facility director determines s/he has recovered from mental disease or defectCriminology Today: An Integrative Introduction, 6/e 32 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  33. 33. Social Policy and Forensic Psychology • Psychological theories continue to evolve • Focus on using past behavior to predict future behavior – Assessment of dangerousness – Identification of personal characteristics to predict future dangerousnessCriminology Today: An Integrative Introduction, 6/e 33 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  34. 34. Social Policy and Forensic Psychology • Selective incapacitation – Policy based on the notion of career criminality – Seeks to protect society by incarcerating individuals deemed the most dangerous – 1984 Comprehensive Crime Control Act targeted career offenders • Correctional psychology – Diagnosis and classification, treatment, and rehabilitation of offendersCriminology Today: An Integrative Introduction, 6/e 34 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  35. 35. Social Policy and the Psychology of Criminal Conduct • Donald Andrews and James Bonta – Practical synthesis of psychological approaches to criminal behavior – Not a new behavioral theory, a call for the application of what we understand • We know something about what works, now we need to make use of that knowledgeCriminology Today: An Integrative Introduction, 6/e 35 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  36. 36. Criminal Psychological Profiling • Psychological profiling: The attempt to categorize, understand, and predict the behavior of certain types of offenders based on behavioral clues they provide • Based on the belief that conscious behavior is symptomatic of personality • Offender’s specific activities help clarify his/her personal characteristics, motivations, likely future behaviorCriminology Today: An Integrative Introduction, 6/e 36 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
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