Chapter 6: Nonverbal Messages Caitlin Kearney COMM 215
Channels of Non-Verbal Communication Body Communication Kinesics- the study of communication through body movement, identifies 5 types: Emblems Illustrators Affect Displays Regulators Adaptors
Channels of Non-Verbal Communication Body Appearance: others may form a general impression of you from your body build, height, weight, skin, eye, and hair color. Facial Communication: movements in the face may communicate happiness, surprise, fear, anger, sadness, disgust, contempt, and interest.
Channels of Non-Verbal Communication Eye Communication: Occulesis is the study of the messages communicated by the eyes, which vary depending on the duration, direction, and quality of the eye behavior. We use eye contact to monitor feedback, secure attention, regulate the conversation, and signal the nature of the relationship, signal status, and compensate for physical distance.
Channels of Non-Verbal Communication Touch Communication 1. Tactile Communication- communication by touch, also referred to as haptics, is perhaps the most primitive form of communication. 2. The Meanings of Touch- touch may communicate 5 major meanings: Positive emotions Playfulness Control Ritualistic Task- Related 3. Touch Avoidance- avoiding touch from others
Channels of Non-Verbal Communication Paralanguage- the vocal but nonverbal dimension of speech. 1. People Perception- forming impressions based on their paralanguage as to what kind of people they are. 2. Persuasion- the rate of speech is the aspect of paralanguage since speech rate is related to persuasiveness.
Channels of Non-Verbal Communication Silence 1. The Functions of Silence- serves many purposes including to hurt, prevent communication, achieve special effects, and more. 2. The Spiral of Silence Theory- argues that you’re more likely to voice agreement than disagreement. It claims that when a controversial issue arises, you estimate the opinions of others and figure out which views are popular and which are not.
Channels of Non-Verbal Communication Spatial Messages and Territoriality: Proximity Distances- 4 proxemic distances correspond closely to the major types of relationships: 1. Intimate Distance (6-18 inches) 2. Personal Distance (18inches- 4 feet) 3. Social Distance (4-12 feet) 4. Public Distance ( 12- 25 feet) Protection Theory- you establish a body buffer zone around yourself as protection against unwanted touching or attack. Expectancy Violations Theory- explains what happens when you increase or decrease the distance between yourself and another in an interpersonal interaction. Territoriality- the possessive reaction to an area or to particular objects.
Channels of Non-Verbal Communication Artifactual Communication- consists of messages conveyed by objects that are made by human hands. Space Decoration- the surroundings or decoration of a place influence on perceptions should be obvious to anyone who has been into a hospital, with its sterile walls and furniture. Color Communication- takes place on many levels. Colors influence our perceptions and behaviors. Clothing and Body Adornment- serves a variety of functions. It also seems to influence your own behavior and behaviors of groups. Tattoos and Body Piercings are included in this category.
Channels of Non-Verbal Communication Temporal Communication- consists of the messages communicated by your own time orientation and treatment of time. Psychological time- refers to a person’s emphasis on, or orientation toward, the past, present, or future.
Functions of Nonverbal Communication: A. Forming and Managing Impressions- you form impressions of others through nonverbal communication, while others are forming nonverbal opinions about you. B. Forming and Defining Relationship- you communicate affection, support, and love nonverbally. C. Structuring Conversation and Social Interaction- turn-taking cues may be verbal, but often they’re non-verbal: a nod of the head shows you’re listening and showing feedback. D. Influencing and Deceiving- you can influence others by nonverbal signals. Also, you can deceive nonverbally by misleading them to think something is true when it is false. E. Expressing Emotions- using facial expressions, you can express emotions nonverbally. Avoiding eye contact with someone you don’t want to interact with is another nonverbal example.
Nonverbal Communication and Culture: A. Culture and Gesture- there is much variation in gestures and their meanings among different cultures. Example: Gesturing with a thumb up in Australia is considered rude. B. Monochronism & Polychronism-Monochronic people or cultures schedule one thing at a time. Examples: U.S., Germany, Switzerland. Polychornic people or cultures enjoy scheduling multiple things at the same time. Examples: Arabs, Latin Americans, Mediterranean peoples. C. Cultural Time- formal vs. informal time and monochronism vs. polychoronism. Informal Time: terms like “forever”, “immediately”, “soon”, ect. Formal Time: correct time. D. Culture and Colors- colors vary greatly in their meanings from one culture to another. Example: Red in China signifies prosperity and rebirth, while in Africa it means death or blasphemy. Black signifies old age in Thailand, and in much of Europe death.