The War of 1812


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The War of 1812

  1. 1. The War of 1812
  2. 2. The War of 1812 <ul><li>Canada before the war: </li></ul><ul><li>English Canadians thought of themselves as British Subjects or Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Canada after the war: </li></ul><ul><li>Newfound Canadian Identity </li></ul>
  3. 3. International Setting <ul><li>Napoleon Seizes power in France (1799) </li></ul><ul><li>1803-1812 Britain restricts trade with France – blocks US ships </li></ul><ul><li>1803 Napoleon realizes Louisiana is indefensible so he sells it to the US ( Louisiana Purchase ) </li></ul><ul><li>Britain interdicts American ships trading with France – presses sailors into service in the Royal Navy </li></ul>
  4. 4. The War of 1812 <ul><li>Britain seizes 1,000 US ships trading with France </li></ul><ul><li>War Hawks push for war in US Congress </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Tippecanoe – British backed FNP attack Americans in the interior of the US (Indian Wars). </li></ul><ul><li>Americans declare war on Britain June 18, 1812 </li></ul>
  5. 5. The War of 1812 <ul><li>Americans thought war would be quick – British preoccupied with war in France </li></ul><ul><li>But: </li></ul><ul><li>New England didn’t want war – they made money through trade with the Canadas </li></ul><ul><li>So: </li></ul><ul><li>most of the battles fought in Southern Ontario, on the Great Lakes and in the Richelieu Valley </li></ul>
  6. 7. Important Battles in Canada <ul><li>Battle of Lake Erie </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Beaver Dam Laura Secord </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Queenstown Heights General Isaac Brock </li></ul>
  7. 8. The War of 1812 <ul><li>Americans attack and burn York (April 1813) </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleon defeated British focus on N.A. </li></ul><ul><li>British and Canadian troops respond by sacking the American capital Washington </li></ul><ul><li>Burn Congress and the White House </li></ul>
  8. 9. The War of 1812 <ul><li>President and Dolly Madison barely escape with their lives. </li></ul><ul><li>British continue up the Potomac to Baltimore </li></ul>
  9. 10. The War of 1812 <ul><li>Put siege to Fort McHenry on their way to Baltimore </li></ul><ul><li>1500 bombshells including Congreve rockets (first used in Spain) </li></ul><ul><li>Washington Lawyer Francis Scott Key watches nearby </li></ul><ul><li>Observes a huge American battle flag raised over the fort to replace a storm flag and wrote a poem </li></ul>
  10. 11. The War of 1812 <ul><li>Oh, say can you see by the dawn's early light What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming? Whose broad stripes and bright stars thru the perilous fight, O'er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming? And the rocket's red glare, the bombs bursting in air, Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there. Oh, say does that star-spangled banner yet wave O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave? </li></ul>
  11. 13. The War of 1812 <ul><li>December 24, 1814. The Treaty of Ghent </li></ul><ul><li>Status Quo Ante Bellum </li></ul><ul><li>January 1815. The Battle of New Orleans </li></ul>
  12. 14. The War of 1812 <ul><li>Andrew Jackson defeats the British – 700 British killed, 1400 wounded. </li></ul><ul><li>US lose 8 soldiers </li></ul>
  13. 15. Summary <ul><li>First step in constructing Canadian Identity </li></ul><ul><li>Heroes: Secord, Brock </li></ul><ul><li>Last time until 911 that the US has faced an attack on home soil in North America </li></ul><ul><li>US develops a regular military </li></ul><ul><li>War virtually ignored in the US (hmm wonder why?) </li></ul>