Chapter 16 Evidence of Evolution BY: Alejandro Hernandez Jessica Hernandez Francisco Esquivel Cristina Guzman Ryan Torres Reyna Provencio
A. Biogeography● Biogeography is the study of where organisms live now and where they and their ancestors lived in the past.
1.How does the geographic distribution of a species todayrelate to their evolutionary history? Patterns of living and fossilspecies tell usapproximately how longago organisms evolved fromtheir ancestors.
2.Closely related but different● Populations on the island had evolved from mainland species.
3.Distantly related but similar● Differences in body structures tell us how they evolved from different ancestors.
B. The Age of Earth and F ossils● Earth Is Old● Fossils are Evidence of Evolution
1. How Do Fossils Help Document the Decent Of ModernSpecies from ancient ancestors?● Fossils indicate evolution occurredas they indicate variations in bone structures ofrelated animal species, and in plant forms andstructures.
2. The Age Of Earth?● The age of earth is about 4.5 billion years old● Radioactive Dating
3. Recent Fossil Finds● Connections between fish and four legged land animals● fossils provide evidence that life does evolve
C. Comparing Anatomy andEmbryology1.What do Homologous Structures andSimilarities in Embryonic Development suggestabout the process of Evolutionary Change?2. Homologous Structures3. Embryology
1. What do Homologous Structures andSimilarities in Embryonic Developmentsuggest about the process ofEvolutionary Change?* It means that the process of EvolutionaryChange is basically all the same but some areused in different ways.
2. Homologous Structures* The Evolutionary Theory explains that theexistence of Homologous Structures adapted andthe result was a descent of modification from acommon ancestor
3. Embryology* Researchers noticed that many animals withvertebrates during their early developmentstage are very similar
D. GENETICS AND MOLECULAR BIO. 1. HOW CAN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BE USED TO TRACE THE PROCESS OFEVOLUTION?● HUMANS AND ANIMALS ALL HAVE THE SAME MOLECULAR BIOLOGY. WHICH MEANS WERE ALL SIMILAR.
D. GENETICS AND MOLECULAR BIO.2. LIFE’S COMMON GENETIC CODE● THIS GENETIC CODING IS ALMOST NEARLY IDENTICAL IN ALMOST ALL ORGANISMS,INCLUDING BACTERIA,YEASTS, PLANTS, FUNGI, AND ANIMALS
D. GENETICS AND MOLECULAR BIO.3. HOMOLOGOUS MOLECULES● AN EXAMPLE OF HOMOLOGOUS MOLECULES IS HOX GENES.
What Does Recent Research on the Galapagosfinches show aboutNatural Selection? ● Natural Selection shaped the beaks of different birds● Flinch with different-size beaks have better or worse chance of surviving seasonal droughts● Natural selection Happens a lot on Galapagos flinch●
A Testable Hypothesis ● Peter and Rosemary Grant tested the hypothesis that Darwin had said about Natural selection● They spent 35 years studying Galapagos flinch● The data the Grants had recorded showed that there is indeed great variation of heritable traits among Galapagos flinch● Darwin said that natural selection had shaped the beaks of different birds
Natural Selection ● Flinch with different-size beaks have better or worse chance of surviving seasonal droughts● Natural selection Happens a lot on Galapagos flinch● These evolutionary change happen a lot faster than researchers thought● Viriation within species increases the likelihood of species adapting and surviving environmental change
Evaluating Evolutionary Theory ● Science and technology have confirm and expanded most of Darwin Hypotheses● Evolutionary theory offers insight that are vital to all branches of biology● Evolutionary theory is constantly reviewed as new data are gathered