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A commentary on public art in Edinburgh and an attempt to define the Edinburgh Aesthetic.

A commentary on public art in Edinburgh and an attempt to define the Edinburgh Aesthetic.

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    Black_Dinham_Cat_alephs_moved_again Black_Dinham_Cat_alephs_moved_again Document Transcript

    • MA  of  Contemporary  Art  Theory  Assessment  Please see my enclosed Master Project and Thesis.This submission includes the written thesis titled Alephs Moved Again and in conjunctionwith this thesis I have produced a website documenting public art in Edinburgh of the sametitle. • The Masters project website url: alephsmovedagain.com
    • Alephs Moved AgainTable  of  Contents   Cover  page  ….....................................................................................................................................1     Introduction  ….................................................................................................................................4     Chapter  One   Edinburgh  &  Aesthetics  …..............................................................................................................8     Chapter  Two   It’s  an  Urban  Walking  Affair  ….................................................................................................20     Chapter  Three   Reconstructing  a  Sense  of  Place  …...........................................................................................28     Chapter  Four   Alephs  Moved  Again  …..................................................................................................................38     Conclusion  …..................................................................................................................................45     Website  &  Portfolio  information  …..................................................................................49     Illustration  Figure  List  .……….………....................................................................................50     Reference  Bibliography  …......................................................................................................59     Research  Bibliography  …........................................................................................................61                           2
    • Alephs Moved Again   Thesis  and  Project  Portfolio  online   Available  on  http://catrionablackdinham.wordpress.com/     Alephs  Moved  Again  Portfolio  ….................................................................................................1   Jorge  Luis  Borges  project  inspiration  ……………....................................................................2   Edgar  Allan  Poe  project  inspiration  …......................................................................................3   Miwon  Kwon:  Public  Art  as  Publicity  ………............................................................................4   Project  Website,  Alephs  Moved  Again  ……...............................................................................5   Brief  Idea,  Alephs  Moved  Again  ………........................................................................................6   Edgar  Allan  Poe  project  inspiration  .........................................................................................7   Mapping  Requirements  …………...................................................................................................8   City  of  Edinburgh  Links  ……..........................................................................................................9   Feedback  ……………………………………………………………………………………………………10       3
    • Alephs Moved Again Since   1947   the   months   of   July   and   August   see   a   swell   of   the   arts   in   Edinburgh.     These   annual   festivals,   representing   the   full   spectrum   of   the   arts,   were   introduced   in   an   effort  to  promote  goodwill  and  celebrate  the  human  spirit  post  World  War  II.      As  a   result   this   Scottish   Capital   and   World   Heritage   site   is   rife   with   a   bubbling   tourist   industry  and  a  rich  landscape  of  cultural  activities  during  those  months.    In  contrast,   when  looking  at  Edinburgh’s  publicly  accessible  art  year  round,  we  encounter  a  lack   of   public   art   in   general.     This   is   even   more   apparent   when   we   look   at   public   art   produced  in  the  past  few  decades.    In  this  thesis  I  have  attempted  to  define  possible   reasons  for  the  lack  of  contemporary  public  art  and  explore  if  this  is  a  fundamental   part  of  the  phenomena  that  could  be  termed  the  Edinburgh  Aesthetic.       This   thesis   offers   a   critique   of   public   art;   commenting   on   the   Edinburgh   Aesthetic   through  case  studies  of  contemporary  public  artwork.    The  foundation  for  these  case   studies,   catalogued   on   the   website   created   in   conjunction   with   this   thesis,   Alephs   Moved  Again,  is  the  dynamic  nature  of  place  as  a  socio-­‐geographical  concept.     When   reflecting   on   the   idea   of   a   city   having   an   aesthetic,   which   can   be   resistant   to   conventional   descriptions1,   we   must   acknowledge   three   elements,   which   work   together   as   a   triad   when   discussing   the   making   of   public   art.     These   are   Public,   Art   (activity)   and   Place   {Figure  1}.     Referencing   the   “relationship   between   society   and   space,  1Influence   taken   from   Ian   Campbell   and   Margaret   Stewart’s   examination   of   Edinburghs   historical   and   4
    • Alephs Moved Again history   and   geography,   splendidly   idiographic   and   the   enticingly   generalizable   features   of   a   postmodern   urban   geography”2,   how   can   we   retain   such   a   sense   of   immobility  of  the  local  sense  of  place  and  ignore  its  particularities  amidst  the  cross-­‐ hatchings  and  constant  movement  of  multiple  identities  and  cultures  in  a  place?         In   an   effort   to   outline   the   Edinburgh   Aesthetic   it   is   important   to   discuss   the   postmodern  critical  theory  of  place  and  explore  the  more  specific  question  in  relation   to  public  art  in  Edinburgh:  are  the  current  cultural  expressions  of  Edinburgh’s  people   visually  represented  and  encouraged  in  the  production  of  public  art?3       The  intersections  of  place  and  its  multiple  identities  and  visual  markers  are  currently   under   represented   in   artistic   expression   by   todays   inhabitants.     Visual   representations   can   come   in   numerous   forms,   such   as   permanent   sculptures,   community   projects,   performances,   graffiti,   etc.       I   have   broached   the   issue   that   Edinburgh’s  places  are  subject  to  various  paternalistic  notions,  driven  by  elements  of   Government   cultural   activity   policy   focusing   on   requirements   of   production   and   commissioning.     My   reaction   to   the   Edinburgh   Aesthetic   is   to   catalogue   what   permanent  and  temporary  public  art  we  have  in  Edinburgh  as  a  continuing  project.    2   Edward   Soja,   Postmodern   Geographies,   the   Reassertion   of   Space   in   Critical   Social   Theory,   Verso,  1989,  p.  223    3   I   must   acknowledge   that   Edinburgh   has   produced   and   grasped   other   non-­‐visual   forms   of   the   arts  instead  i.e.  poetry,  music,  I  cannot  deny  this  form  of  expression,  and  it  highlights  the  lack  on  non-­‐visual  expressions.   5
    • Alephs Moved Again   The   Geographer   Doreen   Massey   explains   the   construction   of   tradition   in   public   places.     Massey’s   place   as   practiced   concept   emphasizes   that   our   place-­‐making   traditions  and  identities  go  hand  in  hand  and  are  constantly  in  flux.    We  not  only  hold   onto   our   traditions   but   also   have   to   build   them.     Edinburgh   has   an   image   to   maintain   as   the   capital   city   of   Scotland,   and   it   preserves   its   architectural   heritage,   cultural   policy,  specific  regeneration4,  and  an  aesthetic  that  is  quintessentially  Edinburgh.    My   research   looks   largely   at   Massey’s   view   of   place   in   relation   to   the   idea   of   multiple   identities   of   place,   short   stories   by   Jorge   Luis   Borges,   and   theory   drawn   from   Situationist  discussions  and  psychogeography       Wandering   and   wondering   in   Edinburgh   is   the   ideal   way   to   encounter   its   public   artworks;   my   website   Alephs   Moved   Again   catalogues   and   documents   artworks   and   location   and   offers   mapping   points   and   markers   for   clarification   of   context;   what   this   illustrates   is   how   place   is   fluid   and   changing   by   also   seeing   the   artwork   in   today’s   context.     I   will   continue   to   document   new   artwork   and   events   in   the   future   as   the   project  progresses.        4   “Preserve   that   unique   sense   of   place,   create   the   conditions   for   a   vibrant   yet   safe   street   life,   and  encourage  continuing  private  sector  developments  and  improvements.”  (Andrew  McMillan  and  Ewan  Hyslop;  The  City  of  Edinburgh  –  landscape  and  stone.  ICOMOS  2008  Scientific  Symposium)   6
    • Alephs Moved Again The  project  title,  Alephs  Moved  Again,  references  points  of  infinite  space  in  the  short   story   by   Jorge   Luis   Borges5.     The   catalogue   of   public   art   online   will   act   like   an   infinite   archive   and   resource.     By   creating   this   resource   that   users   can   contribute   to,   the   website  illustrates  the  lack  of  contemporary  artwork  in  our  streets.    My  hope  for  the   future  is  twofold;  that  we  re-­‐assess  current  public  art  and  we  re-­‐evaluate  the  code  of   production   and   process   within   this   city   when   producing   and   commissioning   public   art  in  Edinburgh.            5   This   reference   was   formed   through   the   formulation   of   Soja,   Edward,   Thirdspace,   Blackwell,   1996.  Print.  p.  57;  by  analogy  with  the  Aleph,  a  concept  of  spatial  infinity  developed  by  Jorge  Luis  Borges  in  1945.     7
    • Alephs Moved AgainEDINBURGH  AND  AESTHETICS     But  Edinburgh  is  a  mad  god’s  dream     Fitful  and  dark,     Unseizable  in  Leith     And  wildered  by  the  Forth,     But  irresistibly  at  last     Cleaving  to  sombre  heights     Of  passionate  imagining     Till  stonily,     From  soaring  battlements,     Earth  eyes  Eternity.       Hugh  MacDiarmid  (1892–1978):  “Edinburgh”  -­‐  plaque  on  the  Edinburgh  Canongate   wall  6     ‘A  mad  god’s  dream  …  of  passionate  imagining’  -­‐  it’s  a  bold  piece  of  writing  from  the   one   time   Edinburgh   resident   MacDairmid;   writing   that   I   strive   to   realize   in   its  6Hugh   MacDiarmid   (1892-­‐1978).   Lived   and   died   in   Edinburgh.   A   Scottish   poet   of   the   20th   century.   He  was  instrumental  in  creating  a  Scottish  version  of  modernism  and  was  a  leading  light  in  the  Scottish  Renaissance  of  the  20th  century.     8
    • Alephs Moved Again possibilities.   When   you   live   in   a   city   like   Edinburgh,   not   too   big,   nothing’s   too   far;   whether   to   explore   or   on   a   mission,   walking   is   a   natural   part   of   your   day.     The   pedestrian   nature   of   Edinburgh   is   quite   alive,   we   have   great   (before   that   tram   construction)  public  transport  but  many  of  us  who  can,  walk  to  where  we  are  going.     Walking   quite   often   deviates   from   just   wandering,   usually   I   walk   with   a   mission,   focused,  trying  to  get  to  work  on  time.    I  think  many  of  us  do  this  in  unity,  but  miss  the   day-­‐to-­‐day   attractions   of   the   terrain,   with   both   wonderment   and   calculation   of   the   city’s   possibilities.     The   uninhibited   act   of   the   derive   offers   wandering   with   an   awareness  of  the  psychogeographical  affects  of  the  environment,  which  I  will  discuss   further  in  Chapter  2.         Edinburgh’s   aesthetic   is   based   upon   heritage   and   monument;   in   1935   Edwin   Muir   gets  straight  to  the  point  by  describing  that:  Edinburgh  is  ‘becoming  lost  to  history’7.         ‘England   gives   some   scope   for   it’s   best;   Scotland   gives   none;   and   by   now   it’s   large   towns   are   composed   of   astute   capitalists   and   angry   proletarians,   with   nothing   that   matters   much   in   between.     Edinburgh   is   a   partial   exception   to   this;   but   Edinburgh   is   a   handsome,   empty   capital   of   the   past   …   [they   are]   monuments   of   Scotland’s   industrial   past,   historical   landmarks   in   a   country   which   is   becoming  7  Edwin  Muir,  Scottish  Journey.  Edinburgh.  1985.  Henceforth  Muir  p.  3-­‐4.   9
    • Alephs Moved Again lost  to  history.’8     This  city’s  history  seems  apparent  as  soon  as  you  step  off  the  train;  you  look  up  and   see   Waverley   railway   station’s   original   1847   construction   all   around   you,   although   today  it’s  merged  with  travel  advancements,  Boots  chemist  and  WH  Smith.    Assuming   you   can   see   past   the   construction   the   history   surrounds   us   as   you   wander   up   the   famously  blustery  Waverley  Steps  up  to  Princes  Street  to  find  yourself  in  the  midst  of   the  character,  and  the  very  quintessential  nature  of  the  now  privatized  Edinburgh.     Edinburgh’s  character  has  often  been  defined  as  "public  probity  and  private  vice"  by   Dr  Jekyll  and  Mr  Hyde  writer  Robert  Louis  Stevenson.    And  again  Stevenson  reiterates   the   Edinburgh   Aesthetic,   and   implies   Edinburgh   is   a   "precipitous   city”  9,   which   when   I   was   a   newcomer   to   the   city   I   would   have   agreed   with   whole   heartedly,   but   I   have   been  softened  by  my  over  a  decade  in  residence.       The   Edinburgh   literary   community   has   had   great   recognition   over   the   past   two   hundred   years,   with   the   likes   of   R.L.   Stevenson,   Sir   Arthur   Conan   Doyle10,   Irvine  8  Edwin  Muir,  Scottish  Journey.  Edinburgh.  1985.  Henceforth  Muir  p.  3-­‐4.  9  Robert  Louis  Stevenson  (1850-­‐1894).  Born,  educated  and  lived  in  Edinburgh.  Scottish  novelist,  poet  and  travel  writer.  Famous  novels  are:  Treasure  Island,  Kidnapped  and  The  Strange  Case  of  Dr  Jekyll  and  Mr  Hyde  10   Sir   Arthur   Conan   Doyle   (1859-­‐1930).   Born   and   educated   in   Edinburgh.   Trained   physician   and  writer,  his  most  famous  stories  are  about  Sherlock  Holmes.   10
    • Alephs Moved Again Welsh11   and   Ian   Rankin12,   all   have   given   the   city   a   pedestal   upon   which   to   stand.     While   non-­‐visual   expressions   have   been   on   the   rise   in   recent   years   the   visual   expression  of  Edinburgh’s  people  has  been  stinted.     Alexander  Stoddart,  a  prominent   sculptor  &  Ordinary  to  the  Queen  of  Scotland,  has  been  commissioned  to  erect  many   monuments  over  the  past  three  decades;  he  has  brought  us  the  bronze  landmarks  of   Adam   Smith   and   David   Hume.     Sadly,   in   my   opinion   {Figure   2}   however   talented   and   skilled   in   his   trade   and   respected   he   may   be,   demand   has   facilitated   his   monopolisation   of   the   production   of   contemporary   development   of   artwork   in   this   city.     His   mastery   of   classical   realism   through   bronze   monuments   has   stifled   the   creation  and  production  of  contemporary  artworks  in  the  public  realm;  artwork  that   the   public   can   relate   to   in   todays   time   and   context.     This   monopolisation   of   contemporary   artwork   in   Edinburgh   is   hardly   weighted   on   Stoddart,   but   by   the   conservative  sensibilities  of  the  commissioners  of  the  artwork,  which  I  shall  discuss   further  in  regard  to  cultural  policy  activities.         My   use   of   literary   references   and   heritage   in   this   project   can   be   based   on   the   reflections   of   critical   regionalism,   which   is   based   on   an   avant-­‐gardist   modernist  11   Irvine   Welsh   (b.1957).   Born,   educated   and   lived   in   Edinburgh.   Contemporary   Scottish   novelist,   best  known  for  the  phonetically  written  novel;  Trainspotting.  12 Ian Rankin, Born in the Kingdom of Fife. 1960. Prominent Scottish writer, particularly for his writings ofEdinburgh’s detective; Rebus. 11
    • Alephs Moved Again approach.     If   we   look   at   the   Edinburgh   literary   tour   project13,   it   incorporates   both   reference   to   the   urban   symbolic   and   architectural   landscape   with   prominent   Edinburgh   born   and   resident   writers.     In   its   foundations   it   rests   in   the   local   or   regional   architecture,   which   in   Edinburgh   is   at   the   root   of   the   need   to   maintain   its   heritage.     The   writer   Kenneth   Frampton14   is   most   associated   with   the   term   Critical   Regionalism  that  fostered  postmodern  cultural  theory.    Critical  regionalism’s  original   use  is  in  architectural  theory,  which  includes  literature,  cultural,  and  political  studies   and  proposes  a  methodology  based  on  the  intersection  of  those  fields  which  I  use  in   my  discussion  of  the  mapping  of  the  urban  landscape  as  place  as  a  fluid  notion.       The   lack   of   non-­‐bronzed   contemporary   permanent   artworks   installed   in   our   pathways   is   perhaps   due   to   funding   hurdles   by   many   artists   and   (lets   not   forget)   council   permissions.     Edinburgh   has   a   public   aesthetic   that   is   adhered   to   and   maintained   by   the   authorities   including   the   City   Council.     After   seeking   out   information   in   regard   to   the   process   of   producing   artworks   for   the   streets   of   Edinburgh   I   was   directed   to   the   Arts   Development15   and   Cultural   Partnership   guidelines  issued  by  Edinburgh  City  Council.    The  guidelines  specify  what  public  art  13  Palimpsest:  Literary  Edinburgh,  Academicians:  Miranda  Anderson,  Amy  Guy,  Simon  Biggs,  John  Lee,  James  Loxley,  Mark  Wright,  CIRCLE  &  UoE  English  Literature  Department,  www.literarycities.org  14  Kenneth  Frampton  wrote  the  essay  "Towards  a  Critical  Regionalism:  Six  points  for  an  architecture  of  resistance"  published  in  the  book  "The  Anti-­‐Aesthetic:  Essays  on  Postmodern  Culture"  (1983)  edited  by  Hal  Foster.  15Arts  Development,  City  of  Edinburgh  Council:    http://www.edinburgh.gov.uk/info/486/arts_development/372/arts_development   12
    • Alephs Moved Again comprises  and  what  it  must  achieve.    Visual  arts  have  been  amalgamated  with  other   art   forms   including   dance,   craft   and   theatre   under   cultural   activities   within   the   Edinburgh   Cultural   Partnership16   sector   of   the   City   Council,   which   was   established   in   2002   to   head   the   community-­‐planning   network   that   includes   the   Edinburgh   Partnership,  and  the  City  Sports  Partnership  and  other  organizations.           As   an   alternative   model   and   aim   to   which   Edinburgh   could   adapt   and   follow;   Gateshead   in   Newcastle   put   itself   on   the   map   in   the   1970’s   and   1980’s   as   they   decided  to  become  active  in  the  commissioning  of  public  art,  mainly  as  they  had  no   contemporary  art  gallery  at  that  time.    In  1986  Gateshead  created  a  formal  public  arts   programme   funded   through   various   means,   such   as   the   Single   Art   Regeneration   Budget,   Arts   Council   Lottery,   and   established   a   modal   that   other   cities   could   follow   and  appropriate.    Gateshead  used  public  art  as  a  means  to  reclaim  derelict  areas.    A   stark  contrast  to  Edinburgh’s  preservation  of  heritage  and  art.       The  Edinburgh  Cultural  Partnership  states  that  they  as  a  sector  will  improve  access  to   the  arts,  sports  and  cultural  activities,  for  example:       • They   encourage   active   involvement   and   participation   from   individuals   and  16Edinburgh  Cultural  Partnership:    http://www.edinburgh.gov.uk/info/486/arts_development/465/cultural_policy/1   13
    • Alephs Moved Again the  community,  which  helps  to  develop  self-­‐worth  and  community  identity     • They   help   to   raise   awareness   of   issues   relating   to   the   environment,   community  safety  and  disability     • They   help   to   develop   a   sense   of   pride   in   the   City’s    heritage   and   built   environment     • They   bring   in   new   ideas,   experiences   and   a   sense   of    enjoyment   to   the   City,   contributing  to  the  quality  of  life.     • Preserving  and  enhancing  the  city’s  built  heritage     • Arranging  displays  on  aspects  of  the  city’s  history     • Carrying  out  archeological  and  social  history  research     • Maintaining  and  encouraging  the  enjoyment  of  the  city’s  natural  heritage  of    parks  and  open  spaces     • Interpreting  the  city’s  architectural  and  historical  background  and  identifying    ways  of  making  it  more  accessible  to  the  public     • Collecting  and  preserving  artifacts  relating  to  the  city’s  heritage.  17     This   all   sounds   well   intended,   but   does   this   really   happen   in   the   development   and   production   of   public   arts?     It’s   a   common   view   that   public   art   must   follow   the   following  points,  perhaps  it’s  only  implied,  expected,  or  an  old  view;  and  there  is  little  17   ‘A   Cultural   Policy?’   for   the   City   of   Edinburgh.   Towards   a   New   Enlightenment.   1999.   p.   7   ~   I   obtained  this  document  from  the  Arts  Development  division  of  the  City  of  Edinburgh  Council,  this  is  their  most  recent  policy  document  guidelines,  but  I  was  informed  new  policy  documents  will  be  provided  to  the  public  in  2013.   14
    • Alephs Moved Again evidence   that   public   art   achieves   any   of   these   things   which   Doreen   Massey   and   Dr   Gillian  Rose,  both  of  the  Open  University,  have  discussed  on  the  value  and  impact  of   public  art  in  their  report  commissioned  by  Milton  Keynes  Council18.   • Reference   cultural   policy   and   the   assertions   such   policy’s   demand   on   public                     artworks  and  their  uses   • Enhances  the  physical  environment     • Creates  a  sense  of  place  and  distinctiveness     • Contributes  to  community  cohesion     • Contributes  to  social  health  and  wellbeing     • Contributes  to  economic  value  through  inward  investment  and  tourism     • Fosters  civic  pride  and  confidence     • Raises  quality  of  life     • Reduces  crime  19   From  such  guidelines  it’s  safe  to  assume  that  it’s  intended  that  permanent  artworks   must   integrate   into   the   city   landscape.     Many   public   artworks   are   funded   and   commissioned   through   such   schemes   as   ‘Percent   for   Art’,   which   is   implemented   by   the   City   Council.     The   scheme   works   in   association   with   a   private   organization   to   enhance   the   relationship   through   commissioned   publicly   accessible   visual   art   with  18   Professor   Doreen   Massey   BA   (Oxon),   MA   (Phila)   &   Dr   Gillian   Rose,   BA   (Cambs).   Social   Sciences  Faculty.   The   Open   University.   Commissioned   by   Artpoint   on   behalf   of   Milton   Keynes   Council:   Personal  Views:  Public  Art  Research  Project.  2003.  19  Public  Art  Online.  www.publicartonline.org.uk/resources/research/current_research.php   15
    • Alephs Moved Againprivately  owned  land  developers.    For  example;  ‘Percent  for  Art’  in  association  with  Cala  Homes  (Scotland)  artwork  can  be  seen  in  Stockbridge,  a  sculpture  titled  ‘Horse,  Rider,  Eagle’  by  Edinburgh  born  Eoghan  Bridge   {Figure   3}  in  1997.  ‘Percent  for  Art’  is  a  scheme   that   encourages   the   use   of   a   percentage   (typically   1%)   of   a   private   or  government   construction   project   cost   and   is   allocated   for   the   commissioning   and  production   of   a   publicly   accessible   permanent   artwork.     Richard   Serra’s   Tilted   Arc  sculpture   {Figure   4},   marked   a   change   in   the   way   such   artworks   where   instated.     The  Tilted   Arc   was   installed   in   the   courtyard   of   the   Jocob   Jarvits   Federal   Building   in  Manhattan,  New  York  in  1981.    There  was  an  outcry  by  pedestrians  and  workers  in  the   surrounding   buildings   that   this   mix   of   both   authoritarian   and   paternalistic  sculpture  was  commissioned  without  interaction  with  the  inhabitants  and  workers  of  the  area  and  was  removed  in  1989.        This  marked  a  change  in  process  of  commissioning  the  work  and  has  slowly  filtered  to  here  in  the  UK.    Although  the  funding  and  project  bodies  have  authority  over  the  artwork   commissioned,   community   engagement   and   approval   is   sought.     Perhaps   the  financial  encouragement  and  paternalistic  attitude  for  the  production  of  art  in  private  construction  is  to  ‘give  back’  to  that  place  and  community,  and  enrich  the  lives  in  that  area  through  art.    Looking  at  the  use  of  the  Edinburgh’s  Aesthetic,  as  a  nuance  of  a  static  notion  of  place   16
    • Alephs Moved Again and   discussing   the   documentation   of   current   artwork   and   the   need   to   produce  new   contemporary  artwork  in  a  way  that  implies  that  it  is  a  far  more  of  a  fluid  notion  is   how   I   wish   to   proceed.     By   fluid   I   refer   to   Miwon   Kwon’s   interpretation   of   Wrong   Place;   20   “Places   are   also   fluid,   changeable,   dynamic   contexts   of   social   interaction   and   memory”.       I  have  restricted  the  content  and  discussion  of  public  art  to  omit  the  festival  months   due  to  the  word  count  of  this  paper  and  to  emphasis  the  production  of  artworks  that   happen   in   the   remaining   10   months   of   the   year.     This   will   enable   me   to   focus   on   viewing   public   art   as   a   resident   and   to   comment   on   the   contradictions   of   the   local   sense  of  identity  and  the  dynamic  notion  of  the  association  of  place  through  the  use  of   visual  art  in  our  streets.    Documenting  the  artworks  in  festivals  will  be  a  continuation   of  the  Alephs  Moved  Again  project  for  a  later  time.     Ian  Rankin,  in  his  book  2007  Exit  Music21,  describes  this  city;    “It  seemed  to  him  a  very   Edinburgh  thing.  Welcoming,  but  not  very”.       Such   desire   and   economic   requirement   to   maintain   this   aesthetic   and   tradition   is   known  by  tourism  industries  around  the  world  is  perhaps  one  of  the  roots  of  issue.    20  Miwon  Kwon.  The  Wrong  Place.  Art  Journal;  Spring  2000.  59.  1.  Research  Library  Core.  p.  4  21 Ian Rankin. 2007. Exit Music. Desert Island Books 17
    • Alephs Moved AgainThe  recent  lack  of  permanent  artwork  produced  in  the  city  is  reacted  to  in  the  festival  months   when   there   is   an   abundance   of   temporary,   ephemeral   artwork,   but   year  round,   this   enthusiasm   is   stifled.   This   is   where   one   problem   lies.     The   (perhaps)  discouraging  guidelines  of  the  city  council,  the  need  to  conform  to  obtain  funding  in  such   schemes   as   ‘Percent   for   Art’   and   Creative   Scotland   proposals;   or   the  mountainous  and  precarious  nature  of  regulations  such  as  health  and  safety  etc.  has  dampened   the   expression   of   contemporary   artwork   in   the   public   arena   of   Edinburgh.    Boundaries  have  been  set  and  it  can  be  a  hazardous  crossing.        By   contextualising   the   modes   and   means   of   production   of   public   artworks   and   the  notion  of  places  in  which  they  inhabit;  I  am  attempting  to  shift  the  premise  from  the  production   of   art   as   economic   and   political   tools   of   growth,   to   that   of   the   need   to  include   contemporary   cultural   expressions   of   the   intercepting   cultures   and   identities  of  Edinburgh’s  people.      To   summarise,   the   Edinburgh   Aesthetic   is   a   conservative   sensibility   by   the   Edinburgh  City   Council   and   other   commissioning   bodies.     The   sensibility   of   the   people   in  authority   must   adhere   to   the   need   to   maintain   Edinburgh   as   a   world   heritage   site,  and   continue   to   strive   for   economic   growth   and   tourism.     All   to   the   detriment   of   new   18
    • Alephs Moved Again forms  of  artistic  ‘representation  and  meaning’22  being  produced  in  the  public  realm.      22  Merlin  Coverley.  Psychogeography.  Pocket  Edition.  Oldcastle  Books.  2006.  p.  96   19
    • Alephs Moved AgainIT’S  AN  URBAN  WALKING  AFFAIR     “Dérive  is  the  first  step  toward  an  urban  praxis.  It  is  a  stroll  through  the  city  by  several  people  who  are   out  to  understand  the  "psychogeographical  articulation  of  the  modern  city".  The  strollers  attempt  an   interpretive   reading   of   the   city,   an   architectural   understanding   …   “engage   in   "playful   reconstructive   behaviour"…They  see  in  the  city  unifying  and  empowering.23     The   dérive   is   the   ideal   model   notion   of   wandering   the   streets   of   Edinburgh   and   has   been   explored   extensively   by   Guy   Debord   of   the   Situationist   International   in   the   1950’s,   and   since   then   in   the   90’s,   by   the   ‘London   Psychogeographical   Association’,   and   again   recently   by   Merlin   Coverley’s   book   in   2006   ‘Psychogeography’,   and   the   2007   book   ‘Psychogeography:   Disentangling   the   Modern   Conundrum   of   Psyche   and   Place’  by  Will  Self  and  Ralph  Steadman,  and  Ian  Sinclair’s  2004  book  ‘London  Orbital’.   The  dérive  essentially  means  to  stroll  but  involves  a  ‘playful-­‐constructive  behavior’24   and   awareness   of   psychogeographical   effects.     The   Situationists   use   the   dérive   and   other   fractions   of   psychogeography   as   a   means   of   showing   the   contrast   in   the   everyday  and  comment  on  what  it  is  now  and  what  it  could  be  in  the  future.    My  focus   leads   within   a   fraction   of   psychogeography;   the   derive.     The   dérive   is   an   awareness   of   your  surroundings  and  the  affects  the  urban  landscape  have  when  interpreting  your  23Anonymous.  Drifitng  with  The  Situationist  International.  http://www.geog.leeds.ac.uk/people/a.evans/psychogeog.html.  2002.  24   Théorie   de   la   dérive”.   Internationale   Situationniste.   Paris.   1958.   Translation   by   Ken   Knabb.  Situationist  International  Anthology.  Revised  and  Expanded  Edition.  2006   20
    • Alephs Moved Again own  reading  of  the  city.     Guy  Debord  of  the  Situationists  was  the  forerunner  of  the  Situationists  International,   the  Letterist  Group,  which  included  psychogeography  and  various  elements  under  its   umbrella;  the  dérive  is  but  one  instrument.    Psychogeography  was  a  tool  in  an  attempt   to   transform   urban   life,   first   for   aesthetic   purposes   but   then   later   for   political   ends.     Merlin   Coverley   in   his   book   Psychogeography25   points   at   to   the   definition   of   where;   ‘psychology   and   geography   collide’,   as   a   way   of   exploring   peoples   behavior   and   the   impact  of  the  urban  place.    Coverley’s  guide  to  Psychogeography  has  been  a  necessary   conductor   in   understanding   the   overly   appropriated   term   that   has   become   quite   vague  in  definition  and  use.     The  dérive  enables  the  storytelling  of  a  places,  the  history  of  its  internal  cogs,  cross-­‐ hatchings   of   current   and   old   inhabitants   and   its   complexities   in   its   current   context.     The   practice   of   derive   in   Edinburgh   and   witnessing   the   attractions   in   our   streets   dissolves  the  boundaries,  reinvents  identities  and  contextualizes  the  histories  of  place   and   becomes   a   situation   creating   method   and   tool26.     The   dérive   does   not   give   into   pure  unconscious  desire  characterized  by  the  surrealist’s  wanderings  and  the  journey  25  Merlin  Coverley.  Psychogeography.  Pocket  Edition.  Oldcastle  Books.  2006.  p.  11  26  Situation  creating  technique  –  Influenced  by  various  writings  by  Guy  Debord   21
    • Alephs Moved Again of  the  stroller  of  the  flanuer.    The  dérive  lacks  clear  destination  but  has  purpose.27     Alephs   Moved   Again   is   in   part   my   visual   interpretive   reading   of   the   city   and   my   reaction  to,  in  my  opinion,  the  lack  of  contemporary  public  art  (non  bronzed),  and  to   map  the  artwork  in  the  streets  of  Edinburgh;  and  to  explore  the  ideas  that  are  open  to   place   being   interpreted   as   a   fluid   concept.     Why   aid   the   exhibition   with   an   online   model?    The  online  website  I  have  produced,  that  includes  an  integrated  map  can  give   the   audience   possibilities   to   follow,   and/or   give   points   of   places   to   give   start   to   the   possibility  of  the  derive:  beginning  with  purpose.    To  act  as  an  online  exhibition  site   with   numerous   links   to   a   catalogue   of   temporary   sited   artworks   and   information   along  with  a  list  of  permanent  artworks  and  features  around  the  city.    It  is  my  hope   the  online  site  would  continue  to  expand  and  include  historical  artworks  around  the   city  that  may  benefit  the  concept  of  the  project.       I   have   a   conflict   in   understanding   the   cultural   implications   of   fixed   and   generalized   interpretations   of   place   as   a   whole   and   the   cultural   hybridity   giving   rise   to   new   negotiations  of  meaning  and  representation28;  perhaps  it’s  the  need  to  be  a  localized   individual,   have   present-­‐time   association,   and   to   be   at   odds   with   associations   of  27  Merlin  Coverley.  Psychogeography.  Pocket  Edition.  Oldcastle  Books.  2006.  p.  96  28“The   process   of   cultural   hybridity   gives   rise   to   something   different,   something   new   and  unrecognizable,   a   new   area   of   negotiation   of   meaning   and   representation.”   Rutherford,   Jonathan.   "The  Third   Space.   Interview   with   Homi   Bhabha."   Identity:   Community,   Culture,   Difference.   London:  Lawrence  &  Wishart.  1998.  Print.  p.  211   22
    • Alephs Moved Again larger  intersections  of  society,  and  the  link  with  place;  not  to  be  exclusively  one  over   the  other.    Our  connections  and  interpretations  of  a  place  are  tied  to  our  knowledge,   our   cultural   understandings   and   histories   of   customs   and   rituals.     But   a   place   is   forever   altering,   adapting,   progressing,   multiple   identities   and   cross-­‐hatchings   of   people  change.    The  culture  develops  around  and  with  it,  and  the  writings  of  Doreen   Massey  speak  volumes,  particularly  in  such  essays  as  Politics  and  Space/Time.29    The   place  adopts  our  traits,  customs  and  cultures,  and  visa  versa.    Place  has  a  backlog  of   interactions,  where  people  and  time  are  facilitating  this  flexibility.     Showing  the  activity  in  Edinburgh  and  the  changing  nature  of  place;  when  interacting   with   the   possible   enhancing   abilities   of   an   artwork   we   can   reference   my   documentation  of  Antony  Gormley’s  artwork  Six  Times  {Figure  5}  via  Alephs  Moved  Again.     The   commissioned   artwork   by   the   Scottish   National   Galleries   is   in   association   with   funding   from   the   Lottery   Fund,   sites   6   casts,   very   typical   of   Gormley   artwork,   on   a   historical  route  of  the  Water  of  Leith  in  Edinburgh.    The  resource  I’ve  created  Alephs   Moved  Again  allows  the  publics  to  use  and  interact  with  the  site  as  an  online  resource,   mapping   each   point   of   the   trail   that   stretches   from   the   National   Galleries   Modern   buildings  to  the  abandoned  pier  in  Leith  Docks.    Since  2010  they  have  been  enveloped   into   the   place   where   they   sit.     For   me   the   real   expression   of   the   pedestrians   and   inhabitants   of   the   city   are   the   interventions   and   reactions   to   the   artwork   from   the  29  Doreen  Massey.  For  Space.  Includes  essay  Politics,  Space/Time.  SAGE  Publications  Ltd.  2005   23
    • Alephs Moved Again publics,  not  just  the  artwork  itself,  images  of  such  interventions  can  be  seen  on  Alephs   Moved   Again   as   part   of   the   documentation.     Various   bras   and   t-­‐shirts   have   been   placed  on  the  casts,  including  a  parody  performance  by  artist  Pete  Shaw30,  interacting   with   the   work,   which   in   my   opinion   is   a   point   of   substance   in   public   art.     I   don’t   believe   such   reactions   are   solely   in   protest   of   such   artworks   but   in   acceptance   and   engagement.     The   same   principle   lays   with   the   painting   of   Eduardo   Paolozzi’s   giant   bronze  foot  toenails31  at  the  top  of  Leith  Walk:  Elms  Row.       In   his   book   Malcolm   Miles:   Art,   Space   and   the   City:   Public   Art   and   Urban   Futures32   Miles   definition   of   publicly   accessible   artworks   is   a   key   aspect   in   my   exploration   of   place.    He  discusses  the  imbedded  history  and  continuous  expansion  of  culture  in  its   visual  markers  and  invited  interaction.  ‘Public  art’  is  a  form  of  street  life,  a  means  to   articulate  the  implicit  values  of  a  city  when  its  users  occupy  the  place  of  determining   what   the   city   is’,   …   suggests   that   it   actively   engages   with   and   intervenes   in   its   audiences.’33      30   Peter   Shaw.   Antony   Gormley   statue   performace.   2012.   meet-­‐the-­‐real-­‐life-­‐gormley-­‐statue-­‐peter-­‐shaw  31   Eduardo   Paolozzi   bronze   sculptures,   the   giant   bronze   foot   is   one   of   two   sculptures   by   Paolozzi   here,  the   other   being   another   giant   bronze   hand,   which   are   based   on   a   William   Blake   painting   of   Isaac  Newton.  1795  32  Miles,  M  Art.  Space  and  the  City:  Public  Art  and  Urban  Futures.  London.  1997  33   Professor   Doreen   Massey,   BA   (Oxon),   MA   (Phila)   &   Dr   Gillian   Rose,   BA   (Cambs).   Social   Sciences  Faculty.   The   Open   University.   Commissioned   by   Artpoint   on   behalf   of   Milton   Keynes   Council:   Personal  Views:  Public  Art  Research  Project.  2003.  p.  12   24
    • Alephs Moved Again In   the   spirit   of   the   Situationists   International   such   reactions   to   unwritten   rules   and   regulations   are   physical   interventions,   including   graffiti   and   tagging,   of   such   commercial   and   authoritarian   commissions   by   private   investment   schemes   and   the   city   council.   Edinburgh   council   has   tried   to   regulate   and   perhaps   embrace   artwork   in   the   form   of   murals   and   graffiti   by   giving   residents   two   legal   walls   in   the   city,   but   many   areas   in   Edinburgh   such   as   Rose   Street   and   Meadows   Lane   are   perhaps   a   reaction  to  the  councils  attempt  to  regulate  vandalism  –  graffiti,  and  in  my  opinion  an   honest  expression  by  some  of  Edinburgh’s  inhabitants.    ‘The  secrets  of  the  city  are  at   a  certain  level  decipherable,  wrote  Debord,  but  the  personal  meaning  they  have  for  us   is   incommunicable’.34     The   dérive   becomes   a   strategic   device   for   re-­‐contouring   the   city  and  experiencing  these  places.     The   mural,   Industry   of   Leith   {Figure   6},   depicting   Leiths   social   and   trade   history   was   painted   on   the   gable   end   of   a   building   at   North   Junction   Street,   Leith   by   Street   Artworks   in   late   1986.     Tim   Chalk   and   Paul   Grime   produced   the   mural   along   with   members   of   the   Leith   historical   project   through   workshops.35   The   mural   is   representative   of   Leith’s   past   but   I   think   this   differs   from   the   likes   of   Alexander   Stoddart’s   bronze  {Figure  2}   works   because   he   appears   to   produce   a   pastiche   of   classical   bronze  artwork,  he  is  keeping  the  skill  alive  in  the  public  eye,  but  the  mural  in  Leith  is  34  Merlin  Coverley.  Psychogeography.  Pocket  Edition.  Oldcastle  Books.  2006.  p.  101  35   Street   Artworks   was   a   partnership   between   Tim   Chalk   and   Paul   Grime.     They   later   set   up   in  partnership  trading  as  Chalk  &  Grime   25
    • Alephs Moved Again visually   representative   in   topic   rather   that   style.     It   is   a   contemporary   visual   representation  that  can  be  translated  and  understood  by  people  today.      It  is  a  work   that   is   embedded   into   the   area   and   place-­‐making.     "The   space   thus   produced   also   serves   as   a   tool   of   thought   and   of   action   [...]   in   addition   to   being   a   means   of   production  it  is  also  a  means  of  control,  and  hence  of  domination,  of  power."36       The   artwork  acts  as  a  marker  of  Great  Junction  Street  and  of  people.     In   1986,   such   artworks   were   not   too   uncommon;   in   Glasgow,   1975   Tom   McGRath   (Director  of  the  contemporary  art  gallery,  the  Third  Eye  Gallery)  and  the  Scottish  Arts   Council   (now   Creative   Scotland)   commissioned   the   gable   end   murals   project   in   Glasgow.    Unfortunately  the  murals  were  painted  on  buildings  that  were  at  the  time   scheduled   for   demolition,   and   were   never   foreseen   to   be   permanent   additions.       There   were   four   gable   end   murals   in   total   and   Ian   McColl   was   the   only   artist   to   engage   with   the   people   of   the   area   to   work   in   partnership.     John   Byrne’s   murals   received  allot  of  attention  by  graffiti  artists  and  taggers,  and  as  previously  mentioned,   this   was   almost   inevitable   on   these   murals,   it’s   a   thin   line   between   vandalism   in   protest   and   acceptance   and   intervention.     David   Harding   wrote   of   the   government   policy   of   social   inclusion   and   the   list   of   requirements   that   public   artworks   should   achieve  to  be  deemed  appropriate  to  be  sited  in  the  public  arena.    ‘It  was  always  an   ameliorating  top  down  policy  with  not  much  ever  percolating  from  the  bottom  up  36  Henri  Lefebvre.  The  Production  of  Space.  Blackwell.  1991.  p.  26.   26
    • Alephs Moved Again and   totally   at   odds   with   the   notion   that   the   socially   excluded   may   have   something   worthwhile  to  express  about  culture’.  37       Fundamentally   Edinburgh’s   cultural   activities   development   guidelines   are   primarily   still  driven  from  the  top  down  by  policies  and  strategies  based  on  cultural  activities   for   all,   whilst   maintaining   and   encouraging   economic   growth.   A   seemingly   self-­‐ contradictory   approach.   Mainly   as   it   assumes   and   lumps   artistic   practices   together   and   Edinburgh   as   a   homogeneous,   bounded   community   in   harmony   –   The   City   of   Edinburgh  Council  is  trying  to  refashion  the  alienated  city.      37  David  Harding.  http://www.davidharding.net/article11/index.php.  Public  Art  Article  of  Craigmillar  Arts  Centre  in  Edinburgh.  2005.   27
    • Alephs Moved AgainRECONSTRUCTING  A  SENSE  OF  PLACE     “The   concept   of   sense   of   place   is   used   colloquially   to   refer   to   an   individuals   ability   to   develop   feelings   of   attachment   to   particular   settings   based   on   a   combination  of  use,  attentiveness,  and  emotion  …  analyses  suggest  that  places  are   more   than   simply   geographic   sites   with   definitive   physical   and   textual   characteristics-­‐-­‐places   are   also   fluid,   changeable,   dynamic   contexts   of   social   interaction  and  memory."38       Early  on  the  development  of  this  project  my  understanding  of  place  was  primarily  as   a  static  concept,  with  an  introverted  obsession  with  ‘heritage’;  this  model  always  felt   as   if   it   came   short   for   me,   until   it   was   introduced   to   me   as   a   fluid   notion.     This   is   a   concept  that  embraces  time,  multiple  identities  and  usages  of  space  and  place.    This   developed   into   looking   at   my   city,   Edinburgh,   in   an   alternative   manner;   combining   the   use   of   online   mapping   and   wandering   throughout   this   city   with   the   artworks   that   constantly  surround  me,  and  the  changing  ideologies  that  these  places  can  hold  in  the   context  of  the  artworks.    The  geographer  Edward  Soja  cautions  that,  "How  relations   of   power   and   discipline   are   inscribed   into   the   apparently   innocent   spatiality   of   social  38Patricia  A  Stokowski.  Languages  of  Place  and  Discourses  of  Power:  Constructing  New  Senses  of  Place.  Academic   journal   article   from   Journal   of   Leisure   Research.   Vol.   34.   No.   4:  http://www.questia.com/library/1G1-­‐98607156/languages-­‐of-­‐place-­‐and-­‐discourses-­‐of-­‐power-­‐constructinghttp://www.questia.com/library/1G1-­‐98607156/languages-­‐of-­‐place-­‐and-­‐discourses-­‐of-­‐power-­‐constructing   28
    • Alephs Moved Again life,  how  human  geographies  become  filled  with  politics  and  ideology”39     The   histories   and   consequences   of   a   place   definitely   have   an   impact   on   the   current   state   of   a   place   now,   but   the   history   does   not   define   it,   the   trajectories   of   the   paths   that   intersect   at   that   place   make   it   malleable   and   the   artworks   ideally   help   tell   the   story  and  form  a  visual  representation.    As  I  have  already  discussed  my  approach  to   the   Edinburgh   Aesthetic   and   the   meaning   behind   this   and   my   reaction.     It’s   only   natural  for  me  to  discuss  the  idea  of  place  and  the  notion  of  a  sense  of  place  and  how   this   relates   to   the   public   arena   and   my   project.     I’m   wary   of   referencing   this   term   (sense   of   place)   wholly   as   this   opens   up   a   plethora   of   ideas   and   the   various   social   and   geographical   references   to   identifying   place   in   relation   to   time   and   the   nostalgia   of   the  local.       Other  cities  use  art  to  define  themselves,  not  Edinburgh.    Antony  Gormley’s  Angel  of   the  North  for  example,  has  become  a  marker,  a  signifier  of  place  and  identity.  Anish   Kapoor’s   Cloud   Gate,   aka   The   Bean   in   Chicago   {Figure   7},   and   his   new   addition   in   partnership   with   Cecil   Barmond     {Figure   8}   to   London,   commissioned   for   the   2012   Olympics  –  the  Orbit  Tower,  and  Ian  Ritchie’s  the  Spire  of  Dublin,  Dublin  {Figure  9}.    What   does   Edinburgh   have   really?       We   have   a   wealth   of   monuments.   There   is   nothing  39   Edward   Soja.   Postmodern   Geographies.   The   reassertion   of   space   in   critical   social   theory.   Verso.  1986.  p.  6     29
    • Alephs Moved Again wrong   with   these   monuments   but   we   are   overshadowed   in   these   tributes   to   past   iconic   people40   but   to   make   room   for   the   new,   and   for   us   to   progress   as   a   city;   we   must   be   open   to   progressive   styles,   mediums   and   subject   in   the   visual   public   arts.     Non-­‐consensual,   authoritarian   commissioned   artwork   that   are   there   to   stimulate   economic   growth   are   not   necessarily   conducive   to   producing   artwork   that   are   engaging  in  expressions  of  contemporary  culture.  And  if  they  fail  at  that,  then  what’s   the   point?     Ultimately   visual   expressions   must   be   encouraged,   through   progressive   engaging   projects   with   the   people   of   Edinburgh,   not   the   safe   classical   style   bronze   artworks   of   Stoddart   {Figure   2}   that   hark   back   to   Victorian   times;   why   should   we   be   preoccupied   by   monument?     Edinburgh’s   sensibility   appears   to   define   itself   by   our   heritage;  architecture,  critical  regionalism;  our  walkways  are  steeped  in  history,  place   has  been  made  but  what  we  need  now  is  to  progress:       “This   is   place   as   practised…does   not   imply   ignoring   the   past   (all   the   different   processes,   practices   and   trajectories   which   have   interwoven   to   make   this   place   what   it   is);   but   it   does   mean   not   romanticising   it   or   holding   it   in   aspic,   nor   allowing  it  to  dominate  the  present.  The  past  of  a  place  is  part  of  its  present  and   future   and   it   is   in   that   guise   that   it   can   best   contribute   to   the   making   of   a   sense   of  40 Influence  here  from  Ray  Mackenzie  in  his  book:  Public  Sculpture  of  Glasgow.  Liverpool  University  Press,  2001. 30
    • Alephs Moved Again identity.”41         I   started   out   researching   the   static   notion   of   place   with   such   theorists   as   Lucy   Lippard.     Much   of   the   discussions   of   place   that   I   have   come   to   know   have   revolved   around   the   local   and   seeking   a   fixed   identity   of   a   place,   relying   on   the   desire   of   its   community  to  locate  a  sense  of  identity  as  a  factor  in  defining  a  place.       To   look   into   this   question   further   of   fluidity   and   try   and   find   an   answer   in   relation   to   public  art,  I  have  researched  the  idea  of  place  as  being  dynamic  by  using  the  theory   and  practice  of  psychogeography  and  the  viewpoint  of  the  geographer,  referencing  the   likes  of  Edward  Soja  and  Doreen  Massey.    How  these  relate  to  the  movement  and  flux   of  place,  the  production  of  artworks  by  its  globalized  inhabitants,  and  the  writings  of   Edgar  Allan  Poe  and  Jorges  Luis  Borges.     Doreen  Massey  has  been  a  key  player  in  my  development  and  discussion  of  place  and   its   unbounded   dialogue.     Such   that   places   have   multiple   identities,   cultures   and   constantly   in   flux   (that   incorporate   time   and   use).     Place   plays   an   integral   role   in   human   experience   as   explored   by   Edward   Relph42   in   place   attachment   and   the   experiences   of   countless   types   and   identities.     Massey   explains   that   the   reactionary  41Professor   Doreen   Massey,   BA   (Oxon),   MA   (Phila)   &   Dr   Gillian   Rose,   BA   (Cambs).   Social   Sciences  Faculty.   The   Open   University.   Commissioned   by   Artpoint   on   behalf   of   Milton   Keynes   Council;   Personal  Views:  Public  Art  Research  Project.  2003.    p.  4  42  Edward  Relph.  Place  and  Placelessness.  Place  Identity.  Pion  Ltd.  1976   31
    • Alephs Moved Again sense  of  place  is  problematic,  a  sense  of  which  can  be  “constructed  through  an  inward   looking   history   based   on   delving   into   the   past   for   internalized   origins”43.     This   is   important  in  talking  about  what  appears  to  be  Edinburgh’s  reaction  to  public  places   today  when  commissioning  artwork.    What  we  need  is  an  outward  looking  process  to   aid  production.    Specifically  place  being  site  sensitive  or  the  artwork  produced  being   reactive  to  the  place  itself.    I  think  the  latter  has  more  potential,  as  this  could  be  the   path   to   producing   expressive   artwork,   paying   homage   to   the   history   but   representationally  more  progressive  and  stimulating.  Temporary,  ephemeral  artwork   is  on  the  rise,  even  then  the  council  restricts  it,  so  then  I  discuss  reactionary  work  in   the   form   of   intervention   and   action.     Stability   provides   a   source   of   unproblematic   identity   in   the   unavoidable   flux   and   dynamic   nature   of   real   life.     “To   reaffirm   our   sense  of  self,  reflecting  back  to  us  an  unthreatening  picture  of  a  grounded  identity.”44       I  am  weary  of  using  the  term  ‘community’  as  I  think  that  using  this  term  in  this  regard   is   not   quite   correct.     Community   suggests   one   group   all   are   of   the   same   socio-­‐ economic  status  and  nationality  perhaps.    When  discussing  in  this  context  I  want  to   avoid   the   assumption   that   I   am   discussing   a   community.     What   I   am   interpreting   is   the   multi   identity,   multi   community   all   within   Edinburgh   as   a   place   with   only   geographical  boundaries  not  cultural  boundaries.    43  Doreen,  Massey.  A  Global  Sense  of  Place  in  Reading  Human  Geography.  1997.  p.1  44  Miwon  Kwon.  The  wrong  place.    Art  Journal;  Spring  2000.  59.  1.  Research  Library  Core.  p.  10   32
    • Alephs Moved Again “In  the  middle  of  all  this  flux,  people  desperately  need  a  bit  of  peace  and  quiet  -­‐   and  that  a  strong  sense  of  place,  or  locality,  can  form  one  kind  of  refuge  from  the   hubbub.   So   the   search   after   the   ‘real’   meanings   of   places,   the   unearthing   of   heritages   and   so   forth,   is   interpreted   as   being,   in   part,   a   response   to   desire   for   fixity  and  for  security  of  identity  in  the  middle  of  all  the  movement  and  change.”45     Places   have   multiple   identities   and   uses,   and   full   of   internal   conflict.     I   have   the   conflict   between   the   uniqueness   of   place;   and   the   realism   of   a   boundless   sense   of   location   and   culture   and   multiple   identities   of   place,   I’m   looking   for   a   resuscitation   of   a   sense   of   place.     We   can   look   at   Leith   docks,   a   place   steeped   in   history   of   whaling   trade,  and  now  conflicted  with  the  present,  loss  of  trade  and  heritage  in  modern  times   and   the   flux   of   cultures   and   usages.     What   it   could   be   in   the   future   and   is   represented   in   such   as   artwork   as   the   Industry   of   Leith   {Figure   6}   Mural   by   Tim   Chalk   I   discussed   earlier.     Edinburgh   has   earnt   an   informal   reputation   for   being   tougher   to   gain   approval   for   public  artwork  proposals  outside  the  festival  months.    To  see  the  fruition  of  a  public   art   projects   is   at   the   discretion   of   the   arts   development   team   at   the   council   and   private   funding.     These   employees   may   or   may   not   have   an   art   background   in   any  45  Doreen,  Massey.  A  Global  Sense  of  Place  in  Reading  Human  Geography.  1997.  p.  7     33
    • Alephs Moved Again form.         The  Edinburgh  passive  sensibility  can  be  conservative,  restorative  and  protective  of   its   city   and   that   is   by   no   means   a   bad   thing.   It   is   the   restrain   that   seems   to   be   impeding   experimentation.   This   has   its   benefits.     Unlike   Glasgow,   Edinburgh  has   preserved   its   beauty.     In   its   architecture,   monuments   and   pedestrianized   public   architectural   and   sculptural   artwork   that   has   been   heavily   integrated   into   the   walls   and   walkways   of   the   city.     Massey   reviews   that   new   artwork   has   the   ability   to   change   context   within   the   surrounding   environment,   “None   of   this   denies   place   nor   the   importance   of   the   uniqueness   of   place.   The   specificity   of   place   is   continually   reproduced,   but   it   is   not   a   specificity   which   result   from   some   long,   internalized   history”46       This   is   why   I   am   thankful   to   see   the   project   by  Joe   Caslin,   Our   Nation’s   Sons   street   art   pasting’s  {Figure10}  in  the  streets  of  central  Edinburgh.  For  me  as  a  ‘local’  it  signifies  that   Edinburgh   is   again   investing   in   cultivating   the   streets,   as   being   a   stage   for   artists   and   its  residents.     This   isn’t   Caslin’s   first   public   art   based   project,   as   he   has   collaborated   with   French   Artist   JR   on   large   scale   portrait   pastings   on   the   high   walls   of   the   beautiful   McEwan  46  Doreen,  Massey.  A  Global  Sense  of  Place  in  Reading  Human  Geography.  1997.  p.  5   34
    • Alephs Moved AgainHall  in  2011,  Edinburgh.  Social  networking  and  online  accessibility  has  played  a  large  part   in   exposing   past   and   current   projects   and   has   given   public   art   a   brighter   stage  and   for   such   a   reason   this   is   why   using   an   online   mapping   model   is   ideal   for   the  dissemination  of  my  project  to  the  wider  audience,  not  just  in  Edinburgh  but  further  afield.      The  drawings  of  these  local  young  men  enlisted  to  help  him  achieve  a  change  in  the  representation  of  the  stereotyped  youth  of  our  city  give  a  positive  image  to  the  local  youth   of   Edinburgh.   The   large   scale,   engaging   artworks   seek   to   unmask   the   young  men   that   can   often   be   lumped   into   labeled   groups   and   demonized   through   gender,  age  and  dress,  where  judgment  runs  the  race.    The  street  pastings  will  also  hopefully  bring  new  life  and  spatial  discourse  and  lead  to  the  possibility  and  production  of  new  works  of  Caslin  and  other  artists  being  given  a  stage  in  Edinburgh.    The  young  man  on  the  corner  walkway  wall  of  Guthrie  Street  has  reinforced  his  place  in   the   Cowgate   walkways.   Miwon   Kwon   discusses   the   differences   and   function   of  identity   of   the   artists   of   its   places   in   her   essay   Wrong   Place;   “Moving   beyond   the  inherited   conception   of   site-­‐specific   art   as   a   grounded,   fixed   (even   if   ephemeral),  singular   event,   the   work   of   these   younger   artists   are   seen   to   advance   an   altogether  different  notion  of  a  site  as  predominantly  an  inter-­‐textually  coordinated,  multiply-­‐ 35
    • Alephs Moved Again located,  discursive  field  of  operation.”47     Miwon  Kwon  also  discusses  Lucy  Lippard48  assertions  we  have  a  psychological  need   to  belong  somewhere.    Our  city  walls  are  the  foundations  of  our  home;  they  hold  our   experiences   and   histories   and   as   Edward   Soja   implies   in   his   book   Thirdspace49   is   that   its   part   of   our   everyday   life   influenced   in   the   unending   histories,   which   Massey   reiterates   by   saying,   ‘People   have   multiple   connections   and   identities,   the   same   can   be  said  for  place’50       By  amalgamating  the  two  forms  of  memories  of  place  and  social  identity  the  artworks   help  us  not  only  solidify  and  accentuate  the  differences  of  its  dwellers  as  well  as  the   affinity   with   a   place   but   also   highlights   the   change   of   attitudes,   multi-­‐identities   and   place   as   being   in   a   constant   state   of   flux.     The   temporal   nature   of   the   artwork   in   contrast  to  the  visual  decay/development  (tagging51)  of  Our  Nations  Sons,  the  images   are  reactionary  to  place  -­‐a  reaction  to  Edinburgh.    The  graffiti  and  the  deterioration  of   the   pastings   are   all   part   of   its   continuing   charm   as   a   visual   dialogue   has   erupted   between  the  artwork  and  its  audience.      47  Miwon  Kwon.  The  Wrong  Place.  Art  Journal;  Spring  2000.  59.  1.  Research  Library  Core.  p.  4  48  Miwon  Kwon.  One  Place  After  Another.  2004.  MIT  Press.  p.  157.  Conclusion.  I  have  taken  reference  from   in   conjunction   with:   Lucy   Lippard;   The   lure   of   the   Local.   p.   157-­‐8   (no   direct   quotes   taken   but  great  influence  from  Lippard  in  achieving  an  understanding  of  localizing  place  and  its  identity).  49  Edward  Soja.  Thirdspace.  Blackwell.  1996.  p.  57  50Doreen,  Massey.  A  Global  Sense  of  Place  in  Reading  Human  Geography.  1997.  p.  6  51 I  have  taken  reference  from:  Style  Wars.  1983.  http://www.stylewars.com/was  a  huge  influence  and  insight  into  why  people  tag  and  create  street  murals  and  art  in  the  early  80’s  New  York. 36
    • Alephs Moved Again   As  a  local,  it’s  my  view  that  the  positives  of  the  artwork  and  the  perceived  negatives   of   the   visual   deterioration   through   tagging   are   an   expression   and   act   of   participation.     Participation   of   the   unlawful   kind   is   still   a   mark   of   its   audience   and   of   the   cross   hatchings   of   Edinburgh’s   residents.     Perhaps   if   there   was   more   intervention   and   opportunity   for   more   public   artworks,   as   a   mark   of   peoples   need   to   foster   and   enhance  our  city  by  and  for  its  people,  and  hopefully  may  take  on  some  of  the  ideals   that  other  cities  hold  to  cultivate  public  art;  in  turn  my  website  project  will  highlight   these  interactions  through  documentation.     Can’t   we   continually   rethink   our   sense   of   place   in   contemporary   Edinburgh?     Place   is   not   in   stasis,   we   must   consider   social   and   cultural   cross   hatchings   and   interactions,   Massey   explains   that   these   interaction   are   not   motionless   things,   frozen   in   time.     I   appreciate  that  a  desire  to  have  a  sense  of  place  can  be  rooted  in  the  want  for  stability   and  is  an  unproblematic  view  in  regard  to  identity.    However,  in  our  globalized  world,   boundaries  are  broken  and  dissolved.    In  the  festival  months  of  Edinburgh,  this  influx   and   immediate   sense   of   globalization,   are   a   prime   example   of   (but   is   unfortunately   time   and   event   restricted)   international   appreciation   and   subjection   of   art   and   culture.   37
    • Alephs Moved AgainALEPHS  MOVED  AGAIN     “Their  story  begins  on  the  ground  level,  with  footsteps”   52,  and  this  is  where  it  began   with   my   project:   Alephs   Moved   Again.       I’ve   walked   in   circles,   up   what   feels   like   a   thousand   steps   to   the   top   of   Arthurs   Seat   and   back   down   again   to   the   Sheep’s   Heid   in   Duddingston,   Edinburgh   and   all   around   again;   It’s   the   joy   of   the   city   I   live   in.     Wandering   around   this   city   is   kind   of   where   this   project   started   to   take   roots.   I   walked   around,   and   for   years   have   passed   by   the   public   art   that   is   sited   in   the   pathways  of  Edinburgh  population  and  year  round  tourists.         I   walk   past   roughly   a   hand   full   of   public   artworks   between   my   house   and   my   work   and  I  began  to  realize  that  Edinburgh  lacks  contemporary  permanent  and  temporary   public   artworks   (specifically   non-­‐bronzed   artworks).     Its   not   that   the   city   doesn’t   have   an   abundance   of   memorials   and   monuments   dedicated   to   the   lives   of   admired   and  innovative  Scots,  but  what  about  artwork  from  the  past  few  decades,  the  people   living  in  Edinburgh’s  expression  of  contemporary  issues.    I  suppose  Edinburgh  is  now   a  place  for  negotiations  of  place  and  artworks,  negotiation  of  that  diversity  as  part  of   the  character  and  markers  of  place.    52   Michel   de   Certeau.   The   Practice   of   Everyday   Life.   Translated   by   Steven   Rendall.   University   of  California  Press.  Berkeley.  1984.  p.  106   38
    • Alephs Moved Again Why   Aleph’s   Moved   Again?     I   came   across   the   short   story   of   The   Aleph   by   pure   chance,  but  at  such  a  mid  stage  in  my  project  conception  it  was  very  welcome.    The   story   of   Aleph   is   one   which   is   a   story   of   the   passing   of   time,   grief   and   tolerance   for   emotional   gains   and   the   meanderings   of   what   Borges   says   is   the   beginning   of   a   madman.     But   this   madman’s   musings   in   writings   and   poetry   had   shown   an   insight   into   The   Aleph.     Now   The   Aleph   is   a   thing,   it   is   described   as   a   malleable   point   in   your   space,  a  presence  in  the  shape  of  a  sphere.    A  point  and  place  in  the  darkness  where   you  become  all  seeing,  you  can  see  the  fabric  on  a  woman  in  India,  you  can  see  your   own  bowels.      This  reminds  me  of  Baudelaire’s  description  of  the  flanuer,  a  fraction  of   psychogeography,   at   the   beginning   of   this   chapter:   “To   be   away   from   home   and   yet   to   feel   oneself   everywhere   at   home;   to   see   the   world,   to   be   at   the   center   of   the   world,   and  yet  to  remain  hidden  from  the  world”53       The   story   of   The   Aleph   had   made   so   much   sense   to   me   as   I   had   been   struggling   to   understand   what   it   was   that   I   was   trying   to   define   and   appropriate   about   a   place   being  a  fluid  concept.    I  could  read  as  much  Edward  Soja  or  Doreen  Massey  as  Id  like,   but  this  fictional  story  of  flexible  space  and  the  mobile  concept  of  place  gave  me  the   visual   representation   that   I   needed   to   continue   in   my   understanding   of   the   malleable   theory  of  place.    In  the  Borges  short  story  this  sphere  is  described  in  as  a  limitless  and  53   Baudelaire,   Charles.   The   Painter   of   Modern   Life   and   Other   Essays.   1863.   Edited   and   translated   by  Jonathan  Mayne.  Phaidon  Press.  1964   39
    • Alephs Moved Again all  seeing  experience:       “I  saw  the  circulation  of  my  own  dark  blood;  I  saw  the  coupling  of  love  and   the  modification  of  death;  I  saw  the  Aleph  from  every  point  and  angle,  and   in   the   Aleph   I   saw   the   earth   and   in   the   earth   the   Aleph   and   in   the   Aleph   the   earth;   I   saw   my   own   face   and   my   own   bowels;   I   saw   your   face;   and   I   felt   dizzy   and   wept,   for   my   eyes   had   seen   that   secret   and   conjectured   object   whose  name  is  common  to  all  men  but  which  no  man  has  looked  upon  -­‐-­‐  the   unimaginable  universe.”54     The   story   of   The   Aleph   is   my   visual   pointer   on   the   map   of   understanding   what   this   flexibility  means.    It  means  that  the  thread  of  fluidity  is  integral  in  understanding  the   dynamic   nature   a   place   has.     I   in   no   way   discredit   such   views   as   place   in   the   static   sense  by  such  theorists  as  the  Lucy  Lippard  in  her  book;  The  Lure  of  the  Local.     I   discussed   earlier   that   many   cities   use   art   to   define   themselves,   this   isn’t   always   a   good  thing;  the  Angel  of  the  North  has  many  mixed  views.  Edinburgh  does  not  mark   itself   by   visual   arts;   perhaps   a   counter   part   to   the   production   of   public   art   is   that   it   is   seen   as   a   visual   instrument   of   regeneration   and   in   some   cases   gentrification.       Edinburgh’s  city  center  doesn’t  appear  on  the  surface  to  require  such  regeneration  as  54  The  Aleph.  Jorges  Luis  Borges.  1945.  http://www.phinnweb.org/links/literature/borges/aleph.html   40
    • Alephs Moved Again it   counteracts   the   heritage   that   is   so   tightly   grasped   onto.     The   city   center   lacks   the   production   of   artworks,   but   what   about   the   suburbs   of   Edinburgh.     Areas   such   as   Wester   Hailles,   Craigmillar   and   parts   of   Leith   may   be   seen   as   some   of   places   that   require  regeneration  but  have  a  greater  production  of  visual  arts  projects  over  recent   years.    The  likes  of  Craigmillar  and  Wester  Hailles  miss  out  on  the  tourist  influx  and   are   areas   with   much   council   housing   –   these   factors   can   possibly   lead   to   the   more   liberal   production   of   art   that   engages   with   its   publics.     Wester   Hailles,   Whale   Arts   Agency   and   their   current   projects   such   a   mural   produced   and   created   by   local   children   and   Street   Arts   in   front   of   the   Healthy   Living   Centre   site,   Harversters   Way   {Figure  11}  (October  2012).     My   website   project   Alephs   Moved   Again;   in   conjunction   with   a   body   of   writing   acts   as   a   form   of   dissemination   in   itself   by   documenting   and   discussing   art   in   Edinburgh   and   place  as  a  dynamic  notion.    The  website  is  mobile  and  iPad  compatible  and  therefore   users   are   able   to   participate   and   interact   with   the   technology   whilst   out   in   the   city   (smartphone   dependent).     My   aim   is   to   give   this   visual   resource   to   people   and   aid   them  in  their  possibility  of  wandering55  and  finding  artworks  with  the  information  in   one   online   resource.     In   turn   the   website   has   the   ability   to   receive   posts   of   peoples   findings  to  continue  the  growth  and  participation  of  the  website.  55  I  cannot  in  this  project  aid  people  in  the  flâneur  as  it  is  self-­‐defeating.    But  I  can  certainly  give  people  the  possibility  of  starting  points  and  give  people  the  ability  to  find  things  on  their  own,  whilst  having  the  online  resource  as  a  point  of  information  about  places  in  the  city,  and  also  a  place  where  they  can  post  their  findings.    This  idea  is  an  offering  of  a  possibility/way  to  experience  the  city.   41
    • Alephs Moved Again  By  documenting  artworks  in  Edinburgh  –  not  limited  to  the  city  centre,  the  website  opens   up   the   access   to   these   works,   much   of   the   public   artworks   are   usually  restricted   to   local   foot   traffic   and   the   usage   of   the   place.     By   using   the   Internet   as   a  tool   of   dissemination   and   embracing   the   globalization   of   people   today   through  technology,   I   can   expand   and   open   the   discussion   of   the   conflicts   of   place   between  uses   and   cultures.     In   the   website   I   have   used   photography   through   Creative  Commons   licencing   or   through   permissions   form   the   photographer.     By   linking   the  web   image   back   to   the   original   online   location   I   am   creating   the   beginnings   of   a  network  with  my  website  at  the  core.  This  will  enhance  the  chance  of  dissemination  by  creating  a  network  of  communication  and  knowledge.    When  creating  the  website  it   was   important   for   me   to   try   to   create   a   network,   as   part   of   the   premise   of   the  website   is   not   just   to   document   the   public   artworks,   but   also   to   give   users   and  visitors   of   the   online   map   of   artwork,   to   participate.     The   user   can   add   images   to  existing   posts   and   comments   about   the   artwork,   which   will   produce   a   place   for  discussion   and   review.     To   increase   the   likelihood   of   the   building   of   a   meaningful  network   and   its   dissemination,   I   promoted   Alephs   Moved   Again   on   social   media  networks.     All   contact   on   the   site   will   be   future   possibilities   for   the   site   to   include   the  addition  of  other  cities.  The  website  has  the  ability  to  ‘like’  and  ‘share’  postings  and  places  via  such  networking  sites  to  distribute  the  website.     42
    • Alephs Moved AgainAlephs   Moved   Again   was   born   out   of   a   reaction   to   my   frustration   with   a   lack   of  permanent   art   in   the   streets   of   Edinburgh   (outwith   the   festival   months).     It   was   born  from   this   idea   that   Jorge   Luis   Borges   so   wonderfully   described   as   The   Aleph,   this  point  in  place,  space  and  time  where  you  can  see  all,  the  identities  of  all,  the  actions  of  all  and  the  foundations  of  all.    This  idea  is  admittedly  unachievable  but  the  website  I  have   produced   gives   you   a   chance   to   see   what   is   around   you   by   either   walking   or   via  the  website,  to  see  an  artwork  in  your  path  and  see  the  cultures  imbued  within  that  place   and   artwork   and   view   the   discussion   online   and   hopefully   input   from   other  people   as   they   are   able   to   post   images   and   text   in   regard   to   artworks   and   suggest  posts  as  myself  as  the  moderator.    Walking   is   seen   as   contrary   to   the   spirit   of   the   modern   city   with   its   promotion   of  swift   circulation   and   the   street-­‐level   gaze   that   walking   requires   allows   one   to  challenge   the   official   representation   of   the   city   by   cutting   across   established   routes  and   exploring   those   marginal   and   forgotten   areas   often   overlooked   by   the   citys  inhabitants.   In   this   way   the   act   of   walking   becomes   bound   up   with  psychogeographical  characteristics  political  opposition  to  authority,  a  radicalism.  56    This  is  a  substantive  reference  as  it  brings  in  my  ideas  of  Edinburgh  Aesthetics  and  how  we  should  be  productive  and  alter  the  way  art  is  produced  and  seen  in  the  city,  56  Merlin  Coverley.  Psychogeography.  Pocket  Edition.  Oldcastle  Books.  2006.  p.  12   43
    • Alephs Moved Againthrough  temporary  acts  of  art  to  release  the  city  from  its  paternalistic  views  of  what  is   the   right   kind   of   controlled   and   permit   orientated   art   that   pedestrians   could   be  exposed  to.    Re-­‐assessing   and   attempting   to   define   the   Edinburgh   Aesthetic   is   key   in   this   paper,  and   by   documenting   the   existing   public   art   in   Edinburgh   we   can   begin   to   pin   point  what  areas  are  lacking  and  can  be  improved  upon.      For  example,  we  can  see  from  my  website   that   a   large   percentage   of   the   permanent   commissioned   artworks   in  Edinburgh   are   bronze   statues   and   sculptures   aimed   at   celebrating   the   lives   of  extraordinary   and   influential   people.     I   conclude   that   we   require   artwork   that   not  only  does  this  but  pushes  the  contemporary  nature  of  art,  by  including  the  residents  in  the  production  process  and  by  maintaining  the  documentation  and  representation  of  public  art  in  Edinburgh,  and  ideally  have  an  body  of  artists  and  residents,  much  like  public   arts   organization:   Big   Things   on   the   Beach,   Portobello,   Edinburgh   in   the  production   of   not   just   temporary   artworks   but   permanent   artworks   that   are  progressive   in   style,   nature   and   subject.         I   hope   that   Alephs   Moved   Again   can,   not  only  become  a  resource  of  information  and  mapping  of  contemporary  public  art  but  also   to   become   a   platform   for   the   production   and   encouragement   of   public   art   and  events  in  the  long  run.         44
    • Alephs Moved AgainCONCLUSION     In   my   attempt   to   define   the   Edinburgh   Aesthetic   I   have   created   my   interpretation   and   attempt   to   map   points   of   visual   expressions   and   act   as   a   resource   for   the   dissemination   of   Edinburgh’s   public   art;   and   I   will   continue   to   document   new   artworks  and  events  in  the  future.    I  hope  to  distribute  the  artworks  that  we  have  in   our   city,   in   the   future   be   a   place   to   disseminate   the   public   art   events   and   artworks   Edinburgh  has,  be  a  platform  for  the  production  of  new  artworks,  and   continuously   encourage  a  reaction  and  expression  of  the  city.           I   started   this   project   for   myself,   as   I   wanted   to   know   what   artworks   are   in   the   streets   of  Edinburgh  and  I  was  frustrated  by  conservative  nature  and  the  lack  of  production   over   the   past   few   decades.     By   cataloguing   and   documenting   existing   public   artworks   on  my  specifically  created  website;  permanent,  temporary/ephemeral  artworks  and   curiosities   are   place   markers   of   the   city.     The   website   documents   the   place   where   the   artwork   resides   and   offer   a   point   of   discussion   of   the   context   of   the   artwork.     The   dynamic  nature  of  place  and  the  artworks  in  its  place  is  the  binding  goal  behind  the   project.    I  hope  those  like  myself  who  are  interested  in  public  artworks  will  find  this   website  a  valuable  resource  and  encouragement  in  the  proposals  and  production  of   public  art.     45
    • Alephs Moved AgainI  must  mention  that  by  focusing  the  production  of  public  art  by  engaging  with  and  for  the   residents;   by   omitting   such   policy   requirements   to   encourage   economic   growth  and   activity   mentioned   in   chapter   1   is   that   I   assume   that   it   will   produce   or   lead   to  producing  ‘good’  art.    This  may  not  in  fact  be  the  case,  my  conclusion  arrives  at  the  possibility   that   the   creation   of   artwork,   by   working   equally   with   both   policy   and  creation  to  produce  artwork,  which  is  representative  of  current  cultural  expressions  of   the   public,   whilst   respecting   and   being   accepting   of   the   heritage   Edinburgh   is   so  proud  of.      In  the  process  of  this  project,  I  have  produced  this  website;  I  have  had  online  tutorials  in  regard  to  using  a  customized  template  in  conjunction  with  wordpress.com  which  includes   an   integrated   map,   and   assistance   when   using   CSS   programming   language;  and  guidance  in  the  design  and  user  activity  of  Alephs  Moved  Again.      Guidance   and   tutorials   were   necessary   as   I   had   no   prior   knowledge   of   using   and  adapting   code   in   the   developing   of   a   custom   website,   I   have   learnt   a   great   amount  about   the   creation   of   template   websites   and   I   am   confident   in   the   maintenance   and  development   of   the   further   use   of   the   website.     For   example   in   the   future   the  development  of  the  project  will  include:         46
    • Alephs Moved Again • Smartphone  application  launch  (Will  be  available  on  the  iTunes  Store)   • Expand   the  scope,   to   include  user  reviews  and  writing  by  others  on  the   topic   of   public  arts.   • Become  a  platform  for  the  creation  of  temporary  public  arts.   • Become  a  well  known  popular  listings  resource  of  public  art.   • Multiple  city  capability  to  other  cities  and  places    By   exploring   Edinburgh   with   my   website   as   a   tool,   and   attempting   to   define   the  Edinburgh  Aesthetic,  I’ve  demonstrated  that  Public  Art  in  this  city  is  based  and  stifled  by   the   sensibility   of   its   independent   commissioning   bodies,   as   well   as   the   City   of  Edinburgh   Council   as   the   production   of   public   art   is   preoccupied   with   heritage,  conservation   of   history   and   tourism   to   produce   non   bronzed   monument   based,  progressive  public  artworks.      Through   documenting   the   artworks   in   the   city,   many   permanent   public   artworks   are  produced   in   association   with   the   Percent   for   Art   scheme,   administrated   by   the   City  Council.     The   majority   of   these   artworks   are   produced   in   association   with   private  organizations,  in  part  as  a  catalyst  of  regeneration  or  enhancement  of  historical  areas,  to   better   and   encourage   communities   –   although   as   Doreen   Massey   and   Gillian   Rose  state  in  their  report  commissioned  by  Milton  Keynes  City  Council,  that  there  is  no  real  evidence  that  public  art  achieves  any  sense  of  regeneration  of  a  place.   47
    • Alephs Moved Again  Place   has   been   a   binding   thread   throughout   this   research   to   explore   the   Edinburgh  Aesthetic  and  to  document  and  assess  public  art  in  this  city.    By  referencing  place  as  a  fluid   notion   it   acknowledges   Edinburgh   is   a   city   full   of   cross-­‐hatchings   of   cultures   and  identities,   constantly   in   flux.     In   documenting   the   artworks   I   have   highlighted   the  artworks  we  have,  what  is  lacking  and  in  my  opinion  what  is  required  to  produce  new  relevant   contemporary   public   art   in   Edinburgh.     The   long-­‐term   goal   in   for   the  acknowledgment   of   a   culturally   dynamic   (hybridity57)  city  is  to  give  rise  to  something  new,  new  negotiations  of  meaning  and  representation.    The   geographer’s   viewpoint   and   analysis   of   a   dynamic   sense   of   place   in   conjunction  with   my   attempted   definition   of   the   Edinburgh   Aesthetic   has   been   essential   in  understanding   the   use   of   public   artworks,   and   discussing   the   context   in   which   they  currently   sit   to   enable   me   to   document   the   artworks   and   progress   with   my   project   to  become  a  resource.              57   Referenced   from   Jonathan   Rutherford.   "The   Third   Space.   Interview   with   Homi   Bhabha."   Identity:  Community,  Culture,  Difference.  London:  Lawrence  &  Wishart.  1998.  p.  211     48
    • Alephs Moved AgainWEBSITE  AND  PORTFOLIO  LOCATION    My   Master’s   Project   has   culminated   in   the   production   and   dissemination   of   the   website  Alephs  Moved  Again,  which  documents  public  art  in  Edinburgh.       • The  website  for  assessment  is:  alephsmovedagain.com    Portfolio  information  and  links  in  regard  to  the  website  Alephs  Moved  Again     • Portfolio  as  part  of  the  assessment  is  available:   o http://catrionablackdinham.wordpress.com/         49
    • Alephs Moved AgainILLUSTRATION  FIGURE  LIST    {Figure  1,  p.1}       50
    • Alephs Moved Again{Figure  2,  p.  6,  15,  18}   • David  Hume,  Alexander  Stoddart,  Royal  Mile  Edinburgh,  1995-­‐97   • Danny   Yee,   who   has   licensed   it   under   GFDL,   Creative   Commons   Generic   Attribution   /   Share-­‐ Alike  3.0                         51
    • Alephs Moved Again{Figure  3,  p.  9}   • Horse,  Rider,  Eagle,  Eoghan  Bridge,  Stockbridge,  Edinburgh,  1997   • ©  Copyright  Kim  Traynor  and  licensed  for  reuse  under  this  Creative  Commons  Licence.                                             52
    • Alephs Moved Again{Figure  4,  p.  9}   • Tilted  Arc,  New  York,  Richard  Serra,  1981   • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tilted_arc_en.jpg   • Per   §   107   it   is   believed   that   reproduction   for   criticism,   comment,   teaching   and   scholarship   constitutes  fair  use  and  does  not  infringe  copyright.      {Figure  5,  p.  13}   • 6  Times,  Edinburgh,  Antony  Gormley,  2010   • ©  Copyright  Greame  Pow  and  licensed  for  reuse  under  this  Creative  Commons  Licence.       53
    • Alephs Moved Again{Figure  6,  p.  14,  17}   • Industry  of  Leith,  Street  Artworks,  Tim  Chalk  and  Paul  Grime  1986   • ©  Copyright  Kim  Traynor  and  licensed  for  reuse  under  this  Creative  Commons  Licence.      {Figure  7,  p.  18}   • Anish  Kapoor,  Cloud  Gate,  Chicago   • http://www.flickr.com/photos/teachandlearn/with/4059945150/           54
    • Alephs Moved Again {Figure  8,  p.  18}   • Orbit  Tower,  Anish  Kapoor  and  Cecil  Barmond,  London,  2012   • http://www.flickr.com/photos/11561957@N06/with/7530787670/                           55
    • Alephs Moved Again{Figure  9,  p.  18}   • The  Spire  of  Dublin,  officially  called  the  Monument  of  Light,  Ian  Ritchie,  2003   • Permission  is  granted  to  copy,  distribute  and/or  modify  this  document  under  the  terms  of   the  GNU  Free  Documentation  License                           56
    • Alephs Moved Again{Figure  10,  p.  21}   • Our  Nations  Son’s,  Joe  Caslin,  Edinburgh,  2011   • Joe  Caslin  and  S  Moon  have  copyright  for  all  images  of  project                           57
    • Alephs Moved Again{Figure  11,  p.  26}   • WHALE  arts  Agency  Wester  Hailles,  Mural  2012   • https://fbcdn-­‐sphotos-­‐h-­‐a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-­‐ak-­‐ ash4/308043_455587904483389_2030224308_n.jpg           58
    • Alephs Moved AgainREFERENCED  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Muir,  Edwin.  1985.    Scottish  Journey.  Edinburgh.  Henceforth  Muir  Frampton,   Kenneth.   1983.   Towards   a   Critical   Regionalism:   Six   points   for   architecture   of   resistance.   The  Anti-­‐Aesthetic:  Essays  on  Postmodern  Culture.  Edited  by  Hal  Foster  ‘A  Cultural  Policy?’  1999.  City  of  Edinburgh  Council,  Towards  a  New  Enlightenment.    Massey,  Doreen.  2005.  For  Space:  includes  essay  Politics,  Space/Time.  SAGE  Publications  Ltd.    Miles,  M.  1997.  Art,  Space  and  the  City:  Public  Art  and  Urban  Futures.  London.    Lefebvre,  Henri.  1991.  The  Production  of  Space.  Blackwell  print.    Harding,   David.   2005.   Article   of   Craigmiller   Arts   Centre   in   Edinburgh.   http://www.davidharding.net/article11/index.php  Stokowski,  Patricia  A.  2002.  Languages  of  Place  and  Discourses  of  Power:  Constructing  New  Senses  of   Place.  Academic  Journal  Article  from  Journal  of  Leisure  Research.  Vol.  34.  No.4    Soja,   Edward   W.   1986.   Postmodern   Geographies.   The   Reassertion   of   Space   in   Critical   Scoial   Theory.   Verso.    Massey,  Doreen  &  Rose,  Dr  Gillian.  2003.  Social  Sciences  Faculty.  The  Open  Univesity.  Commissioned   by  Artpoint  on  behalf  of  Milton  Keynes  Council.  Personal  Views.  Public  Art  Research  Project.    Relph,  Edward.  1976.  Place  and  Placelessness.  Place  Identity.  Pion  Ltd.    Massey,  Doreen.  1997.  A  Global  Sense  of  Place  in  Reading  Human  Geography.     59
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