-0-   Copyright © 2008 ICIC
Agenda



• Performance of Inner City Economies

• Federal Policy and Inner City Economic Development

• Policy Area I: Wo...
Poverty Concentration in the 100 Largest Inner Cities,
                                      2000



                    0...
Comparative per Capita Income
                                100 Largest Inner Cities vs. Rest of Economy, 2000

    2000...
Relationship of Central City Employment Growth and
                                                                       ...
100 Largest Inner Cities vs. Rest of MSA, 1998 – 2006
                                                                    ...
100 Largest Inner Cities vs. Rest of MSA, 1998 – 2006
                                                                    ...
Inner City Employment Growth, CAGR 1998-2006   Inner City Job Growth vs. Rest of MSA, 1998-2006




                      ...
100 Largest Inner Cities vs. Rest of MSA, 1998 – 2006
                                                                    ...
Agenda



• Performance of Inner City Economies

• Federal Policy and Inner City Economic Development

• Policy Area I: Wo...
Role of Federal Policy in Inner City Economic Development
                                       Overview
 •   Healthy reg...
Federal Policy and the Competitive Advantages
                                        of Inner Cities

                   ...
Agenda



• Performance of Inner City Economies

• Federal Policy and Inner City Economic Development

• Policy Area I: Wo...
Inner City Labor Force, 2000

   % Population, 2000
          80%

                                                       ...
Inner City Labor Force, 2000
                                             Education Levels: Population Aged 25+




      ...
U.S. Workers: Unemployment and Earnings by
                                    Education Level, 2007

                Unem...
U.S. Workforce: Training and Earnings Power, 2006




    • Workforce training has a huge impact on wages of workers witho...
Most Cited Obstacles to Inner City Business Growth
                                     Survey of Inner City 100 Companies...
Federal Spending on Economic Development by
                                    Category, 2006




                       ...
Federal Workforce Expenditures, 1988-2007
                                                                                ...
Federal Programs Supporting Skills Training and Education

           •      Department of Education                      ...
Evolution of Workforce Development Policy


                                                  Old Model                   ...
Intensive Training Participants by Education and
                                   Income, 2000 vs. 2006




            ...
Workforce Development for Inner Cities:
                    Federal Policy Recommendations
     Increase Intensive        ...
Agenda



• Performance of Inner City Economies

• Federal Policy and Inner City Economic Development

• Policy Area I: Wo...
Concentration of U.S. Infrastructure in Inner Cities, 2007
                                                               ...
Transportation Infrastructure Density, 2007
               Facilities per Square Mile (U.S. Density = 1.0)                ...
Infrastructure Expenditure as a Percent of GDP
                                                      1988-2006 (2006 Dolla...
Mix of Infrastructure Spending, 2004
                                                      Federal vs. State and Local
   ...
Infrastructure and Inner City Economic Development

•   Infrastructure density
    – Density of infrastructure provides mu...
Position of Inner Cities in Infrastructure-Intensive Clusters
                                 Cluster Concentration, 1998...
Railroad Crossings, Bridges, and Deficient Bridges
                                                                       ...
Change in “Deficient” Infrastructure in Urban and Rural
                              Areas, 1998-2006
  % Change in Defic...
Infrastructure Priorities for Inner Cities

                 Change National                                              ...
Example: Park Hill Corridor in West Louisville

                                                          •        20 minu...
Agenda



• Performance of Inner City Economies

• Federal Policy and Inner City Economic Development

• Policy Area I: Wo...
Unmet Demand for Investment in the 100 Largest
                                    Inner Cities


                        ...
Increasing Capital Flow to Inner City Economies
                                                                 Current F...
New Markets Tax Credit Projects, 2006


                 Real Estate vs. Business Investment            Transaction Amount...
Capital Access Policies for Potential Federal Policy
                                Recommendations

                    ...
Agenda



• Performance of Inner City Economies

• Federal Policy and Inner City Economic Development

• Policy Area I: Wo...
Cluster Development

    •      Clusters increase productivity and new business formation
            – Efficient access t...
Clusters and Federal Economic Development Strategy
                                                 Current Initiatives


...
Inner City Employment by Cluster, 2006
                                                         Rank




                 ...
Linking Cluster Development and Competitive Advantage

                                                                Lar...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

inner city

895

Published on

.

Published in: Career, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
895
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
7
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

inner city

  1. 1. -0- Copyright © 2008 ICIC
  2. 2. Agenda • Performance of Inner City Economies • Federal Policy and Inner City Economic Development • Policy Area I: Workforce Training • Policy Area II: Infrastructure • Policy Area III: Capital Access • Policy Area IV: Cluster Development -1- Copyright © 2008 ICIC
  3. 3. Poverty Concentration in the 100 Largest Inner Cities, 2000 0.1% U.S. 8% U.S. 19% U.S. 31% U.S. Land Area Population Poverty Minority Poverty • Targeting poverty in inner cities allows “wholesale” rather than “retail” approach to poverty reduction -2- Copyright © 2008 ICIC Source: State of the Inner City Economies (SICE) database; ICIC analysis
  4. 4. Comparative per Capita Income 100 Largest Inner Cities vs. Rest of Economy, 2000 2000 Mean Per Capita Income (US $) • Wages are significantly lower in inner cities than rest of the U.S. for all demographic groups -3- Copyright © 2008 ICIC Source: State of the Inner City Economies (SICE) database; ICIC analysis
  5. 5. Relationship of Central City Employment Growth and Poverty Rates Job Loss/Poverty Increase: Job Gain/Poverty Increase: Central City Poverty Rate, % Change 2000-2007 30 Cities 35 Cities Job Loss/Poverty Decrease: Job Gain/Poverty Decrease: 9 Cities 26 Cities Central City Job Growth, CAGR, 1999-2006 • Each 1% growth in central city job creation is correlated with a 0.9% decline in central city poverty -4- Copyright © 2008 ICIC Source: State of the Inner City Economies (SICE) database; ICIC analysis. Three cities not shown.
  6. 6. 100 Largest Inner Cities vs. Rest of MSA, 1998 – 2006 Job Growth 1998 – 2006 Job Net Growth Job CAGR Change Rest of MSA 1.3% 6,235,800 Rest of 1.0% +1,389,300 Central City Inner City 0.0% +10,300 • Between 1998 and 2006, the 100 largest inner cities added 10,000 jobs while their regions added over 6 million jobs -5- Copyright © 2008 ICIC Source: State of the Inner City Economies (SICE) database; ICIC analysis
  7. 7. 100 Largest Inner Cities vs. Rest of MSA, 1998 – 2006 Establishment Growth 1998 – 2006 Estab. Net Growth Estab. CAGR Change Rest of MSA 1.4% +499,000 Rest of 1.1% +85,600 Central City Inner City 0.2% +8,600 • Inner city business formation growth also lags that of the region -6- Copyright © 2008 ICIC Source: State of the Inner City Economies (SICE) database; ICIC analysis
  8. 8. Inner City Employment Growth, CAGR 1998-2006 Inner City Job Growth vs. Rest of MSA, 1998-2006 Phoenix Brooklyn - Queens Manhattan - Bronx Houston L.A. Baltimore San Antonio Philadelphia Chicago Dallas Rest of MSA Employment Growth, CAGR 1998-2006 -7- Copyright © 2008 ICIC Source: State of the Inner City Economies (SICE) database; ICIC analysis. Ten largest cities noted.
  9. 9. 100 Largest Inner Cities vs. Rest of MSA, 1998 – 2006 Job Growth Average Average Percent of Range of MSA Number of Annual MSA Annual Inner Inner Cities Growth MSAs Growth City Growth that Grew > 2% 26 3.1% 1.2% 73% 1-2% 35 1.5% 0.3% 69% Average U.S. Growth = 1.3% 0-1% 31 0.7% -0.4% 29% < 0% 7 -0.3% -1.4% 0% • Regional growth policies must be augmented to spur job creation in inner cities -8- Copyright © 2008 ICIC Source: State of the Inner City Economies (SICE) database; ICIC analysis. New Orleans excluded.
  10. 10. Agenda • Performance of Inner City Economies • Federal Policy and Inner City Economic Development • Policy Area I: Workforce Training • Policy Area II: Infrastructure • Policy Area III: Capital Access • Policy Area IV: Cluster Development -9- Copyright © 2008 ICIC
  11. 11. Role of Federal Policy in Inner City Economic Development Overview • Healthy regional economies are necessary for inner city economic growth – A shift from national to regional economic development is critical • Regional economic growth alone is not sufficient to ensure inner city economic development – Regional policy frameworks must be augmented with specific policy approaches for inner city economies • Federal policy should enable inner city economic development by strengthening the inherent competitive advantages of inner cities while addressing weaknesses – Inner city stagnation reflects waning competitive advantages, especially in workforce development and infrastructure • Specific public-private initiatives focused on inner city clusters will have the greatest leverage for business development – Inner cities have inherent advantages in those clusters that require access to infrastructure nodes, anchor institutions, and available workforce - 10 - Copyright © 2008 ICIC
  12. 12. Federal Policy and the Competitive Advantages of Inner Cities Under-Utilized Unmet Demand Workforce Opportunities for inner Large pool of available city-based businesses workers and entrepreneurs Workforce Development Inner Cities Capital Access Linkage to Regional Strategic Location Growth Clusters Located near regional, Opportunity to leverage national and international proximity to regional infrastructure nodes clusters Infrastructure Cluster Initiatives - 11 - Copyright © 2008 ICIC Source: Porter, 1995
  13. 13. Agenda • Performance of Inner City Economies • Federal Policy and Inner City Economic Development • Policy Area I: Workforce Training • Policy Area II: Infrastructure • Policy Area III: Capital Access • Policy Area IV: Cluster Development - 12 - Copyright © 2008 ICIC
  14. 14. Inner City Labor Force, 2000 % Population, 2000 80% 66% 60% 56% 40% 20% 13% 3% 0% Unemployment Rate Labor Force Participation Rate 100 Largest Inner Cities Rest of U.S. - 13 - Copyright © 2008 ICIC Source: State of the Inner City Economies (SICE) database; ICIC analysis
  15. 15. Inner City Labor Force, 2000 Education Levels: Population Aged 25+ - 14 - Copyright © 2008 ICIC Source: State of the Inner City Economies (SICE) database; ICIC analysis
  16. 16. U.S. Workers: Unemployment and Earnings by Education Level, 2007 Unemployment Rate, 2007 (%) Median Annual Earnings, 2007 Advanced Degree Bachelor’s Degree Associate’s Degree Some College, No Degree High School Degree No High School Degree - 15 - Copyright © 2008 ICIC Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, 2008
  17. 17. U.S. Workforce: Training and Earnings Power, 2006 • Workforce training has a huge impact on wages of workers without a college degree - 16 - Copyright © 2008 ICIC Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, 2006. Wages calculated across occupations that share education and training requirements.
  18. 18. Most Cited Obstacles to Inner City Business Growth Survey of Inner City 100 Companies, 2004-2008 Percent of Inner City 100 Companies 40% 35% 30% 21% 20% 15% 10% 0% Recruiting Qualified Employees Access to Capital Building Corporate Infrastructure • Workforce training could promote inner city business growth by addressing the need for qualified workers - 17 - Copyright © 2008 ICIC Source: Inner City 100 Surveys; ICIC analysis
  19. 19. Federal Spending on Economic Development by Category, 2006 - 18 - Copyright © 2008 ICIC Source: Brookings, 2008
  20. 20. Federal Workforce Expenditures, 1988-2007 (2006 dollars) Federal Workforce Expenditures, US 2006 (US $B) • Over the Last 20 Years, Federal Spending On Non-Veteran Workforce Training and Employment Has Declined Over 20% - 19 - Copyright © 2008 ICIC Source: Office of Management and Budget, 2008; ICIC analysis
  21. 21. Federal Programs Supporting Skills Training and Education • Department of Education • Department of Labor – Pell Grant Program - Workforce Investment Act – Carl D. Perkins Career and - Wagner-Peyser Act Technical Education Act - Trade Adjustment Assistance – Adult Education and Family Literacy Act • Department of Housing and Urban – Vocational Rehabilitation State Development Grants – Community Development Block Grant • Department of Health and Human Services • Department of the Treasury – Temporary Assistance for Needy Families – Tax Credits and Deductions for Education and Training – Social Services Block Grant – Community Services Block Grant – Food Stamp Employment and Training Program • There is a morass of programs and agencies at the federal level. This is exacerbated by the large number of state and local programs - 20 - Copyright © 2008 ICIC Source: Workforce Alliance, 2007; Baider, 2008
  22. 22. Evolution of Workforce Development Policy Old Model New Model Recipients • Targeted to low-income adults, • Open access for core services youth, and dislocated workers • Reduction in training for low- • Greater access for individuals income and less-educated with characteristics commonly workers found in inner city populations (e.g., less formal education) • Centralized (federal) power for • Decentralization: growing role program administration and for states in allocation and Public/Private creation assessment Roles • Limited private-sector • Private-sector leadership involvement Program • High-intensity training common • Focus on job search and rapid • Focus on job retention and job placement Structure • Decline in intensive training advancement - 21 - Copyright © 2008 ICIC Source: ICIC project interviews, 2008
  23. 23. Intensive Training Participants by Education and Income, 2000 vs. 2006 2000 2006 2000 2006 Low Income Participants High School Degree or Less - 22 - Copyright © 2008 ICIC Source: Center for Law and Social Policy (CLASP), 2008. Data apply to Workforce Investment Act.
  24. 24. Workforce Development for Inner Cities: Federal Policy Recommendations Increase Intensive Link Training to Address Specific Training for Low- Inner City Needs of Inner Skilled Competitive City Residents Populations Advantages • Assess adequacy of • Provide adequate support • Link training to clusters existing services for those mechanisms (e.g., child care) • Orient training providers with low basic skills towards economic • Integrate training with adult • Leverage the skills of development and the needs education community organizations of business (e.g., language skills) • Include “work readiness” • Allow flexibility and programs • Place training service experimentation at local centers near target level • Prepare lower-skilled populations workers in “middle-skilled” jobs • Create better mechanisms for matching of residents to regional and inner city jobs - 23 - Copyright © 2008 ICIC
  25. 25. Agenda • Performance of Inner City Economies • Federal Policy and Inner City Economic Development • Policy Area I: Workforce Training • Policy Area II: Infrastructure • Policy Area III: Capital Access • Policy Area IV: Cluster Development - 24 - Copyright © 2008 ICIC
  26. 26. Concentration of U.S. Infrastructure in Inner Cities, 2007 16% 15% 14% % Total U.S. Infrastructure in the 100 Largest Inner 14% 12% 10% 9% Cities 8% 6% 6% 4% 2% 0% Business Establishments Ports 50 Largest Airports Intermodal Facilities - 25 - Copyright © 2008 ICIC Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 2008; State of the Inner City Economies (SICE) database; ICIC analysis
  27. 27. Transportation Infrastructure Density, 2007 Facilities per Square Mile (U.S. Density = 1.0) Selected Facilities - 26 - Copyright © 2008 ICIC Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 2008; ICIC analysis. Data are for 175 largest central cities.
  28. 28. Infrastructure Expenditure as a Percent of GDP 1988-2006 (2006 Dollars) % of GDP Spent on Infrastructure - 27 - Copyright © 2008 ICIC Source: Congressional Budget Office, 2008
  29. 29. Mix of Infrastructure Spending, 2004 Federal vs. State and Local Share of Infrastructure Spending, 2004 - 28 - Copyright © 2008 ICIC Source: Congressional Budget Office, 2008
  30. 30. Infrastructure and Inner City Economic Development • Infrastructure density – Density of infrastructure provides multiple access points to local, national, and international economies – Density means that inner city infrastructure weaknesses harm the entire region’s infrastructure efficiency for business • The quality of the infrastructure network relies on the surrounding local road system – The quality of local infrastructure (roads, bridges) influences the value of nearby regional and international infrastructure • Infrastructure weaknesses are hurting competitive advantage – The overall quality of national infrastructure has declined over the past decade – The quality of urban infrastructure relative to rural has likely declined – We hypothesize that there has been a decline in inner city infrastructure relative to the rest of the central city - 29 - Copyright © 2008 ICIC
  31. 31. Position of Inner Cities in Infrastructure-Intensive Clusters Cluster Concentration, 1998 Cluster Concentration, 2006 Transportation and Logistics (1) Apparel Local Utilities Water Transport Apparel Entertainment Financial Services Local Utilities Education and Knowledge Creation Financial Services Local Community and Civic Organizations Jewelry and Precious Metals Local Commercial Services Education and Knowledge Creation Processed Food Local Community and Civic Organizations Local Financial Services Transportation and Logistics (9) Jewelry and Precious Metals Hospitality and Tourism Hospitality and Tourism Local Education and Training Entertainment Local Financial Services Local Industrial Products and Services Oil and Gas Products and Services Water Transport Processed Food Local Education and Training Local Commercial Services Local Logistical Services (16) Local Industrial Products and Services Local Entertainment and Media Local Logistical Services (17) Local Health Services Publishing and Printing Leather and Related Products Local Health Services Publishing and Printing Local Entertainment and Media Oil and Gas Products and Services Business Services Business Services Chemical Products Distribution Services (23) Building Fixtures, Equipment and Services Local Real Estate, Construction, and Development Leather and Related Products Chemical Products Distribution Services (25) Biopharmaceuticals Local Real Estate, Construction, and Development Building Fixtures, Equipment and Services Power Generation and Transmission Power Generation and Transmission Biopharmaceuticals Local Food and Beverage Processing and Distribution Local Food and Beverage Processing and Distribution Local Hospitality Establishments Local Hospitality Establishments Metal Manufacturing Local Motor Vehicle Products and Services Casino Hotels Metal Manufacturing Local Motor Vehicle Products and Services Local Personal Services (Non-Medical) Local Personal Services (Non-Medical) Casino Hotels Local Household Goods and Services Construction Materials Heavy Construction Services Local Household Goods and Services Lighting and Electrical Equipment Heavy Construction Services Automotive Lighting and Electrical Equipment • Inner cities have lost ground in the most transportation-intensive clusters - 30 - Copyright © 2008 ICIC Source: State of the Inner City Economies (SICE) database; ICIC analysis
  32. 32. Railroad Crossings, Bridges, and Deficient Bridges Per Square Mile, 2007 Facilities per Square Mile (U.S. Density = 1.0) - 31 - Copyright © 2008 ICIC Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics, North American Transportation Atlas Data, 2007; ICIC analysis. Data are for 175 largest central cities.
  33. 33. Change in “Deficient” Infrastructure in Urban and Rural Areas, 1998-2006 % Change in Deficient Infrastructure 50% 41% 40% 33% 30% 20% 10% Bridges, 1998-2006 0% Roads, 1998-2006 -5% -10% -20% -16% Rural Urban • Urban infrastructure is degrading relative to rural areas - 32 - Copyright © 2008 ICIC Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 2008; ICIC analysis
  34. 34. Infrastructure Priorities for Inner Cities Change National Neutral Allocation Local and National Policy Approach Mechanisms • Base investments on • Consider unique • Promote neutral allocation economic impact characteristics of inner city mechanisms infrastructure • Density and network • National issue linked to • Neutrality between urban efficiency concerns are global competitiveness and rural areas magnified in inner cities • Economic value of national • Economic rationale should and international • Neutrality between central replace political rationale infrastructure can be city and inner city areas squandered by poor local infrastructure in inner cities • The quality of inner city transportation infrastructure is an issue of national economic competitiveness - 33 - Copyright © 2008 ICIC Source: ICIC project interviews, 2008; ICIC, 2008; Hill, et al., 2003
  35. 35. Example: Park Hill Corridor in West Louisville • 20 minutes from UPS’s “all points” air hub - Access to the hub can reduce national and international shipping time by up to a day - Businesses that have emerged: computer repair, credit card replacement, distribution - In West Louisville (pictured), the advantage due to hub access undermined by poor quality of local transportation network - 34 - Copyright © 2008 ICIC Source: Economics Research Associates, 2008; ICIC, 2008
  36. 36. Agenda • Performance of Inner City Economies • Federal Policy and Inner City Economic Development • Policy Area I: Workforce Training • Policy Area II: Infrastructure • Policy Area III: Capital Access • Policy Area IV: Cluster Development - 35 - Copyright © 2008 ICIC
  37. 37. Unmet Demand for Investment in the 100 Largest Inner Cities Consumers Businesses • 7.4 million households • 460,000 inner city companies with 8.9 million employees in • Some of fastest-growing 2006 segments of the U.S. population • $80 billion in commercial services • Retail supply gap estimated at demand that can be served from 35% inner cities • Local business services in inner cities are declining relative to needs • The persistence of unmet consumer and business demand is emblematic of weaknesses in inner city business formation and growth - 36 - Copyright © 2008 ICIC Source: State of the Inner City Economies (SICE) database; Boston Consulting Group-ICIC, 2006; ICIC analysis;
  38. 38. Increasing Capital Flow to Inner City Economies Current Federal Initiatives • Recruitment (“outside-in”) strategies that provide tax incentives and regulatory relief to attract outside businesses to distressed areas – New Markets Tax Credit (NMTC) – Renewal Communities/Empowerment Zones (RC/EZ) • Federal contracting opportunities for small business concerns in distressed communities or owned by socially and economically disadvantaged persons – SBA 8a Program (demographically-based) – SBA HUBZone Empowerment Contracting Program (place-based) • Access to credit (loan size <$1M) for small businesses and minority entrepreneurs – SBA guaranteed lending programs (7a, 504) – Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) - 37 - Copyright © 2008 ICIC Source: ICIC project interviews, 2008; Small Business Administration, 2005
  39. 39. New Markets Tax Credit Projects, 2006 Real Estate vs. Business Investment Transaction Amount >$5M Business 18% Real Estate Development Investment <$1M 68% Equity & Debt 50% 32% $1-5M 33% • NMTC has not met its potential to provide equity financing to mid-sized inner city businesses - 38 - Copyright © 2008 ICIC Source: CDFI Fund, 2008
  40. 40. Capital Access Policies for Potential Federal Policy Recommendations Access to Advisory Support Valuation Models Growth Capital • Create incentives and/or • Conduct research on valuation • Federal coordination with remove barriers to models for assessing inner local authorities to inform investment in inner city city risk businesses about available support and financing areas through e.g.: - Credit scores alone - Tax credits options penalize lower-asset - Lower regulatory barriers for individual investors individuals • Increase funding for business development • Extend and promote the New - Conventional site within SBA 8a program Markets Tax Credits (NMTC) location models may for business investment understate inner city economic potential • Reduce red tape and transactions costs for SBA loans • Growth capital remains an issue for firms without access to strong advisory services, personal assets, and “friends and family” capital - 39 - Copyright © 2008 ICIC Source: Pacific Community Ventures, 2006; Community Development Venture Capital Alliance, 2001
  41. 41. Agenda • Performance of Inner City Economies • Federal Policy and Inner City Economic Development • Policy Area I: Workforce Training • Policy Area II: Infrastructure • Policy Area III: Capital Access • Policy Area IV: Cluster Development - 40 - Copyright © 2008 ICIC
  42. 42. Cluster Development • Clusters increase productivity and new business formation – Efficient access to specialized inputs, services, employees, information, institutions, training programs, and other “public goods” – Easier commercialization of new products and greater opportunities for starting new companies due to available skills, suppliers, etc. • Cluster policy leverages policy investments over numerous companies – Investments in training, information, export promotion, etc. will benefit many companies across a range of industries • Cluster policies are less distortive than those aimed at individual industries or firms • Cluster policy does not pick winners - 41 - Copyright © 2008 ICIC Source: Porter, 2008
  43. 43. Clusters and Federal Economic Development Strategy Current Initiatives • The current state of Federal cluster policy is weak – “U.S. federal government has been almost entirely absent from the realm of cluster initiative programs” (Mills, et al. 2008) – In 2006, only $565 million out of $76 billion in federal spending on economic development supported collaboration and clusters – Some exceptions: • WIRED: Collaborative approach to regional development; many efforts, e.g., West Louisville, are organized around clusters • SECTORS (July, 2008): “Strengthening Employment Clusters to Organize Regional Success”; DOL; training skilled worker to address shortages; “grantees are required to identify targeted industry clusters” • However, there is growing role of cluster thinking in economic development - 42 - Copyright © 2008 ICIC Source: Mills, 2008
  44. 44. Inner City Employment by Cluster, 2006 Rank Employment, 2006 - 43 - Copyright © 2008 ICIC Source: State of the Inner City Economies (SICE) database; ICIC analysis
  45. 45. Linking Cluster Development and Competitive Advantage Largest Inner City Clusters Local Health Services Local Commercial Services Local Hospitality Establishments Local Community and Civic Organizations Anchor Clusters Construction, Housing and Real Estate Transportation and Logistics Knowledge Creation, Education and Training Emerging Inner City Strengths Entertainment Hospitality and Tourism - 44 - Copyright © 2008 ICIC Source: State of the Inner City Economies (SICE) database; ICIC analysis
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×