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Computer-mediated intercultural discourse - methodological approaches
 

Computer-mediated intercultural discourse - methodological approaches

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Presentation given at the "Applied English Linguistics" Colloquium, University of Tübingen on my approach to CMID - "Computer-mediated intercultural discourse" within my larger PhD thesis frame

Presentation given at the "Applied English Linguistics" Colloquium, University of Tübingen on my approach to CMID - "Computer-mediated intercultural discourse" within my larger PhD thesis frame

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    Computer-mediated intercultural discourse - methodological approaches Computer-mediated intercultural discourse - methodological approaches Presentation Transcript

    • E-Learning Scenarios for Intercultural Foreign Language Communication
      Researching “Online Intercultural Foreign Language Communication” or CMID
      University of Tübingen
      Applied English Linguistics Colloquium
      Claudia Warth
      claudia.warth@uni-tuebingen.de
      www.ael.uni-tuebingen.de
      16.07.2009
    • Outline
      Introduction
      Aims of presentation
      Thesis - some background information
      The thesis, so far & upcoming
      Its questions & aims
      Approaches & contents
      The 3 case studies included
      An overview
      “High School Project” case study: self-study exchange preparation
      “Yale” case study: bilateral intercultural exchange
      “icEurope” case study: multilateral ELF web collaboration
      The “Yale” case study – methodology and data analysis
      The study: aims & approaches
      Methodology & data analysis: CMIDA-approach
      Exemplary sets of data
      Your turn, feedback & input 
      2
    • Aims of today’s presentation
      Overview of thesis progress
      Insight into some of the case studies included
      Focus on: methodological aspects & how to handle data
      general methodological approaches to analyzing CMC & CMID
      part of triangulation process ( investigator triangulation)
      looking at some data together & your input and feedback
      3
    • The Thesis – Some Background information
      4
    • Thesis: “E-Learning Scenarios for Intercultural Foreign Language Learning” – in a nutshell
      Where it’s coming from:
      High (empirically evident) potential of e-learning for foreign language learning
      Assumption: e-learning to facilitate intercultural communication & learning
      But: little research into this potential or actual outcomes of intercultural online exchanges / web collaboration (mainly tertiary level)
      Methodological approaches unclear
      Little insight so far into course & activity set-up
      Little insight into teacher’s role
      5
    • Thesis: “E-learning Scenarios for Intercultural Foreign Language Learning” – in a nutshell
      Where it’s going to:
      General research questions:
      What is the learning and teaching potential of e-learning for acquiring intercultural foreign language competences (2ndary level)? [ Learning / Potential]
      How can this potential be ‘extracted’, i.e. become accessible, analyzed, and evaluated? [ Methodology]
      How do courses & activities (i.e. e-learning scenarios) have to be designed to facilitate this type of learning? [ Discussion & Design action plan]
      What is the role of the teacher within a given scenario / approach? [ Teaching action plan]
       To be illustrated and discussed on the basis of 3 different e-learning approaches (scenarios) to intercultural FLL
      6
    • Thesis: “E-learning Scenarios for Intercultural Foreign Language Learning” - Outline
      Research questions and research methodology
      Intercultural competence, communication and foreign language learning
      Web-based communication and learning across cultures
      Catching two birds with one stone - Preparing for a high school year abroad [HSP]
      Transatlantic language and culture learning - a bilateral high school collaboration [Yale]
      European integration - Multilateral web collaboration via ELF [icEurope]
      Conclusion and suggestions for future research
      7
    • Thesis: “E-learning Scenarios for Intercultural Foreign Language Learning” - Outline
      Research questions and research methodology
      Intercultural competence, communication and foreign language learning
      Web-based communication and learning across cultures
      Catching two birds with one stone - Preparing for a high school year abroad [HSP]
      Transatlantic language and culture learning - a bilateral high school collaboration [Yale]
      European integration - Multilateral web collaboration via ELF [icEurope]
      Conclusion and suggestions for future research
      8
    • Research design plan & current stages
      9
      “HSP” & “Yale”
      “icEurope”
    • Ch.1 - Research questions and research methodology
      • general research questions:
      Potential of e-learning for acquiring intercultural foreign language competences [Learning / Potential]
      Access to & analysis and evaluation of FL intercultural online learning & CMID [Methodology]
      E-learning scenario design [Discussion & Design action plan]
      Teacher’s roles [Teaching action plan]
      On the theory & methodology menu: Research approaches
      • social constructionism & constructivism
      • theories of CALL & intercultural learning
      • qualitative approach
      • action research & change orientation
      • grounded theory
      • (ethnomethodology/ CA (talk-in-interaction  cultures-in-interaction))
      • CMC – CMD /CMID(‘computer-mediated intercultural discourse’)
      10
    • The E-Learning Scenarios: The 3 Case Studies Involved
      11
    • 12
      Ch. 4, 5, 6: The Case Studies – 3 E-Learning Scenarios
    • 13
      Ch. 5 Transatlantic language and culture learning - a bilateral high school collaboration [Yale study]
      Underlying theoretical framework & approaches
      • Constructivist learning online
      • Concept of (bilateral) web collaboration / online exchange
      • Byram/ INCA for intercultural communicative competence
      CASE STUDY FACTS
      US-German web collaboration
      Oct. ´07 – Feb. ´08
      ~ 40 students
      US: German class (3rd year) PA, USA
      DE: English class, 11th grade, Gymnasium
      German teacher with Moodle experience, US teacher without
      5 Moodle courses
      http://www.spracheundkultur.com/elearning
    • “Intercultural Meeting Place” – Course & activity design
      Activity Design:
      Phases & progression within course:
      General Introduction
      From own to other cultures & comparison – sensitizing
      Towards intercultural awareness – understanding & reflection
      Intercultural thinking & application – relativization & transfer
      “Debriefing”
      course progression
      tool
      intercultural learning
      aims
      language learning
      aims
      14
    • The main course: “Intercultural Meeting Place” (ICM)
      15
    • Yale study – activities & tasks
      16
    • Yale study – activities & tasks cont’d
      17
    • Evaluation of ‘Yale’ case study I) Data collection
      18
      a) Performance data
      mainly asynchronous data from forums and wikis; very little chat data; reflective data from journals.
       
      CMC-data, i.e. data gained through participants’ contributions in Moodle (students and teachers):
      Forums
      Messages (Moodle messenger / Mail)
      Wikis
      Chats
       Moodle glossary (students)
      ‘ePorfolio’ (students)
      Reflective Moodle journals (students and teachers)
      b) Secondary data
      Self-assessment (students, before start of project)
      Questionnaires (pre-, while-, post) (students and teachers)
      Forum “What we’ve learned so far” (students)
      Interviews (post) (some US students via Skype, teachers)
      Personal communication (with teachers in person or via email)
      Moodle history and statistics data
    • Evaluation of ‘Yale’ case study II) Data sighting & analysis
      19
      “Can a course like the ‘Yale’ course foster cross-cultural understanding & language awareness needed for intercultural communication?”
      Yes – no ?!? How? What needs to be changed or how can it be supported?:
      How is ‘culture’ / ‘intercultural understanding’ communicated by the students, in relation to the task? [ Learning / Potential]
      In which ways do students do so? [ Methodology]
      How does the assumed potential compare to the actual language and culture outcomes for a given task? [ Discussion]
      Which implications and conclusions can be drawn for setting up and teaching in an intercultural FL e-learning scenario? [ Design & Teaching action plans]
    • Evaluation of ‘Yale’ case study II) Data sighting & analysis cont’d
      Initial data analysis plan (before case study): analysis of ‘intercultural online discourse’ & esp. underlying moves and strategies
      Refined data analysis plan (after):
      assumed aims & learning potential of task
      actual ‘languaging’
      actual ‘culturing’
      implications and conclusions for future activities & teaching?
      20
      • underlying strategies & moves (CMID)?
      • generalizability for CMID?
      CMD-perspective, i.e. the particular shapes and forms discourse and conversation take in an online environment
      CMID-perspective
      CMD in intercultural setting
      Language used for intercultural communication purposes there
      “Culture communicated” (cultures-in-interaction)
    • CMIDA as main approach[Computer-Mediated Intercultural communication Discourse Analysis]
      21
      CMD [computer-mediated communication]
      “Computer-mediated discourse is the communication produced when human beings interact with one another by transmitting messages via networked computers. The study of computer-mediated discourse (henceforth CMD) is a specialization within the broader interdisciplinary study of computer-mediated communication (CMC), distinguished by its focus on language and language use in computer networked environments, and by its use of methods of discourse analysis to address that focus.” (Herring 2003: 612; my highlights)
      CMID [computer-mediated intercultural communication]
      • Communication produced by humans in an intercultural online environment; the focus is on investigating the language used to communicate the ‘cultural’ and ‘intercultural’ [‘culturing’] or to create a ‘third space’ within a CMC-setting with the help of discourse analysis.
      (own working definition)
    • CMID approach to Yale case study
      22
      (CMD based on Susan Herring & expanded)
    • Tackling the data – research cycle
      23
      1st data sighting:
      • Topics & contents in posts?
      • How did students talk about them?
      2nd data sighting:
      • Discourse features (e.g. interaction management, ‘turn taking’, topic initiation)
      • Strategies and moves
      • Pragmatic aspects
      (pragmatics in general, Long and others in particular)
      • Discourse behavior (Herring)
      • Content analysis & categorizing topics / contents
      • Aspects of ‘multimodality’
      • Highlighting ‘problem zones’ & ‘teaching potential’
      3rd data sighting:
      • Comparison to assumed cultural / intercultural contents of task
      • Comparison to journal entries & 2ndary data
      • Conclusions & implications for learning, teaching & activities
    • Applying CMIDA to the Yale case study – some starters: “Map it!” activity
      24
    • “Map it!” – Making sense of the data ?!? 
      25
      [Learning/Potential] [Methodology]
      • Meaning
      • Interaction
      • Meaning
      • Interaction
      • Meaning
      • Interaction
      • Meaning
      • Interaction
      • Solidarity
      • Meaning
    • 26
      [Learning/Potential] [Methodology]
      • Meaning
      • Interaction
      • Meaning
      • (Interaction)
      • Meaning
      • Interaction
      • Structure
      • Meaning
      • Interaction
      • Structure
      • Social behavior
      • Meaning
      • Interaction
      • Structure
      • Social behavior
      • Meaning
      • Interaction
      • Social behavior
      • (Interaction)
      • Social behavior
    • 27
      [Learning/Potential] [Methodology]
      • Meaning
      • Interaction
      • Meaning
      • Interaction
      • Structure
      • Soc. beh.
      • Meaning
      • Interaction
      • Structure
      • Soc. beh.
    • 28
      [Learning/Potential] [Methodology]
      • Meaning
      • Meaning
      • Meaning
      • (Structure)
      • Social beh.
    • Your turn 
      29
      For your data samples:
      What would you consider ‘data’ in your samples?
      How would you categorize the data given?
      How would you consider ‘linguistic’ and ‘cultural elements’ (content)?
      How would you relate them to each other?
      Which other aspects strike you?
      Which problems do you see in your data sets (regarding contents, communication as well as methodological approaches)?
      How to deal with them?
    • Your feedback, your thoughts, your comments!Thank you very much 
      30
    • Bibliography (select)
      31
      Herring, S. (1999). InteractionalCoherence in CMC. In: JCMC 4 (4) June: jcmc.indiana.edu/vol4/issue4/herring.html (05/30/09)
      Herring, S. (2003). Computer-Mediated Discourse. In: Schiffrin, D. et al. The Handbook of Discourse Analysis. 612f.
      Long, M. H. (1983). Native speaker/non-native speaker conversation and the negotiation of comprehensible input.