• Biodiversity refers to the variety of forms of living things on
the Earth interacting with each other.
Classification of Organisms
• Taxonomy is used to identify, describe, and naming
• Organisms with the same characteristics are gathered in
the same class.
• Organisms are classified into 5 major kingdoms:
a) Monera d) Plantae
b) Protista e) Animalia
• Prokaryotic – organisms with no
distinct membrane-bound nuclei
• Unicellular organisms and has
• They can be non-photosynthetic
• Examples of monera are bacteria
and cyanobacteria (blue-green
• Eukaryotes – includes unicellular or multicellular organisms,
and each have nucleus and organelles that are surrounded
• Some have cell walls and some do not.
• Multicellular protists are not specialised to perform specific
functions in the organisms.
• Protista have 2 types:
Amoeba sp. Chlamydomonas sp.
Paramecium sp. Spirogyra sp.
• Examples of protists (protozoa and algae):
• Both unicellular
• The cell walls of
fungi contain a
• Bodies consists of
a network of a
• They do not contain chlorophyll and may feed
saprotrophically by absorbing nutrients from decaying
organic matter while others are parasitic.
• Examples of fungi are moulds (Mucor sp.), mushrooms and
Moulds (Mucor sp.) Mushrooms Yeasts
• Plants are multicellular organisms that are immobile,
contains chlorophyll and produce their own food by
• Each plant cell has a nucleus, cell wall and other organelles.
• Examples of plants are palms trees, conifers, flowering
plants and more.
• Animals are multicellular organisms and are mobile.
• Their cells do not have any cell walls.
• Do not have chlorophyll.
• Examples of animals are bird, dragonfly, fish and more.
The Hierarchy in the
Classification of Organisms
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
• Living organisms are classified into 7 hierarchical levels.
• The number of organisms in each unit decreases from
kingdom to species.
• Therefore, each higher unit covers a greater range of
Linnaeus Binomial System of
• This type of classification uses 2 words to name every
species or organisms found:
a) The first word in the name refers to genus.
b) The second word is the specific name.
• Both names are in Latin (or latinised).
• Both names are in italics if typed or underlined if written.
• Example: Human – homo sapiens or homo sapiens
Classification Tiger Human Hibiscus
Kingdom Animalia Animalia Plantae
Phylum Chordata Chordata Tracheophyta
Class Mammalia Mammalia Angiosperma
Order Carnivora Primate Malvales
Family Felidae Hominidae Malvaceae
Genus Panthera Homo Hibiscus
Species Tigris Sapiens Rosa-sinensis
The Importance of Biodiversity
• Maintaining a balanced nature
• Source of food
• Source of medicine
• Clean air
• Economic resources (eco-tourism)
• Clean drinking water
• Preserved all living organisms from become extinct
For Listening XD !