The Future of Telecommunications and Information Technology

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03.10.21
Talk to Warren College Scholars Seminar Title: The Future of Telecommunications and Information Technology
San Diego, CA

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  • Bill Griswold’s ActiveCampus project seeks to engage students in campus life by increasing awareness of what and who is around them using wireless PDA’s and web technology. For example, a student walking up to APM sees this view on her PDA, showing two departments, Math and Computer Science, as well as Computing Services. The student also sees several buddies in the area. (The lists on the right show all her logged-in buddies, as well as nearby labs and so forth.) Seeing a buddy is nearby, she might click on him to send a quick message to arrange for coffee. Or, perhaps being curious about Computer Science, she can click on “CSE”, bringing up the department’s web page [use mouse to mouse over CSE and then click on it].
  • The PDB’s holdings have increased significantly since the project’s inception, and, with expanding structural genomics projects worldwide, it is expected that the PDB’s holdings will grow to approximately 35,000 structures by 2005. This chart shows the total number of structures in the PDB per year, as well as examples of these structures. In the 1970’s, the first structures available to the scientific community included proteins such as myoglobin (a), hemoglobin (b), and lysozyme (c) , and other molecules such as transfer RNA (d). In the 1980’s, advances in experimental data collection methods allowed much larger structures to be solved, including antibodies (e) and entire viruses (f). By 2001, all aspects of structural science had advanced so that very complex structures could be made accessible to study, including actin (g), the nucleosome (h), myosin (i), and even ribosomal subunits (j). Structures pictured here were taken from PDB entries 1mbn, 2dhb, 2lyz, 4tna + 6tna, 1fc1 + 1mcp, 2stv, 1atn, 1aoi, 1dfk, and 1ffk + 1fka + 1fjf, respectively. Images were created by Dr. David S. Goodsell of The Scripps Research Institute, creator of the PDB’s “Molecule of the Month” series.
  • The Future of Telecommunications and Information Technology

    1. 1. The Future of Telecommunications and Information Technology Talk to Warren College Scholars Seminar UCSD October 21, 2003 Dr. Larry Smarr Director, California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology Harry E. Gruber Professor, Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering Jacobs School of Engineering, UCSD
    2. 2. California’s Institutes for Science and Innovation A Bold Experiment in Collaborative Research California NanoSystems Institute UCSF UCB California Institute for Bioengineering, Biotechnology, and Quantitative Biomedical Research California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology Center for Information Technology Research in the Interest of Society UCSC UCD UCM www.ucop.edu/california-institutes UCSB UCLA UCI UCSD
    3. 3. Cal-(IT) 2 --An Interdisciplinary Research Public-Private Partnership on the Future of the Internet www.calit2.net 220 UC San Diego & UC Irvine Faculty Working in Multidisciplinary Teams With Students, Industry, and the Community The State’s $100 M Creates Unique Buildings, Equipment, and Laboratories
    4. 4. Two New Cal-(IT) 2 Buildings Are Under Construction <ul><li>Will Create New Laboratory Facilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interdisciplinary Teams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless and Optical Networking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer Arts Virtual Reality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean Rooms for Nanotech and BioMEMS </li></ul></ul>Bioengineering UC San Diego UC Irvine See www.calit2.net for Live VideoCams
    5. 5. The UCSD Cal-(IT) 2 Building Will Be Occupied in January 2005 Digital Cinema Auditorium Virtual Reality Cube Nanotech Clean Rooms RF and Optical Circuit Labs 200 Single Offices Hundreds of Collaborative Seats Watch us Grow! [www.calit2.net]
    6. 6. Cal-(IT) 2 Buildings Will Have Ubiquitous Tele-Presence Falko Kuester, UCI, Laboratory with Smart Boards and Optically Connected Large Screens
    7. 7. Cal-(IT)2 Undergrad Research Summer Research Program Bioengineering, Chemistry, Chemical Eng., Cog Sci, CSE, ECE, IR/PS, Music, Physics, SIO, Visual Arts
    8. 8. <ul><li>Wireless Access--Anywhere, Anytime </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadband Speeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cellular Interoperating with Wi-Fi </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Billions of New Wireless Internet End Points </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information Appliances (Including Cell Phones) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensors and Actuators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embedded Processors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enormous Capacity Core Network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple Wavelengths of Light Per Fiber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linking Clusters, Storage, Visualization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Massive Distributed Data Sets </li></ul></ul>Major Internet Technology Trends That Will Have Major Impact on Medicine
    9. 9. Transitioning to the “Always-On” Mobile Internet Source: Ericsson Two Modes of Wireless: Wide Area Cellular Internet Local Access Wi-Fi 0 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 2,000 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Mobile Internet Fixed Internet Subscribers (millions)
    10. 10. There Are Two Major Classes of Wireless Internet <ul><li>Wi-Fi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Or IEEE 802.11 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Range Roughly 100 Feet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>11 Mbps going to 54 Mbps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Installed in Ground-Up Fashion by Individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cellular Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Always-On” Internet Addition to Voice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provided by Telecom Vendors Like Verizon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A “Cable Modem” in the Sky </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two Standards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CDMA 2000 (US and Korea) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Now available as 1XRTT (~100 kbit/s) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oct. 1 1xEVDO in San Diego (~700kbit/s) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WCDMA GPRS (Europe and Asia) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Campuses Are Increasingly Covered With High Bandwidth “Wi-Fi” Wireless Internet Zones <ul><li>UCSD Wireless Projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ActiveClass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ActiveCampus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explorientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CyberShuttle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UCI Wireless Projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GPS PDAs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligent Transportation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wearables </li></ul></ul>http://activecampus2.ucsd.edu/acelaunch/coverage.php UCSD
    12. 12. Using Students to Invent the Future of Widespread Use of Wireless Devices <ul><li>Broadband Internet Connection via Wireless Wi-Fi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 600 Access Points on the Campus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Year- Long “Living Laboratory” Experiment 2001-02 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>500 Computer Science & Engineering Undergraduates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>300 Entering UCSD Sixth College Students—Fall 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Experiments with Geo-Location and Interactive Maps </li></ul>Cal-(IT) 2 Team: Bill Griswold, Gabriele Wienhausen, UCSD; Rajesh Gupta, UCI UC San Diego UC Irvine
    13. 13. Geolocation Will Be an Early New Wireless Internet Application <ul><li>Technologies of Geolocation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GPS chips </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access Point Triangulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bluetooth Beacons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gyro chips </li></ul></ul>Source: Bill Griswold, UCSD UCSD ActiveCampus – Outdoor Map
    14. 14. Students Are Creating New Uses of the “Always-On” Internet
    15. 15. Only Three Years From Research to Market New Broadband Cellular Internet Technology <ul><li>First US Taste of 3G Cellular Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UCSD Jacobs School Antenna </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three Years Before Commercial Rollout </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Linking to 802.11 Mobile “Bubble” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tested on Campus CyberShuttle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Verizon is Now in Final Tests </li></ul>Rooftop Qualcomm 1xEV Access Point www.calit2.net/news/2002/4-2-bbus.html Verizon Rollout Fall 2003 CyberShuttle March 2002 Installed Dec 2000
    16. 16. High Resolution, Low Jitter Video Diagnosis Tool Cal-(IT) 2 , Qualcomm, Path 1, & UCSD Stroke Center End-to-End QoS Management Video Delivered Over CDMA 2000 1x EV-DO To Specialists Viewing Station –Standard Laptop With 1xEV-DO Modems Current Coverage 10 Mi. Around Campus Prototype Led to a $5-million, 5-Year Grant from the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke
    17. 17. Building Materials Were Chosen To Maximize Radio Penetration <ul><li>Exterior Wall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear Glazing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trespa Wall Panels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interior Walls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glazed Office Walls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clerestory </li></ul></ul>Experiments That Will Influence Building Design in the Future
    18. 18. SDSU Santa Margarita Field Station is a SensorNet Living Laboratory Sensor Networks = Real-Time Science and Education Sedra Shapiro, Field Stations Director Larry Smarr, Cal-(IT) 2 Director Pablo Bryant, FS Technical Lead Claudia Luke, SMER Manager Eric Frost, SDSU Prof. Dan Cayan, SIO Installing Water Sensors
    19. 19. Cal-(IT) 2 Homeland Security Experiments During Super Bowl 2003 Led to $12M NSF Award to UC Irvine and UC San Diego Announced This Week—”Responding to the Unexpected”
    20. 20. Why Optical Networks Are Emerging as the 21 st Century Driver for the Grid Scientific American, January 2001 Parallel Lambdas Will Drive This Decade The Way Parallel Processors Drove the 1990s
    21. 21. The Biomedical Informatics Research Network: a Multi-Scale Brain Imaging Federated Repository National Partnership for Advanced Computational Infrastructure Part of the UCSD CRBS Center for Research on Biological Structure UCSD is IT and Telecomm Integration Center Average File Transfer ~10-50 Mbps
    22. 22. Interventional MRI Requires Tight Coupling of Infrastructure <ul><li>Open MRI and Surgical Theater </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overlay of Graphics from </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Computed Data & Simulation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Feedback To Surgeon Regarding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change in Location of Landmarks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>and Target Tumor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Feedback To MRI Controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>and Radiologist to Modulate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Instrument and Improve Image </li></ul></ul></ul>Images Provided by Ron Kikinis & Steve Pieper of the Surgical Planning Laboratory, Brigham and Woman’s Hospital, Harvard
    23. 23. Why Not Constantly Compute on Federated Repositories? <ul><li>Currently </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transformations to Organ Coordinates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Surgical View of Body </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Define Differences in Organs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. UCLA Human Brain Mapping Project—Art Toga </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fly Through Organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual Colonoscopy ( www.vitalimaging.com ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Future </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Train AI Software on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Millions of Human Image DataSets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Define Distribution Functions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thresholds for Medical Attention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life Cycle of Single Individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic Early Warnings </li></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 24. The OptIPuter Project – Removing Bandwidth as an Obstacle In Data Intensive Sciences <ul><li>NSF Large Information Technology Research Proposal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UCSD and UIC Lead Campuses—Larry Smarr PI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USC, UCI, SDSU, NW Partnering Campuses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Industrial Partners: IBM, Telcordia/SAIC, Chiaro, Calient </li></ul><ul><li>$13.5 Million Over Five Years </li></ul><ul><li>Optical IP Streams From Lab Clusters to Large Data Objects </li></ul>NIH Biomedical Informatics Research Network NSF EarthScope http://ncmir.ucsd.edu/gallery.html siovizcenter.ucsd.edu/library/gallery/shoot1/index.shtml
    25. 25. The UCSD OptIPuter Deployment SIO SDSC CRCA Phys. Sci -Keck SOM JSOE Preuss 6 th College SDSC Annex Node M Earth Sciences SDSC Medicine Engineering High School To CENIC Collocation Source: Phil Papadopoulos, SDSC; Greg Hidley, Cal-(IT) 2 Prototyping a Campus-Scale OptIPuter Forged a New Level Of Campus Collaboration In Networking Infrastructure SDSC Annex 2 Miles 0.01 ms ½ Mile Juniper T320 0.320 Tbps Backplane Bandwidth 20X Chiaro Estara 6.4 Tbps Backplane Bandwidth
    26. 26. Multi-Latency OptIPuter Laboratory National-Scale Experimental Network Source: John Silvester, Dave Reese, Tom West-CENIC 2000 Miles 10 ms =1000x Campus Latency “ National Lambda Rail” Partnership Serves Very High-End Experimental and Research Applications 4 x 10GB Wavelengths Initially Capable of 40 x 10Gb wavelengths at Buildout Chicago OptIPuter StarLight NU, UIC SoCal OptIPuter USC, UCI UCSD, SDSU
    27. 27. OptIPuter Uses TransLight Lambdas to Connect Current and Potential International-Scale Partners Source: Tom DeFanti, UIC The OptIPuter Was Born Global! Starlight NU, UIC Univ. of Amsterdam NetherLight Current OptIPuter
    28. 28. Exponential Growth in the Number of Genetic Sequences <ul><li>Currently (Feb 2003) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>28 Billion Base Pairs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>22 Million Sequences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50,000 species </li></ul></ul>www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Genbank/GenbankOverview.html
    29. 29. The Protein Data Bank is Growing Rapidly <ul><li>The Single International Repository for 3-D Structure Data of Biological Macro-molecules </li></ul><ul><li>More Than 150,000 Web Hits Per Day, </li></ul><ul><li>> 1 Hit Per Second, 24/7 </li></ul>Source: Phil Bourne, SDSC. UCSD
    30. 30. Hard Far Can We Go in the Re-Integration of a Single Eukaryotic Cell? <ul><li>Organelles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 Million Ribosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30,000 Proteasomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dozens of Mitochondria </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Macromolecules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 Billion Proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5,000 to 10,000 different species </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 meter of DNA with Several Billion bases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>60 Million tRNAs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>700,000 mRNAs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chemical Pathways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vast numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tightly coupled </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is a Virtual Cell Possible? </li></ul>www.people.virginia.edu/~rjh9u/cell1.html Viscosity ≈ 1000 x H 2 O Pressure (osmotic) ≈ 500 atm Electrical gradient ≈ 300,000 V/cm Source: Bernhard Palsson, UCSD
    31. 31. Toward a Model of the Neuron An “Extreme” Cell Source: Mark Ellisman, NCMIR, UCSD SOM
    32. 32. OptIPuter Includes On-Line Microscopes Creating Very Large Biological Montage Images <ul><li>2-Photon Laser Confocal Microscope </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High Speed On-line Capability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Montage Image Sizes Exceed 16x Highest Resolution Monitors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>~150 Million Pixels! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use Graphics Cluster with Multiple GigEs to Drive Tiled Displays </li></ul>Source: David Lee, NCMIR, UCSD IBM 9M Pixels
    33. 33. Mouse BIRN--Integration of Multi-Resolution Data Microscopic MRI of Rodent Brain - Duke Univ and Caltech Linked with High Resolution Laser-Microscopy Data-UCSD NCMIR
    34. 34. Large Microscope Images Allow Both Fine Detail and Global Context 1 mm Large Scale Brain Maps
    35. 36. Single Neuron Cell Reconstructions Hiroyuki Hakozaki, NCMIR, UCSD SOM: Deconvolution with Autoquant
    36. 37. Toward a Hundred Million Pixel Flat Display NCMIR – Brain Microscopy (2800x4000 24 layers)

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