Stretching Pavement
Maintenance Dollars
Through Pavement
Preservation
By
R. Gary Hicks and Ding Cheng
CP2 Center, CSU, Chi...
Overview of Presentation
• Types of Treatments
–
–

Materials Used
Design & Construction
Considerations
– Causes of proble...
http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/maint/MTA_GuideVolume1Flexible.html

3
Condition

Cost Effectiveness Pavement
Preservation
$1-3 for
preventive
maintenance
here

Costs $1020 or more
when it’s
do...
Types of Preservation Treatments
• Fog and Rejuvenating
Seals
• Chip Seals
• Slurry Seals
• Microsurfacing
• Cape Seals
• ...
Fog and Rejuvenating Seals
• Purpose- enriches dry pavement
surfaces, reduces raveling, and
locks in chips on chip seals
•...
• Using excess emulsion for the
existing pavement surface
• Placing in wet and/or cool weather
• Over or under dilution
• ...
• Purpose- waterproof the existing
surface and improve texture. Can
also serve as an interlayer
• Materials- application o...
Binder
Application

Sweeping (before and after)

Aggregate
Application

Rolling

9
•
•
•
•

Improper surface preparation
Applying in cool and/or wet weather
Using dirty rock
Not accounting for new patches ...
Loose Chips

Bleeding

Streaking

11
• Chip seal with a polymer modified
rejuvenating emulsion (PMRE)
• A scrub broom is used to push the emulsion
into the cra...
13

13
The size of wave is a function of the number and severity
of cracks.

14

14
Existing pavement

After emulsion
applied with the
scrub broom
15
• Purpose- Seals minor cracks, restores
surface texture, mitigates raveling
• Materials- a mixture of graded
aggregate, as...
Sweeping

Manhole Covering

Application

Handwork

17
Type
I

II

III

Crack Filling

General Seal
MediumTextured
Surface

Rough
-Textured
Surface

Urban
Streets

Primary
Highw...
• Improper surface preparation or
placing on unsound pavements
• Place in cool and/or wet weather
• Not requiring a mix de...
Unsound Pavement

Improper Surface Preparation

Unsound Pavement

Improper Mix design

20
• Purpose- seal the surface, fill wheel ruts and minor
surface irregularities, and can be placed at night
• Materials- a m...
Continuous Machine

22
Interstates

Placed at Night

Arterials

Quick Traffic

Cool Climates

23
• Improper surface preparation or placing on
badly cracked pavements
• No mix design
• Construction in wet weather
• Truck...
Placed on
Unsound
Pavement
s
25
• Purpose- seal the surface and provide a
smooth hard wearing surface
• Materials- a chip seal followed by a slurry
seal
•...
Slurry

Chip Seal Followed by a Slurry
27
Chip Seal

Slurry Seal

Finished Surface

28
•
•
•

Improper surface preparation
No mix designs
Applying in cool and/or wet
weather
• Over application of binder in
eit...
Thin Bonded Overlays
• Application of
polymer modified
binder immediately
followed by a thin hot
mix overlay
• Total thick...
Thin HMA Overlays
• Types
– Conventional
– Polymer modified
asphalt
– Asphalt rubber
– Terminal Blend

• Thickness 1-1.5
i...
Factors Affecting the Performance of
Pavement Preservation Treatments

• Existing pavement
condition
• Construction proces...
Pretreatment Pavement Condition

Fair
Poor

36%
64%

Standard
Deviation
18%
18%

Materials Selection and Quality

Marginal...
34
Strategy Selection Process
• Assess Pavement
Conditions
• Determine Feasible
Treatment Options
• Analyze and Compare
Feasi...
User Interface – Main Page

36
•Treatment Life
•Treatment Cost
•Interest Rate

Equivalent
Annual Cost

37
Advantage of the Preliminary
Developed Expert System
• Uses Caltrans MTAG existing decision
matrix
• Can deal with more co...
• Types of Surface Treatments
–
–
–

Design and construction considerations
Expected performance
Causes of problems

• Fac...
Any Questions?
rghicks@csuchico.edu
530-588-4446
and
dxcheng@csuchico.edu
530-588-0155
40
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DengXin Cheng & Gary Hicks

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Presentation by DengXin Cheng and Gary Hicks of California State University, Chico Pavement Preservation Center on the topic of pavement preservation delivered at the CalAPA Fall Asphalt Pavement Conference Oct. 24, 2013 in Sacramento, Calif.

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  • {"38":"Uses Caltrans MTAG existing decision matrix as first step to narrow down answers\nCan deal with more complex scenarios than common decision tree or decision matrix\nKnowledge is retained to the system\nNew treatments can be added to the system fairly easy without overhaul the whole structure (tree or matrix)\n","12":"Base asphalt\nSolvent-free rejuvenating agent\nHigh quality emulsifier\nTough Polymer\nPASS Components are sourced from the best in the industry. The polymer has been specifically formulated for PASS. is unique in that it is the only chip retention emulsion with a rejuvenating agent added. \n","14":"There are three factors that need to be addressed when using the Boom:\nEnough emulsion to retain the chips.\nEnough Emulsion in the wave to fill the cracks. This a function of crack intensity\nYou do not want emulsion to flow outside the broom head. In this case re reduced the spray width and compensated by rate adjustment.\n","4":"Changed wording to add “corrective maintenance”\nEFFECTIVE PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE\nMany states as well as the federal highway administration have found that doing preventive maintenance is 3 to 10 times more cost effective than a do nothing strategy.\n"}
  • DengXin Cheng & Gary Hicks

    1. 1. Stretching Pavement Maintenance Dollars Through Pavement Preservation By R. Gary Hicks and Ding Cheng CP2 Center, CSU, Chico for the Fall Asphalt Pavement Conference October 24, 2013
    2. 2. Overview of Presentation • Types of Treatments – – Materials Used Design & Construction Considerations – Causes of problems • Factors Affecting Performance • Strategy Selection Process Most of this work has been supported by Caltrans 2
    3. 3. http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/maint/MTA_GuideVolume1Flexible.html 3
    4. 4. Condition Cost Effectiveness Pavement Preservation $1-3 for preventive maintenance here Costs $1020 or more when it’s done as rehab Time 4
    5. 5. Types of Preservation Treatments • Fog and Rejuvenating Seals • Chip Seals • Slurry Seals • Microsurfacing • Cape Seals • Bonded Wearing Courses • Thin HMA overlays • CIR and HIR 5
    6. 6. Fog and Rejuvenating Seals • Purpose- enriches dry pavement surfaces, reduces raveling, and locks in chips on chip seals • Materials- generally diluted asphalt emulsions or a specialty product • Design considerations- application rate a function of surface condition • Construction- applied using a distributor truck in diluted form • Expected life - 1 to 3 years or more 6
    7. 7. • Using excess emulsion for the existing pavement surface • Placing in wet and/or cool weather • Over or under dilution • Incompatible water for dilution 7
    8. 8. • Purpose- waterproof the existing surface and improve texture. Can also serve as an interlayer • Materials- application of emulsions or hot binders followed by clean aggregate • Design- application rates need to be determined • Construction-asphalt is applied followed by an application of aggregate. May be used in multiple layers • Expected life- 5-7 years or more 8
    9. 9. Binder Application Sweeping (before and after) Aggregate Application Rolling 9
    10. 10. • • • • Improper surface preparation Applying in cool and/or wet weather Using dirty rock Not accounting for new patches or flushed surfaces • Not taking traffic into account • Over spreading or under spreading binder or aggregate • Application on unsound pavements 10
    11. 11. Loose Chips Bleeding Streaking 11
    12. 12. • Chip seal with a polymer modified rejuvenating emulsion (PMRE) • A scrub broom is used to push the emulsion into the cracks • Rejuvenates as it seals the pavement surface 12
    13. 13. 13 13
    14. 14. The size of wave is a function of the number and severity of cracks. 14 14
    15. 15. Existing pavement After emulsion applied with the scrub broom 15
    16. 16. • Purpose- Seals minor cracks, restores surface texture, mitigates raveling • Materials- a mixture of graded aggregate, asphalt emulsion (generally polymer modified), and setting agents • Design considerations- special mix design is needed • Construction-applied using a special paver mounted on a truck • Expected life- 5 to 7 years or more if placed on sound pavements 16
    17. 17. Sweeping Manhole Covering Application Handwork 17
    18. 18. Type I II III Crack Filling General Seal MediumTextured Surface Rough -Textured Surface Urban Streets Primary Highways Fine Seal Parking Lots Residential Streets Airfield Runway 18
    19. 19. • Improper surface preparation or placing on unsound pavements • Place in cool and/or wet weather • Not requiring a mix design or calibrating the equipment • Aggregate grading out, especially in fines content • Too much or too little additive • Improper maintenance of spreader box and drag • Adding too much water 19
    20. 20. Unsound Pavement Improper Surface Preparation Unsound Pavement Improper Mix design 20
    21. 21. • Purpose- seal the surface, fill wheel ruts and minor surface irregularities, and can be placed at night • Materials- a mixture of graded aggregates, polymer modified emulsion, and set additives • Design considerations- requires a mix design to determine the proportion of components • Construction- applied using a special truck mounted mixing/paving machine. For long straight jobs a continuous machine is recommended • Expected life-last 8-12 years depending on the surface it is applied too 21
    22. 22. Continuous Machine 22
    23. 23. Interstates Placed at Night Arterials Quick Traffic Cool Climates 23
    24. 24. • Improper surface preparation or placing on badly cracked pavements • No mix design • Construction in wet weather • Truck mounted equipment placing improper joints • Too much hand work • Too much overlap on joints • Too much water in the mix causing segregation 24
    25. 25. Placed on Unsound Pavement s 25
    26. 26. • Purpose- seal the surface and provide a smooth hard wearing surface • Materials- a chip seal followed by a slurry seal • Design considerations- mix designs for both products • Construction- application of a chip seal followed by a slurry seal • Expected life- 8-12 years or more 26
    27. 27. Slurry Chip Seal Followed by a Slurry 27
    28. 28. Chip Seal Slurry Seal Finished Surface 28
    29. 29. • • • Improper surface preparation No mix designs Applying in cool and/or wet weather • Over application of binder in either course • Using conventional chip seal or polymer modified chip seals over cracked surfaces. 29
    30. 30. Thin Bonded Overlays • Application of polymer modified binder immediately followed by a thin hot mix overlay • Total thickness has been about 25 mm • Applied with a spray paver 30
    31. 31. Thin HMA Overlays • Types – Conventional – Polymer modified asphalt – Asphalt rubber – Terminal Blend • Thickness 1-1.5 inch • Used with warm mix additives 31
    32. 32. Factors Affecting the Performance of Pavement Preservation Treatments • Existing pavement condition • Construction process and workmanship • Materials quality and selection • Climate and Traffic 32
    33. 33. Pretreatment Pavement Condition Fair Poor 36% 64% Standard Deviation 18% 18% Materials Selection and Quality Marginal Poor 36% 57% 22% 20% Construction and Workmanship Marginal Poor 45% 61% 21% 21% Mix and Structural Design Marginal Poor 35% 57% 19% 20% Medium Poor 22% 45% 22% 25% Marginal Poor 33% 50% 24% 24% Treatment Life Reduction Percentage, % Average Traffic Level Climate during and immediately after construction 33
    34. 34. 34
    35. 35. Strategy Selection Process • Assess Pavement Conditions • Determine Feasible Treatment Options • Analyze and Compare Feasible Options 35
    36. 36. User Interface – Main Page 36
    37. 37. •Treatment Life •Treatment Cost •Interest Rate Equivalent Annual Cost 37
    38. 38. Advantage of the Preliminary Developed Expert System • Uses Caltrans MTAG existing decision matrix • Can deal with more complex scenarios • Knowledge is retained to the system • New treatments can be added http://ceresearch.ecst.csuchico.edu/TreatmentSelection2.0/V 38
    39. 39. • Types of Surface Treatments – – – Design and construction considerations Expected performance Causes of problems • Factors Affecting the Performance of Preservation Treatments-FHWA study • Strategy Selection Process Using Life Cycle Cost 39
    40. 40. Any Questions? rghicks@csuchico.edu 530-588-4446 and dxcheng@csuchico.edu 530-588-0155 40
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