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  • Culturepresentationlast2

    1. 1. Culture in Libraries Guidelines for maintaining cultural sensitivity in the field of librarianship By Cadie Maas
    2. 2. Outline <ul><li>What is culture and what are cultural values? </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural differences </li></ul><ul><li>Implications for practice </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Culture can be defined </li></ul><ul><li>as the behaviors and </li></ul><ul><li>beliefs characteristic of a </li></ul><ul><li>particular social, ethnic, </li></ul><ul><li>or age group. </li></ul>Culture is…
    4. 4. Boykin identifies nine characteristics of cultural values: <ul><li>Spirituality: the conviction </li></ul><ul><li>that non-material religious </li></ul><ul><li>forces influence peoples </li></ul><ul><li>everyday lives. </li></ul>Cultural Values… (Thomas, 2004)
    5. 5. Boykin continued.. <ul><li>Harmony: the notion that ones fate is interrelated with other elements in the scheme of things so that human kind and nature are harmonically conjoined. </li></ul>(Thomas, 2004) Cultural Values…
    6. 6. Boykin continued.. <ul><li>Movement: a premium placed on the amalgamation of movement, polyrhythm, dance, and percussion embodied in musical beat. </li></ul>(Thomas, 2004) Cultural Values…
    7. 7. Boykin continued.. <ul><li>Verve: a propensity for the relatively high levels of stimulation and for action that is energetic and lively. </li></ul>(Thomas, 2004) Cultural Values…
    8. 8. Boykin continued... <ul><li>Affect: the centrality of affective information and emotional expressiveness and the equal and integrated importance of thoughts and feelings. </li></ul>(Thomas, 2004) Cultural Values…
    9. 9. Boykin Continued… <ul><li>Communalism: a commitment to the fundamental interdependence of people and the importance of social bonds. </li></ul>(Thomas, 2004) Cultural Values…
    10. 10. Boykin continued… <ul><li>Oral traditions: the centrality of oral and aural modes of communication for conveying full meaning and the cultivation of speaking as performance. </li></ul>(Thomas, 2004) Cultural Values…
    11. 11. Boykin continued… <ul><li>Expressive individualism: the cultivation of a distinctive personality and a proclivity for spontaneity and genuine personal expression. </li></ul>(Thomas, 2004) Cultural Values…
    12. 12. Boykin continued… <ul><li>Social time perspective: a commitment to a social construction of time as personified by an event orientation. </li></ul>(Thomas, 2004) Cultural Values…
    13. 13. Cultural values can be defined by how a group rates them on the following spectrums: control ----------- fate individuality ---------- groups change ---------- stability self-made ---------- birthright equality ---------- hierarchy time --------- human interaction competition ---------- cooperation future --------- past doing ---------- being informality ---------- formality direct ---------- indirect practicality ---------- idealism (Walton. 1994) Cultural Values…
    14. 14. Different cultures have varying ideas about customer service, body language, humor and other factors that may be exhibited during a professional exchange. <ul><li>Verbal communication: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many cultures believe it is disrespectful to address someone by their first name. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blank stares may indicate that a patron does not understand an idiom or slang term being used. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use short simple sentences. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be careful when giving praise or compliments. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeat the users request back to them to ensure that you understand their information needs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggested reading for further information, Beginner’s Dictionary of American English Usage by P. H. Collin, M. Lowi & C. Weiland. </li></ul></ul>Cultural differences…
    15. 15. <ul><li>Body Language: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gestures do not have universal meaning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smiling is not always the best way to show approachability. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eye contact has different meanings for many cultures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People from other cultures respond more positively to professionals who are formal in dress and demeanor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal space varies greatly. </li></ul></ul>Cultural differences…
    16. 16. Multicultural etiquette Cultural differences… <ul><li>China </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use neutral facial expressions and avoid showing too much emotion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be modest about your excellent librarian abilities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid gestures. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Japan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expect personal questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expect short periods of silence during conversation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speak softly and avoid showing too much emotion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep your distance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid direct eye contact. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mexico </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Break eye contact frequently during conversation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stand close while talking. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid placing hands on hips or in pockets. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Netherlands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid standing too close during conversation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain direct eye contact. </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. <ul><li>Humor: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Absurdity: ideas that defy logical thinking. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exaggeration: overstating sizes or experiences. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human Situations: situations in which a person appears laughable. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Playful Ridicule: teasing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surprise: relating to feelings, events or facts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sarcasm: opposite of what is spoken or implied, not to be taken literally. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irony: perverse timing or coincidence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultures can view types of humor very differently. </li></ul></ul>Cultural differences…
    18. 18. <ul><li>Religion: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical contact should be avoided. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not everyone celebrates the same religious holidays and observances. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Male/female relations in professional settings should be considered with care. </li></ul></ul>Cultural differences…
    19. 19. <ul><li>Education: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>China (East and Southeast Asia): Libraries in China have traditionally viewed books as personal treasures to be kept out of reach. Books are viewed as an indication of the socio-political power of the owner. In general, teaching in China is based on classroom lecture and memorization. Little emphasis is given to critical analysis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Africa: Education traditionally stresses gender roles and practical knowledge. Like in Chinese education classroom learning is stressed, while independent research is neglected. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>India: Students attending universities must have a membership to access the library. Most materials are used in house rather than checked out. </li></ul></ul>Cultural differences…
    20. 20. Views on Family <ul><li>In many countries, people gain a sense of security from their strong family ties. In the countries of Latin America, North Africa, the Middle East, and Asia, the family unit is so strong that it is viewed as more important than work. </li></ul><ul><li>When an Indonesian visited the US, he commented on the differences between the two countries in the importance placed on family. </li></ul><ul><li>The word Family has different meanings in various cultures. </li></ul><ul><li>Other definitions include a community or entire culture. </li></ul><ul><li>The most significant change in family life is the increase in the number of mothers in the Labor force. </li></ul><ul><li>Care of preschool age children varies. </li></ul>Cultural differences…
    21. 21. Family Systems <ul><li>Monogamy: 1 husband and 1wife, practiced in Europe, parts of Africa and Asia, and in North and South America. </li></ul><ul><li>Serial Monogamy: multiple monogamous marriages, after divorce or death, practiced in US. </li></ul><ul><li>Polygamy: 1 man and several wives, followers of Islam and Middle Eastern countries </li></ul><ul><li>Polyandry: 1 woman and several husbands- practiced in a number of Polynesian nations </li></ul><ul><li>Patriarchal: families in which the father is in control- typical in Spanish cultures, as well as Christian and Islamic </li></ul><ul><li>Matriarchal: mother-oriented families, found in Jewish families- based on the Judaic code of inheritance through the mother </li></ul>Cultural differences…
    22. 22. Age <ul><li>Patrons of different ages have different expectations and information needs when using the library. Service professionals should keep these differences in mind to provide the user with the most helpful and enjoyable experience. </li></ul>Cultural differences…
    23. 23. <ul><li>Young children: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Imposed query vs. Self-determined query. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developmental levels. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community demographics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethical issues. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common information needs. </li></ul></ul>Cultural differences…
    24. 24. <ul><li>Elementary school age: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developmental level. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level of sophistication of materials. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid the use of professional jargon. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imposed restrictions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Move away from the reference desk. </li></ul></ul>Cultural differences…
    25. 25. <ul><li>Young Adults: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make eye contact and show a genuine smile. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be visible in the young adult areas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology is a necessity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t ask, “Can I help you?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teens want to know more. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teens should be encouraged to discover their own reading materials. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most importantly, be APPROACHABLE . </li></ul></ul>Cultural differences…
    26. 26. <ul><li>Special topics for young adults: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Libraries have been found to be one of the primary sources of information for G ay, L esbian. B isexual, or T ransgender individuals during their coming-out periods. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GLBT youth are an at-risk population. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regard the patron warmly with a smile and eye contact. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be approachable. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t hesitate; begin a reference interview like you would for any other information request. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Things to consider. </li></ul></ul>Cultural differences…
    27. 27. <ul><li>Seniors: Older adults are quickly becoming a leader in public library use, by taking advantage of many different types of programming, including, computer classes, film series as well as programs on health, finances, etc. When working with older adults it is important to keep in mind that many seniors do not have a strong support network. Patience is key when working with seniors. </li></ul>Cultural differences…
    28. 28. Seniors continued… <ul><li>G.I. Generation (age 85+) </li></ul><ul><li>Silent Generation (age 65-84) </li></ul><ul><li>Baby Boomers (under age 65) </li></ul><ul><li>Things to keep in mind: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Readers’ advisory questionnaires may be given to patrons who are hearing impaired. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Format, format, format! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Barriers to service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical disabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of transportation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is important to remember to treat every older </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>adult as an individual. </li></ul></ul>Cultural differences…
    29. 29. Professional Guidelines… <ul><li>Empathy and awareness in dealing with various social, racial, and ethnic groups is essential. </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease the communication barriers between persons of different cultural backgrounds to improve services. </li></ul><ul><li>Librarians can and should do their part to bring about better interracial relationships in the library setting.   </li></ul><ul><li>A successful interaction is based on effective communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Librarians should recognize and accept differences in the behaviors of people from other cultures and subsequently deal with them in a positive manner. </li></ul><ul><li>As mutual respect is shown, a genuine relationship is established, the librarian's role is a very important area of intercultural communication. </li></ul>Implications for practice…
    30. 30. <ul><li>Changes in the racial composition of our population has broad implications for library materials, staffing and programs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Bureau of Census predicts that by 2030 Hispanics and African Americans will each be approximately 15% of the total population. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Librarians must voice the need for materials that represent a wide range of ethnic groups. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Members of minority groups should be encouraged to join the library profession. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Library programs should be designed to respond to the needs of African American and Hispanic communities. </li></ul></ul>Implications for practice…
    31. 31. <ul><li>For libraries to remain vital institutions in communities it is necessary that we are able to meet the needs of all users. Libraries are the primary source of information for many individuals who might lack access otherwise. Libraries should have policies in place to insure that cultural differences are treated with respect in order to provide the best possible services. </li></ul>Conclusion…
    32. 32. <ul><li>Gross, M. The imposed query and information services for children. Journal of Youth Services in Libraries , v. 13 no. 2 (Winter 2000) p. 10-17. </li></ul><ul><li>Curry, A. If I Ask, Will They Answer? Evaluating Public Library Reference Service to Gay and Lesbian Youth. Reference & User Services Quarterly , v. 45 no. 1 (Fall 2005) p. 65-75 </li></ul><ul><li>Stevenson-Moudamane, V. L. C. Online reference assistance for youth just a click away [Web sites]. Public Libraries , v. 39 no. 5 (September/October 2000) p. 260-1 </li></ul><ul><li>Winston, M. D., et. al., Reference and information services for young adults: a research study of public libraries in New Jersey. Reference & User Services Quarterly , v. 41 no. 1 (Fall 2001) p. 45-50 </li></ul><ul><li>Boatman, W. Public Libraries as a Bridge for College-bound Young Adults. Reference & User Services Quarterly , v. 42 no. 3 (Spring 2003) p. 229-34 </li></ul><ul><li>Library services to older adults guidelines. Reference & User Services Quarterly, v. 39 no. 1 (Fall 1999) p. 25-7 </li></ul><ul><li>Ahlvers, A. Older Adults and Readers' Advisory. Reference & User Services Quarterly , v. 45 no. 4 (Summer 2006) p. 305-12 </li></ul><ul><li>Winston, M. D., et. al., Reference and information services for young adults: a research study of public libraries in New Jersey. Reference & User Services Quarterly , v. 41 no. 1 (Fall 2001) p. 45-50 </li></ul><ul><li>Strong, S. Sights, Sounds, and Silence in Library Reference Service to Children. Public Libraries , v. 43 no. 6 (November/December 2004) p. 313-14 </li></ul><ul><li>Booth, H. RA for YA: Tailoring the Readers Advisory Interview to the Needs of Young Adult Patrons. Public Libraries , v. 44 no. 1 (January/February 2005) p. 33-6 </li></ul><ul><li>The Changing Family and Public Library Service. Alki (March 1991) v. 7 no. 1 p. 24-25 </li></ul><ul><li>Meredith, M. (2005) Dealing with an International Clientele: Communications, Diplomacy, and Etiquette. Muchen, Germany: K.G. Saur. </li></ul>Bibliography
    33. 33. <ul><li>Martin & Chaney (2006). Global Business Etiquette: A Guide to International Communication and Customs. Westport, CT: Praegar. </li></ul><ul><li>Dress, N. (1996) Multicultural manners. New York: John Wiley and Sons. </li></ul><ul><li>Liao, J. (2004). A historical perspective: the root cause for the underdevelopment of user services in Chinese academic libraries. Journal of Academic Librarianship 30 (2). </li></ul><ul><li>Wu, J. & Huang, R. (2003). The academic library development in China. Journal of Academic Librarianship 29(4). </li></ul><ul><li>Adeyemi, M. & Adeyinka, A. (2002). Some key issues in African traditional education. McGill Journal of Education 37 (2). </li></ul><ul><li>Cullen, R., Adeyoyin, S., Olorunsola, R. & Idada, D. (2004) Issues facing academic libraries in Nigeria. Journal of Academic Librarianship 30 (4) 330-332. </li></ul><ul><li>Ramesha & Kumbar, B. (2004) Performance evaluation of Karnataka State University library resources and services: a librarian’s approach. Journal of Educational Media & Library Services 41 (3) 299-314. </li></ul><ul><li>Dresser, N. (1996). Multicultural Manners. New York: John Wiley & sons, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Walton, S. (1994). Cultural diversity in the work place. Burr Ridge, Illinois: Irwin Professional Publishing. </li></ul><ul><li>Lam, Errol R. (Spring 1988)The reference interview: some intercultural considerations. Research Quarterly , 27, p390(6). </li></ul>Bibliography

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