Why hydrogen

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Response information is for reference. We recommend attending an emergency response workshop to better understand the properties of hydrogen and fuel cell electric vehicles.

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Why hydrogen

  1. 1. Why hydrogen? • • • • • • Excellent energy carrier Nonpolluting Economically competitive As safe as gasoline Used safely for over 50 years Produced from a variety of sources 10/24/2013
  2. 2. How fast does it rise? • “Hydrogen rises 2 times faster than helium and 6 times faster than natural gas, at a speed of almost 45 mph (20m/s).” Buoyancy relative to air Air --National Hydrogen Association; Hydrogen Safety Fact Sheet Hydrogen Natural Gas Gasoline Courtesy of Ballard Propane
  3. 3. How quickly does it disperse? Courtesy of Ballard
  4. 4. Comparison of properties Hydrogen Color Toxicity Odor Buoyancy Relative to Air Energy by Weight Energy by Volume Natural Gas Gasoline No No Yes None Some High Odorless Mercaptan Yes 14X Lighter 2X Lighter 3.75X Heavier 2.8X > Gasoline 4X < Gasoline ~1.2X > Gasoline 1.5X < Gasoline 43 MJ/kg 120 MJ/Gallon
  5. 5. Comparison of flammability Hydrogen 0 4 Natural Gas 1 0 4 Gasoline 0 1 3 0 Flammability in air (LFL – UFL) 4.1% - 74% 5.3% - 15% 1.4% - 7.6% Explosive limits in air (LEL – UEL) 18.3% - 59% 5.7% - 14% 1.4% - 3.3% Most easily ignited mixture in air 29% 9% 2% Flame temperature ( C) 2045 1957 1977
  6. 6. Gas properties & characteristics • Displaces O2 (Asphyxiant) • Burns with a pale blue flame – near invisible in daylight (can see what it burns) – much less radiant heat of gasoline fire Photos: HAMMER
  7. 7. How explosive is it? 45 44 40 35 More Explosive Energy 30 25 gTNT/M 3 20 20 15 10 7 5 2 0 Hydrogen Natural Gas Gasoline Propane Courtesy of Ballard
  8. 8. Where do we get hydrogen? Renewable sources Traditional sources Solar, wind, geothermal, hydro, biomass, algae Natural gas, gasoline, nuclear, coal
  9. 9. Hydrogen distribution • DOT approved… • Cryogenic liquid transport • Pressurized gas trailers • Truck, rail, barge and pipeline Photo: Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. Photo: Praxair, Inc. Photo: Ovonics

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