08 jay behnke

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Presenation by Jay Behnke of STATE Testing on RAP and RAS at the California Asphalt Pavement Association Spring Conference April 25, 2013 in Ontario, CA.

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  • About me…….QA Consultant for CDOT since ________________Thank for the opportunity to ……………………
  • About me…….QA Consultant for CDOT since ________________Thank for the opportunity to ……………………
  • Who we are:Chicago, O’Hareseveral large countiesIL Tollway
  • Contractors on Tollway projects paved over ¾ of a million tons of warm mix in 2012. 300,000 tons of SMAOver 200,000 tons each of shoulder binder and shoulder surface.The Tollway specification does allow contractors to request a waiver from the use of warm-mix for small tonnage placements, and items like patching did not require the use of warm-mix. So, there was some hot-mix placed this year, but it was less than 5 percent of the total tonnage on the reconstruction projects..
  • Why we are here.
  • 08 jay behnke

    1. 1. Hey Buddy,What’ll you have?
    2. 2. Jay Behnke, P.E.PresidentS.T.A.T.E. Testing, LLCDundee and Chicago, ILBehnke Materials EngineeringBeloit, WI2An HMA Perspective from the Land ofGangsters and Cheese
    3. 3. 3Our Sand Box
    4. 4. Pick a Good Team4
    5. 5. Our Team:5
    6. 6. Our Team:The photogenic ones…6
    7. 7. Agencies we work for:71.Interest2.Initiative3.Courage4.Available Projects5.Short Decision Tree6.Funding
    8. 8. Class Outline Mix Design Basics Sustainable Technologies Performance Testing Project Examples8
    9. 9. 9Gyratory Compactor6 in.
    10. 10. 10% DensityGyrations90NDESIGN96%(4% voids)Gyratory Compaction
    11. 11. 11How to Change NDESIGN1. Aggregate Structure• More Coarse Aggregate• More Manufactured Sand• Less Natural Sand• Less dust2. Asphalt Binder Content.
    12. 12. 12VMA – Voids in MineralAggregate“Space between the Rocks filledwith Asphalt Binder and AirVoids” Excludes Binder Absorbed intothe Aggregate Sets Minimum Binder Content forDurability Varies with Aggregate Size.
    13. 13. 13VMAVoids in Mineral Aggregate11%4%15% VMA
    14. 14. 14Aggregate Surface Area One inch dia. rock makes 64 - ¼ in.rocks Sum of the ¼ in. rocks have 4Xsurface area.
    15. 15. 15VMA Spec by Aggregate SizeNom. Max.Agg. SizeMinimumVMAAirVoidsEffectiveBinder9.5 mm 15 % - 4% = 11%12.5 mm 14 % - 4% = 10%19.0 mm 13 % - 4% = 9%25.0 mm 12 % - 4% = 8%
    16. 16. Field VMA Gmb Dust to AC ratio Contractor isallowed toremove dustduring production16
    17. 17. 17Field VMA: (f) % AC and VoidsJust a calculation – Uses existingvalues= 100 – (GMB * PS / GSB)GMB: “d” from plant testPS: % Stone = 100- %ACGSB: Stone Specific Gravity from Designe.g. = 100 – (2.415 * 0.94 / 2.687) = 15.5Watch: If AC & Voids drop below mixdesign values.
    18. 18. 18Dust SilosIDOT requires“Positive DustControl”
    19. 19. 19Mel Pod – Positive Dust COntrolWeighs DustIn and Out
    20. 20. Start-ups IllustratedTest striprequired forall newmixes.20
    21. 21. 21Performance Graded Binder“PG Binder”(Asphalt Cement)NOT “PolymerGraded”
    22. 22. 22PG Binder NomenclaturePG64-22PerformanceGradeAverage 7-daymax pavementdesign temp CMin pavementdesign temp C
    23. 23. ….without binder grade jumping.2320102012
    24. 24. 24When to Modify? Extreme Temperatures•Hot or Cold Heavy Traffic•Especially Slow or Stopped Rutting or Shoving Problem Areas Concern re: Reflective Cracking Improve Film Thickness.
    25. 25. 25Permeability Factors Increased Density  LowerPermeability Smaller NMAS aggregate  LowerPermeability (fewer interconnectedvoids)
    26. 26. 26Permeability can be measured
    27. 27. 27Permeability vs.Density and Nom. Max. Agg. Size(NCAT)
    28. 28. Sustainable Options for HMA28RAP FRAP GTR WMA RAS
    29. 29. 29Recycled Asphalt Pavement(RAP)
    30. 30. 30RAP Can Be Our Friend Quality Green Economical.
    31. 31. 31RAP Works Processed ReasonableProportions Designed intothe mix < 20% - Acts as“Black Rock.”- Superpave Research
    32. 32. 32Binder Grade for RAP MixesRAP% Binder Grade≤ 20% Use Same PG Grade> 20% Use Softer Gradee.g. PG 58-28 for PG 64-22.
    33. 33. FRAP - Fractionated RAP Old – RAP was bad Then – RAP is OK Now – FRAP is great33
    34. 34. IL FRAP Sizes (typical)34< #4 (0.2 in.)#4 to 1/2 in.> 1/2 in.
    35. 35. Observations - FRAP High Quality Grindings Higher RAP % does not affect production P#4 Material useful in SMA• Angular• Higher AC Content Bids reflect overall savings Less segregation35
    36. 36. Fractionating FRAP Plant36
    37. 37. GTR - Ground Tire Rubber ModifiedAsphalt37
    38. 38. GTR-Modified Asphalt AC modified withrecycled Ground TireRubber (12-15%) Substitute forpolymer-modified AC38Vestenamer Stabilizer
    39. 39. Why GTR? Improved performance• Rutting• Resistance to oxidation Green - 2,000 tires per lane mile (2 in.) $$ ≈ Polymer-modified AC Replaces anti-draindown fibers39
    40. 40. No DraindownReplacement for Fibers. Open Graded Pervious SMA40
    41. 41. GTR is VersatileSince 2006: Green Alleys City Streets (lowESAL) County Roads(medium ESAL) Tollway mainline(high ESAL) Bridge Decks Michigan Avenue41
    42. 42. WMA - Warm Mix Asphalt Lowered emissions Less fuel consumption Worker health benefits Lower temps = Reducedoxidation Extended paving season• Haul time• Compaction time42
    43. 43. Warm Mix Technologies Chemical additives, e.g.Evotherm Organic additives “wax”,e.g. Sasobit Foaming –Astec DoubleBarrel® Green43
    44. 44. CDOT Warm Mix Asphalt 6000+/- tons Produced @ 230˚ F Placed down to 180˚ F Same rolling pattern No difference inworkability Reduced odor, fumes
    45. 45. WMA Warm Mix Asphalt + RASon the Interstate45
    46. 46. RASRecycled Asphalt Shingles46
    47. 47. 2012 - RAS is the Law in Illinois47
    48. 48. RAS = Quality HMA Ingredient Consistent gradation:• 100% < 3/8 in.• 93% < #4 30+% High Quality Fine Aggregate 26.4% High Quality AC 27.8% Mineral Filler• Shoot for 1:1 ratio (dust to AC) Mineral/Organic Fibers48
    49. 49. High ESAL RAS49
    50. 50. Field PerformanceNo time for TRB WMA GTR High ABR FRAP RAS50
    51. 51. Illinois’ Performance TestHamburg WheelTorture Test for Stability MoistureResistance51
    52. 52. Chicagoland Hamburg Criteria All WMA, RAS, & High-ABR mixes52Binder# Repetitions(Chicago)Max. RutDepthPG76-XX, PG70-XX 20,0000.5 in.PG64-XX, PG58-XX,PG52-XX, PG46-XX10,000SMA 20,000 0.25 in
    53. 53. Passing the Hamburg Test GTR RAS Manufactured Sand Harder Rock (notLimestone) Anti-strip additive53
    54. 54. Direct Compact Tester54
    55. 55. Performance TestingField DemonstrationProjectsResearch LabVerification55
    56. 56. 56PROJECT EXAMPLES Tollway - Warm Mix CDOT – N30 LC IL 4.75 – FrictionCourse Michigan Ave
    57. 57. Jane Addams TollwayWMA, HMA, FRAP, RAS57
    58. 58. Tollway Warm Mix Asphalt In 2012 theTollway was thefirst agency inthe country tomandate WarmMix Asphalt!!!58
    59. 59. Tollway WMA - 2012 762,000+ total tons (Magnificent Green 56Miles) SMA mainline• 304,000 tons N50 Shoulder Binder• 204,000 tons N70 Shoulder Surface• 210,000 tons Stabilized Subbase• 8,400 tons59
    60. 60.  Akzo Nobel• “REDISET LQ” MeadWestVaco• “EVOTHERM M1” Astec, Inc.• “ASTEC WARM MIXSYSTEMS” AQUABlack Solutions• “MAXAMAQUABLACK” Stansteel AsphaltPlant Products• “STANSTEEL ACCU-SHEAR”60
    61. 61. CDOT manages a lot of AsphaltPaving…in a variety of locations61
    62. 62. CDOT by the Numbers$600-800 Million Annual Budget(More than half from state or federal grants)262 bridges and viaducts4,091 miles of streets (excluding Expressways)26,658 intersections (2,935 signalized)10,646,110 feet of lane striping12,145 bike racks10,997 trees planted/year59 stations and 50 miles of track owned by CDOT butoperated by CTA
    63. 63. CDOT Typical In-House Program 2 Block increments 4 Paving crews• 2 street / 2 alley +/- 150,000 tons / yearplaced Innovative mixture(s) Purchased from localplants Rented equipment63
    64. 64. 9.5mm N30 LCSurface Mix(Low ESAL)Evolving over the years Increased % FRAP Added recycled PCC Added GTR Lowered PG grades Added WMA technology Added RAS % ABR Hamburg Tested64
    65. 65. 9.5mm N30 LC Surface Mix(Low ESAL)65ABR PG Binder0-22% PG 64-2223-45% PG 58-2846-67% PG 46-34Recycled Material Max%Crushed PCC &/orCoarse Aggregate50% TotalAggregateFractionated RAP 40%RAS 7.5%
    66. 66. 4.75mm Friction Surface Not a “sand mix” Historically apolymer-modifiedmix RAS used asmodifier. Can be laid ¾”thick!!66 HMA version of Micro Surfacing
    67. 67. Recycled Friction AggregateChicago Expressways: Mostsurfaced with slag frictionmixes and high quality ACbinder.67
    68. 68. 4.75mm Friction SurfaceNew Specification68AGGREGATES PERCENTAGENatural Sand 40% MaximumManufactured Sand15% MinimumcombinedManufactured Sand from Gravel;or Steel SlagPassing #4 portion of FRAP fromSteel Slag RAP; or Steel Slag 35% MinimumcombinedFine Aggregate from Steel SlagRAP; or Steel SlagRAS 7.5% Maximum
    69. 69. 4.75mm Friction SurfaceNew SpecificationVOLUMETRICS NDES = 50 Voids = 3.5% VMA = 18.5%69ABR PG Binder Max. RAS0-22% PG 64-22 2.5%23-45% PG 58-28 5.0%46-67% PG 46-34 7.5%High ABR
    70. 70. 4.75mm High ABR Surface2011 Demonstration%MIXACContent ABRFRAP (1) 8% 4.8% 0.4%FRAP (2) 30% 5.8% 1.7%RAS 7.0% 26% 1.8%3.9%Design AC 8.0%New AC 4.1%AC Savings $28 / Ton70
    71. 71. Pulling it TogetherMichigan Avenue SMA71
    72. 72. Environmental Leadership Award2012 NAPA72
    73. 73. ExaminationGiven: Location VariableBase/Subbase 300 Structures towork around Time Constraints Green ObjectivesSolve for:1. Milling Thickness2. Lift Thickness3. Binder Mix4. Surface Mix5. Tack Coat6. Paving Width7. Maximum ABR73
    74. 74. Factors favoring Single SMA Lift Uncertainty of Base Time Cost SMA Characteristics74
    75. 75. Michigan Ave SMAMix DesignMIXTURE OILQuartzite 12.5mm 50%Quartzite 9.5mm 24%FA & Mineral Filler 3.5%RAP < 3/8 in. 15% 0.8%RAS 7.5% 2.0%PG 58-28 GTR+12 6.1% 3.3%6.1%VOLUMETRICS NDES = 80 Voids = 3.5% VMA = 16.3% VFA = 78.5%75
    76. 76. Torture Tested (cores)76< 4mm rut
    77. 77. Test Strip at Plant77
    78. 78. Paving78
    79. 79. Logistics & Traffic Control79
    80. 80. Sweeping for Prime was an Artin Itself80
    81. 81. + Trackless Tack/Prime Coat81
    82. 82. Completed in 6 consecutivenights of Paving82
    83. 83. Daily TemperaturesOct-201116 17 18 19 20 21 22High 52°Low 27°53°27°57°30°61°27°62°40°54°31°60°36°Historic Averages54°/30° 53°/29° 52°/29° 52°/28° 51°/28° 50°/27° 50°/27°83
    84. 84. Compaction – 3 static 3-wheeled;Large Tandem Finish84
    85. 85. Street Returns85
    86. 86. Hand Workable86
    87. 87. Quality ControlStd.Dev.ToleranceGMM 0.003 +/-.030GMB 0.006 +/- .026Voids 0.25 +/- 1.00VMA 0.150 +/- 0.70AC 0.16 +/- 0.03Dust:AC 0.07 +/-1.20 4 Samples 1 set per night > 700 Tons pernight87
    88. 88. Finished Product88
    89. 89. Details89
    90. 90. The End – Thank You90

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