Purchasing Wine in the Information Age:
The Role of Quick Response (QR) Codes
Lindsey Higgins
Mitch Wolf
Marianne McGarry...
Motivation
 Wine as an experiential good
 Wine as information laden
 Implications for purchase decisions
Cooper-Martin ...
Motivation
 Technology empowers consumers
Motivation
Motivation
 Quick Response (QR) Codes
 Developed as supply chain strategy tool
Motivation
 Comscore (2012)
 QR code use in Europe increased 96% from 2011 to 2012
 17.4 million users in July of 2012
...
QR Codes Information
Purchase
Decision
• Product knowledge is key in consumer
decision-making (Raju, Lonial, and Mangold,
...
Objectives
 Explore the role of QR codes in the wine purchase decision
 desirability of QR codes on wine labels
 Determ...
Methods
 25 question survey designed
 demographics, reported behavior
 QR code concept exposure
 Administered during t...
The hands that tend our vineyards are the same
that craft our wine, a rare tradition in today’s
wine industry. For three g...
Methods
 11 point purchase intent scale (Juster, 1966)
 Verbal anchors and probability estimates
Results: Demographics
 631 usable responses
 52% Male
Results: Features
 11 features
 5 point scale
 Extremely desirable (5) to Not desirable at all (1)
The following is a l...
Results: Features
Feature
% Extremely /
Very Desirable
Feature
% Extremely/
Very Desirable
Good value for the money 85.3% ...
Results: Concept Exposure
 50% of respondents said there was at least 60 chances in 100
they would buy the new wine
Results: Concept Exposure
 Respondents indicated they were likely to purchase 11.33
bottles of wine in the next 3 months
...
Results: Concept QR
 Increase purchase interest?
 38% reported that it definitely
did not increase their purchase
intere...
Results: QR Increase Segment
 Reported influence of QR code
 Few demographic differences
 No difference in:
 Age
 Bee...
Results: QR Increase Segment
 Reported influence of QR code
 Few demographic differences
 No differences in closure pre...
Results: QR Segments and Features
Feature
QR likely to
Increase
QR not likely to
increase
P-value
QR Code 3.08 1.8 .000
Lo...
Results: QR Segments and Info
Info Source
QR likely to
Increase
QR not likely to
increase
P-value
Google 56% 35% .000
Face...
Results: QR Segments and Descriptors
Descriptor
QR likely to
Increase
QR not likely to
increase
P-value
Wine enthusiast 2....
Conclusions
 Little importance to most
 No differences by age
 Marketers may be more fond of QR codes than consumers
 ...
Conclusions
Targeted
Group Learn More About
Wine
Production
Characteristics
Talk About
Wine
2%
13%
9%
.6%
.6%
2% 2
%
.6% o...
Concluding Remarks
 Questions
 Contact information:
Lindsey Higgins
lhiggins@calpoly.edu
Marianne McGarry Wolf
mwolf@cal...
QR Codes:Purchasing Wine in the Information Age
QR Codes:Purchasing Wine in the Information Age
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QR Codes:Purchasing Wine in the Information Age

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Purchasing Wine in the Information Age: The Role of Quick Response (QR) Codes.
If you would like to read an article that goes along with this presentation, follow this link (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wep.2014.01.002) to Science Direct to find out more about the research!
A selected paper prepared for the 2013 American Association of Wine Economists conference in Stellenbosch, South Africa


Composed by Lindsey Higgins, Mitch Wolf, and Marianne McGarry Wolf.

California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA

Published in: Marketing
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QR Codes:Purchasing Wine in the Information Age

  1. 1. Purchasing Wine in the Information Age: The Role of Quick Response (QR) Codes Lindsey Higgins Mitch Wolf Marianne McGarry Wolf California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo, CA Selected paper prepared for the 2013 AAWE conference in Stellenbosch, South Africa
  2. 2. Motivation  Wine as an experiential good  Wine as information laden  Implications for purchase decisions Cooper-Martin (1991) Thach (2008) Top purchase decision criteria: Prior tasting experience
  3. 3. Motivation  Technology empowers consumers
  4. 4. Motivation
  5. 5. Motivation  Quick Response (QR) Codes  Developed as supply chain strategy tool
  6. 6. Motivation  Comscore (2012)  QR code use in Europe increased 96% from 2011 to 2012  17.4 million users in July of 2012  3 out of 4 users scanned the QR code for product information  October of 2011, 20.4 million Americans used their smart phone to scan a QR code for product information  Okazaki and Barwise (2011)  QR codes as an area of emerging research and growth in retailing
  7. 7. QR Codes Information Purchase Decision • Product knowledge is key in consumer decision-making (Raju, Lonial, and Mangold, 1993) • Information search as the primary method of risk reduction in the wine purchase decision (Mitchell and Greatorex, 1989) • One step closer to interactive marketing (Shin, Jung, and Chang, 2012) • Younger wine consumers? • purchase out of convenience • little wine knowledge • more likely to be engaged electronically (Lecat and Pelet, 2011)
  8. 8. Objectives  Explore the role of QR codes in the wine purchase decision  desirability of QR codes on wine labels  Determine the segment of consumers most likely to respond to QR codes  wine consumption behavior  demographics  wine knowledge  other sources of wine information
  9. 9. Methods  25 question survey designed  demographics, reported behavior  QR code concept exposure  Administered during the fall of 2012 to wine consumers  nationally recognized test market location  intercept approach
  10. 10. The hands that tend our vineyards are the same that craft our wine, a rare tradition in today’s wine industry. For three generations our family’s vineyard-to-bottle ideology has allowed us to create lively, approachable wines with plenty of character. $11.99 $9.99 Our back label has a QR code.
  11. 11. Methods  11 point purchase intent scale (Juster, 1966)  Verbal anchors and probability estimates
  12. 12. Results: Demographics  631 usable responses  52% Male
  13. 13. Results: Features  11 features  5 point scale  Extremely desirable (5) to Not desirable at all (1) The following is a list of features people may look for when purchasing wines. Please indicate the desirability of each feature to you when you purchase wine.
  14. 14. Results: Features Feature % Extremely / Very Desirable Feature % Extremely/ Very Desirable Good value for the money 85.3% Screwcap closure 11.4% Locally produced 52.2% Organically grown 31.9% Grown in an enviro. friendly way 47.1% Sustainably grown 33.9% Recommended by friends 73% Grown using biotechnology 11.9% Varietal I like 79.3% From a family owned winery 46.9% Feature % Extremely / Very Desirable % Not Desirable at all QR Code 7.4% 43.9%
  15. 15. Results: Concept Exposure  50% of respondents said there was at least 60 chances in 100 they would buy the new wine
  16. 16. Results: Concept Exposure  Respondents indicated they were likely to purchase 11.33 bottles of wine in the next 3 months  If available, respondents likely to purchase 3.44bottles of the concept wine in the next 3 months
  17. 17. Results: Concept QR  Increase purchase interest?  38% reported that it definitely did not increase their purchase interest  31.2% reported that it probably did not increase their purchase interest
  18. 18. Results: QR Increase Segment  Reported influence of QR code  Few demographic differences  No difference in:  Age  Beer consumption  Wine consumption or spending  Gender  Relationship status  Education  Employment  Income QR increased purchase interest 11.6% QR did not increase purchase interest 88.4% VS.
  19. 19. Results: QR Increase Segment  Reported influence of QR code  Few demographic differences  No differences in closure preferences  More likely to regularly use apps QR Increased purchase interest 11.6% QR did not increase purchase interest 88.4% VS.
  20. 20. Results: QR Segments and Features Feature QR likely to Increase QR not likely to increase P-value QR Code 3.08 1.8 .000 Locally produced 3.88 3.51 .004 Produced in an enviro. friendly way 3.75 3.31 .001 Organically grown 3.45 2.96 .000 Certified Sustainable 3.38 3.00 .005 Biotech used 2.62 2.37 .042 Family owned 3.71 3.34 .006 5= Extremely desirable, 4=Very desirable, 3=Somewhat desirable, 2=Not very desirable, 1= Not desirable at all
  21. 21. Results: QR Segments and Info Info Source QR likely to Increase QR not likely to increase P-value Google 56% 35% .000 Facebook 33% 21% .024 Youtube 14% 5% .006 Facebook ads 8% 2% .002 Blogs 16% 7% .003 Which of the following do you regularly use to get news or find information about wine?
  22. 22. Results: QR Segments and Descriptors Descriptor QR likely to Increase QR not likely to increase P-value Wine enthusiast 2.96 2.67 .006 Talk wine 3.00 2.65 .000 Wine Connoisseur 2.42 2.16 .008 Would use an app that allows me to instantly purchase wine 2.71 2.24 .005 4=Strongly agree, 3=Agree, 2=Disagree, 1=Strongly disagree How strongly do you agree or disagree with the following statements?
  23. 23. Conclusions  Little importance to most  No differences by age  Marketers may be more fond of QR codes than consumers  Some differences related to information  Interested in production characteristics  Interested in learning more  Interested in talking about wine QR code becomes very useful tool
  24. 24. Conclusions Targeted Group Learn More About Wine Production Characteristics Talk About Wine 2% 13% 9% .6% .6% 2% 2 % .6% of 631 consumers = 4 consumers
  25. 25. Concluding Remarks  Questions  Contact information: Lindsey Higgins lhiggins@calpoly.edu Marianne McGarry Wolf mwolf@calpoly.edu

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