Biology Form 4: Chapter 8.4 Biodiversity


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Biology Form 4: Chapter 8.4 Biodiversity

  1. 1. BIOLOGY 8.4 Biodiversity Prepared by:  Qhaiyum  Mizah  Ihfa  Wawa
  2. 2. Introduction • Biodiversity refers to the variety of forms of living things on the Earth interacting with each other.
  3. 3. Classification of Organisms • Taxonomy is used to identify, describe, and naming organisms. • Organisms with the same characteristics are gathered in the same class. • Organisms are classified into 5 major kingdoms: a) Monera d) Plantae b) Protista e) Animalia c) Fungi
  4. 4. 1. Monera • Prokaryotic – organisms with no distinct membrane-bound nuclei and organelles. • Unicellular organisms and has cell walls. • They can be non-photosynthetic and photosynthetic. • Examples of monera are bacteria and cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). Cyanobacteria Bacteria
  5. 5. 2. Protista • Eukaryotes – includes unicellular or multicellular organisms, and each have nucleus and organelles that are surrounded by membranes. • Some have cell walls and some do not. • Multicellular protists are not specialised to perform specific functions in the organisms. • Protista have 2 types: a) Algae b) Protozoa
  6. 6. Protozoa Algae Amoeba sp. Chlamydomonas sp. Paramecium sp. Spirogyra sp. • Examples of protists (protozoa and algae):
  7. 7. 3. Fungi • Both unicellular and multicellular organisms. • The cell walls of fungi contain a material called chitin. • Bodies consists of a network of a network of thread-like hyphae called mycelium.
  8. 8. • They do not contain chlorophyll and may feed saprotrophically by absorbing nutrients from decaying organic matter while others are parasitic. • Examples of fungi are moulds (Mucor sp.), mushrooms and yeasts. Moulds (Mucor sp.) Mushrooms Yeasts
  9. 9. 4. Plantae • Plants are multicellular organisms that are immobile, contains chlorophyll and produce their own food by photosynthesis. • Each plant cell has a nucleus, cell wall and other organelles. • Examples of plants are palms trees, conifers, flowering plants and more.
  10. 10. 5. Animalia • Animals are multicellular organisms and are mobile. • Their cells do not have any cell walls. • Do not have chlorophyll. • Examples of animals are bird, dragonfly, fish and more.
  11. 11. The Hierarchy in the Classification of Organisms Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species • Living organisms are classified into 7 hierarchical levels. • The number of organisms in each unit decreases from kingdom to species. • Therefore, each higher unit covers a greater range of organisms.
  12. 12. Linnaeus Binomial System of Classification • This type of classification uses 2 words to name every species or organisms found: a) The first word in the name refers to genus. b) The second word is the specific name. • Both names are in Latin (or latinised). • Both names are in italics if typed or underlined if written. • Example: Human – homo sapiens or homo sapiens
  13. 13. Classification Tiger Human Hibiscus Kingdom Animalia Animalia Plantae Phylum Chordata Chordata Tracheophyta Class Mammalia Mammalia Angiosperma Order Carnivora Primate Malvales Family Felidae Hominidae Malvaceae Genus Panthera Homo Hibiscus Species Tigris Sapiens Rosa-sinensis Panthera tigris Homo sapiens Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
  14. 14. The Importance of Biodiversity • Maintaining a balanced nature • Source of food • Source of medicine • Clean air • Shelter • Economic resources (eco-tourism) • Clean drinking water • Preserved all living organisms from become extinct
  15. 15. That’s All From Us Thank You For Listening XD !