Seven Years War (French and Indian War) 1756- 1763.
Britain allied with Prussia and France allied with Austria, Russia, Sweden and Saxony.
Most powerful army in Europe
Large contingent of French Regulars including the Marines
Population of New France made up in part of retired military personnel
Inhabitants of New France experts at guerrilla warfare
The French (cont’d)
Inhabitants know the land – Coureurs du bois (French fur traders)
Unified sense of purpose
Very small population
Government corruption has led to poor supplies.
Strongest Navy in the world – well led
William Pitt’s Strategy: Subsidize one or more allies on the continent
Use the fleet to:
Raid enemy coast “holding enemy” off your allies
Blockade the enemy and destroy his fleet
Convoy to protect and support your own troops raiding or seizing enemy overseas colonies and its seaborne trade
The British (cont’d)
Large population in 13 colonies (relative to New France)
Colonists are subsistence farmers
No sense of unity – 13 disparate colonies
British: Win in North America with help of Navy
French: Win in Europe
British push into the Ohio Valley
1754 – the Ohio River Valley
French Ensign de Jummonville ambushed by British under George Washington. He is killed along with 9 men.
French respond by crushing American force: 30 killed and 70 wounded. Washington flees leaving his diary behind.
After reading this the Governor of New France, Marquis Duquesne says:
“ So many deserters, so much trouble in the provinces Washington traversed, so much discord among these troops of different provinces that claim to be independent! It is that which convinces me that we will always defeat such forces, as badly organized as they are unwarlike.”