REMAIN CALM, ALL IS WELL
What,Why andWhere
By
Steve Marvin, P.E.
Goldilocks and the Three
Bears
 First documented testing technician
 Original Goldilocks was
 course,
 ugly,
 smelly
...
Goldilocks and the Three
Bears
 First documented testing technician
 Morphed to
 politically correct
 cute
 little gi...
Initial observations
House Unlocked
 Nice house
 Plenty of food
 Places to sleep
Tested Observations
Porridge
Too hot
Too cold
Just right
Chairs
Too small
Too big
Just right
Beds
To hard
To soft
Just rig...
Things We Know
 All pavements when constructed are the
same
 Materials
 Gradation
 Binder content
 Aggregate shape
 ...
Things We Know
 All pavements when constructed with the
same
 Relative compaction
Things We Know
 All pavements when constructed with the
same
 Thickness
 Smoothness
 Surface texture
 Skid resistance
Things We Know
 All pavements are exposed to the same
 Weather cycles
 Rainfall
 Landscape irrigation runoff
 Tempera...
Things We Know
 All Pavements have the same
 Crown
 Cross slope
 Longitudinal slope
 Frontage Improvements
Things We Know
 All Pavements are constructed over the same
soil subgrade with
 Identical wet and dry strengths
 Identi...
Things We Know
They are subjected to the same
 Axle weights
 Tire pressures
 Numbers of axle loads
 Travel speed
Things We Know
They are subjected to the same
 Vehicle operation
 Speed
 Stopping
 Starting
 Standing
 Acceleration
...
Things We Know
 All Pavements are maintained with
 Same pavement seals
 Same crack filling
 Same interval of maintenan...
Things We Know
 All pavements require
 Arbitrary 2” thick asphalt concrete overlays every
10 or 20 years
 Identical Cra...
Things We Know
 No additional information is required
Things We Ignore
 Axle weights increased from 18,000 to 20,000
pounds on trucks
 Axle weights increased from 18,000 to 2...
Things We Ignore
 Traffic volumes have increased
 Asphalt binder characteristics are changing
 Recycling is increasing
...
Things We Need to Know
 Pavement construction variations
 What
 Why
 Where
 Impact
Things We Need to Know
 Pavement use variations
 Pavement maintenance differences
 Environmental differences
How Do We Find Out?
 We use pavement management to define
similarities
 We use engineering properties to define
differen...
What Sources Do We Have?
 Historical plans
 As-built drawings
 Visual observations
 Pavement coring and potholing
 Gr...
The Evolution of Subsurface
Exploration
1970’s GPR
 1970’s
 Oil and Mineral Deposits
 Archaeologists
 Military
 Big M...
GPR: Definition
 Electromagnetic Radiation
 Microwave band (UHF/VHF
Frequency)
 Radio waves transmitted into the
Ground...
GPR Types
Low Frequency Applications
 Less than 16 - 200 MHz
 LongWave Length
 Deep Penetration
 Range 30 Ft to 150 Ft...
GPR Types
Mid Frequency
Applications
 270 MHz to 900 MHz
 LongWave Length
 Not as Deep Penetration
 Range 50 ft to 12 ...
GPR Types
High Frequency Applications
 1600 MHz to 2600 MHz
 ShortWave Length
 Shallow Penetration
 Range 0 Ft to 1.5 ...
GPR Types
High Frequency Applications
 1 GHz to 2 GHz
 ShortWave Length
 Shallow Penetration
 Range 0 Ft to 2.5 Ft
 G...
Document Pavement History
Rapid Data Acquisition
9” AC over 20” AB
(Example A)
3.5” AC over 10” PCC
(Example B)
PCC
4” AC over 6” AB
(Example – New Pavement)
Anaheim Street (Port of Long Beach)
9th Street to LA River Bridge
Carson Street
(Intersection Testing)
Buried PCC
Buried PCC
Long Term/Historical Changes
Historical Changes
Historical Parking Lot
Improvements
New Parking Lot Construction
Network level documentation
How is it behaving?
 How strong is the roadway?
 Areas of strength and weakness
 How does that compare with past use?
...
Impacts on performance
 Indirect estimates
 Estimates from component analysis based on
 Thickness information
 Visible...
Impacts on performance
 Direct measurement
 In-place strength testing
 Multiple locations
 Magnitude of deflection
 S...
In place strength testing
In place strength testing
In place strength testing
In place strength testing
In place strength testing
Specific Strength
Measurements
Comparative Analysis
Combined Analysis
Cost Effective Rehabilitation
Strategies
Real Information
 Pavement Coring
 Defines layer types and history
 Ground Penetration Radar
 Provides continuous docu...
Rational Engineering
Judgment
 Information Based
 Subjective v. Objective Analysis
 Empirical v. Mechanistic Analysis
...
The Pavement Tree
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Steve Marvin - Non-destructive testing of asphalt pavements

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Presentation delivered at the CalAPA Spring Asphalt Pavement Conference April 9-10, 2014 in Ontario. Topic: Non-destructive testing, including the use of both FWD and GPR testing, how they are done, results from the testing and how they are used in pavement management / preservation decision-making.

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Steve Marvin - Non-destructive testing of asphalt pavements

  1. 1. REMAIN CALM, ALL IS WELL What,Why andWhere By Steve Marvin, P.E.
  2. 2. Goldilocks and the Three Bears  First documented testing technician  Original Goldilocks was  course,  ugly,  smelly  old woman
  3. 3. Goldilocks and the Three Bears  First documented testing technician  Morphed to  politically correct  cute  little girl
  4. 4. Initial observations House Unlocked  Nice house  Plenty of food  Places to sleep
  5. 5. Tested Observations Porridge Too hot Too cold Just right Chairs Too small Too big Just right Beds To hard To soft Just right
  6. 6. Things We Know  All pavements when constructed are the same  Materials  Gradation  Binder content  Aggregate shape  Aggregate Size
  7. 7. Things We Know  All pavements when constructed with the same  Relative compaction
  8. 8. Things We Know  All pavements when constructed with the same  Thickness  Smoothness  Surface texture  Skid resistance
  9. 9. Things We Know  All pavements are exposed to the same  Weather cycles  Rainfall  Landscape irrigation runoff  Temperatures  Heat  Cold  Freezing
  10. 10. Things We Know  All Pavements have the same  Crown  Cross slope  Longitudinal slope  Frontage Improvements
  11. 11. Things We Know  All Pavements are constructed over the same soil subgrade with  Identical wet and dry strengths  Identical moisture contents  Identical drainage characteristics
  12. 12. Things We Know They are subjected to the same  Axle weights  Tire pressures  Numbers of axle loads  Travel speed
  13. 13. Things We Know They are subjected to the same  Vehicle operation  Speed  Stopping  Starting  Standing  Acceleration  Turning movements
  14. 14. Things We Know  All Pavements are maintained with  Same pavement seals  Same crack filling  Same interval of maintenance  Same pavement rehabilitation, maintenance and resurfacing
  15. 15. Things We Know  All pavements require  Arbitrary 2” thick asphalt concrete overlays every 10 or 20 years  Identical Crack preparation  Identical Local reconstruction  Identical Edge milling and surface preparation
  16. 16. Things We Know  No additional information is required
  17. 17. Things We Ignore  Axle weights increased from 18,000 to 20,000 pounds on trucks  Axle weights increased from 18,000 to 28,000 pounds on buses  Tire pressures for trucks and buses have increased to >120psi
  18. 18. Things We Ignore  Traffic volumes have increased  Asphalt binder characteristics are changing  Recycling is increasing  Waste reduction legislation
  19. 19. Things We Need to Know  Pavement construction variations  What  Why  Where  Impact
  20. 20. Things We Need to Know  Pavement use variations  Pavement maintenance differences  Environmental differences
  21. 21. How Do We Find Out?  We use pavement management to define similarities  We use engineering properties to define differences
  22. 22. What Sources Do We Have?  Historical plans  As-built drawings  Visual observations  Pavement coring and potholing  Ground Penetrating Radar
  23. 23. The Evolution of Subsurface Exploration 1970’s GPR  1970’s  Oil and Mineral Deposits  Archaeologists  Military  Big Money $$$$$$  Availability?  Equipment and Power  DataCapacity  Mobility  Trained Personnel TODAY’S GPR  Availability   Smaller Equipment  Mobility  Power needs  Analysis time  Trained Personnel  DataCapacity  GPSCompatibility  MultipleTypes
  24. 24. GPR: Definition  Electromagnetic Radiation  Microwave band (UHF/VHF Frequency)  Radio waves transmitted into the Ground  Conductivity Increases Depth Increases  Higher Frequencies= Low Penetration  Low Frequencies=Deep Penetration  How itWorks  Changes inVelocity  Change in Dielectrics  Typically change in Material or Density  Components  Antenna  Operating System  Large Data Storage Capacity  Spatial Control  GPS  DMI
  25. 25. GPR Types Low Frequency Applications  Less than 16 - 200 MHz  LongWave Length  Deep Penetration  Range 30 Ft to 150 Ft  Poor Resolution  Cart Mounted or Sled  Geotechnical  Mining  Archeological Investigation  Ice, Snow Pack
  26. 26. GPR Types Mid Frequency Applications  270 MHz to 900 MHz  LongWave Length  Not as Deep Penetration  Range 50 ft to 12 ft  Better Resolution  Cart Mounted or Sled  Geotechnical  Archaeological Investigations  Utility  Large SubsurfaceVoids  Ice, Snow Pack
  27. 27. GPR Types High Frequency Applications  1600 MHz to 2600 MHz  ShortWave Length  Shallow Penetration  Range 0 Ft to 1.5 Ft  Good Resolution  Hand Held Device  Concrete Structures  Bridge Deck (PCC)  Rebar  PostTension Cables  Corrosion
  28. 28. GPR Types High Frequency Applications  1 GHz to 2 GHz  ShortWave Length  Shallow Penetration  Range 0 Ft to 2.5 Ft  Good Resolution  HornAntenna  RoadwayThickness  ShallowUtility  ShallowVoids
  29. 29. Document Pavement History
  30. 30. Rapid Data Acquisition
  31. 31. 9” AC over 20” AB (Example A)
  32. 32. 3.5” AC over 10” PCC (Example B)
  33. 33. PCC
  34. 34. 4” AC over 6” AB (Example – New Pavement)
  35. 35. Anaheim Street (Port of Long Beach) 9th Street to LA River Bridge
  36. 36. Carson Street (Intersection Testing)
  37. 37. Buried PCC
  38. 38. Buried PCC
  39. 39. Long Term/Historical Changes
  40. 40. Historical Changes
  41. 41. Historical Parking Lot Improvements
  42. 42. New Parking Lot Construction
  43. 43. Network level documentation
  44. 44. How is it behaving?  How strong is the roadway?  Areas of strength and weakness  How does that compare with past use?  Explain current behavior  How will it support projected future use?  Magnitude of reinforcement required
  45. 45. Impacts on performance  Indirect estimates  Estimates from component analysis based on  Thickness information  Visible conditions  In-situ moisture conditions  Subgrade strengths
  46. 46. Impacts on performance  Direct measurement  In-place strength testing  Multiple locations  Magnitude of deflection  Shape of deflection basin  Load/stress distribution
  47. 47. In place strength testing
  48. 48. In place strength testing
  49. 49. In place strength testing
  50. 50. In place strength testing
  51. 51. In place strength testing
  52. 52. Specific Strength Measurements
  53. 53. Comparative Analysis
  54. 54. Combined Analysis
  55. 55. Cost Effective Rehabilitation Strategies
  56. 56. Real Information  Pavement Coring  Defines layer types and history  Ground Penetration Radar  Provides continuous documentation of thicknesses  Estimating/Guessing  Based on past observable damage  In Place StrengthTesting  Permits modeling of future use and needs
  57. 57. Rational Engineering Judgment  Information Based  Subjective v. Objective Analysis  Empirical v. Mechanistic Analysis  SEARCHING FORTHE SIMPLE ANSWER
  58. 58. The Pavement Tree
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