Biology Form 4: Chapter 8.2 Colonisation and Succession in an Ecosystem
FORM 4FORM 4
CHAPTER 8CHAPTER 8
8.2 COLONISATION AND SUCCESSION
IN AN ECOSYSTEM
A community of living organisms interacting
with each other and with the non-living
The natural environment in which an organism
lives and get their food, shelter, living space, and
Consists of a group of organisms that look alike
and have similar characteristics, share the same
ecological niche and are capable of
interbreeding and producing fertile offspring.
Consists of a group of organisms of the same
species living in the same habitat at the same
A naturally occurring collection of plant
and animal species living within a defined
area in and ecosystem
The function of an organism or the role
plays in an ecosystem.
The process whereby living organisms move
into this newly formed area which is
completely devoid of life.
The gradual process where one community changes
its environment so that it is replaced by another
Colonisation & Succession in Mangrove
Swamps (Paya Bakau)
Mangrove swamps found in tropical regions where fresh water
meets salt water.
They have a bad environment for normal plants.
soft muddy soil and strong coastal wind
high concentration of salt
very low levels of oxygen
exposed to high intensity of sunlight
Profile of Succession in a Mangrove Swamp
The colonisation and succession occur. The condition becomes more
suitable for the successors which are the dominant species at that
Distribution of Mangrove Trees in the
Banks of Rivermouth
Processes of Colonisation and
Succession in a Pond
1. Pioneer stage
When pioneer plants die and decompose,
the organic matter settle to the bottom of
the pond and make the pond shallower.
This produce suitable conditions for aquatic
2. Succession by aquatic floating plants
Floating plants cover the surface of the
pond and prevent light from entering the
Pioneer plants cannot perform
photosynthesis and die. These dead plants
will sink to the bottom and increase the
organic matter layer of the bottom.
3. Succession by amphibious plants
Dead aquatic floating plants and
eroded soil from the pond banks will
raise the pond floor and make the pond
too shallow for aquatic plants to float.
The aquatic plants are succeeded by
4. Succession by herbaceous plants
The continued deposition of organic
matter enables grass to gradually
replace amphibious plants.
5. Succession by woody plants
The death of amphibious plants
caused continued deposition of organic
matter and evaporation of pond water
will make the pond very shallow and
eventually dry it up.
Finally land plants and other woody
plants will replace the amphibious
plants and form a jungle.
6. Climax community
The succession will stop when a level of
balance is achieved.