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The Durham Report

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    The Durham Report The Durham Report Presentation Transcript

    • The Durham Report After the Rebellions
    • Durham Report
      • Appointed Governor General of British North America in 1838
      • Deal with the 150 prisoners from the rebellions. - He realised that no Canadien jury would ever find them guilty. He got a confession from nine of the principals and he exiled them to Bermuda - he pardoned the remainder. (He had no authority to do this!)
    • Durham Report
      • He made things worse by declaring that Papineau and his aids were to be permanent exiles.
      • The British government disallowed this and Durham returned to England after only 5 months in the colony
    • Durham Report Sources:
      • On his return to England he wrote an incisive albeit racist report on the Canadas identifying the problems . Recommendations:
      • 1. Friction between the legislative councils and the legislative assemblies was the cause of the rebellions.
    • Durham Report Sources:
      • Racial tensions between French speaking and English speaking populations. Famous comment:
      • “ I expected to find a contest between a government and a people: I found two nations warring in the bosom of a single state : I found a struggle, not of principles, but of races; and I perceived that it would be idle to attempt any amelioration of laws or institutions until we could first succeed in terminating the deadly animosity that now separates the inhabitants of Lower Canada into the hostile divisions of French and English”
    • Durham Report Recommendations
      • The two Canadas be reunited in a common assembly based upon the principle of rep by pop .
      • Responsible government based on the British model.
      • Jurisdiction between imperial and local matters be distinguished.
    • Durham Report Outcomes:
      • The report was generally well received in the Canadas with some obvious voices of concern raised in Lower Canada. It did however take quite a number of years before the changes were implemented.
    • Durham Report Outcomes:
      • Change #1 - Union of the two colonies - 1840-41. Name: The United Colonies of Canada. Upper Canada becomes Canada West - Lower Canada - Canada East.
      • Change #2 - evolution of Responsible Government.
      • Sydenham (Charles Poulett Thomson) - Unites the Canadas - emphasises economic growth. Union - Equal representation in a single assembly - this gives unbalanced power to the smaller (population) Canada West (400,000) vs Canada East (600,000) died 1841.
      • Bagot - charged with the duty of avoiding Responsible govt. But to get support in the colonies he had to invite two reformers into the Cabinet - Baldwin and Lafontaine - he later brought in more reformers - Bagot died in 1843.
      • Metcalfe - He was instructed to recover power to the governor and cut back the reforms of Bagot. He started to do this but died of cancer before much success.
      • Lord Elgin : Appointed by the reform, free trade ministry of Prime Minister Lord John Russell in Britain - He is granted authority to give Responsible government.
    • Responsible Govt. Achieved
      • D on’t: Durham
      • S lowly: Sydenham
      • B arbecue: Bagot
      • M y : Metcalfe
      • E els: Elgin
    • Responsible Govt.
      • In 1848 the Reformers won a large majority in the Legislature.
      • Elgin asked Baldwin and Lafontaine to form a government.
      • The first test was the Rebellion Losses Bill of 1849, which compensated people for their losses during the rebellions.
      • The Tory opposition was against the bill and Elgin himself opposed it but he signed it nonetheless. This was the first test of Responsible government.
      • Tory riots broke out in Montreal and Parliament was burned