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Presentation given at the "Applied English Linguistics" Colloquium, University of Tübingen on my approach to CMID - "Computer-mediated intercultural discourse" within my larger PhD thesis frame

Presentation given at the "Applied English Linguistics" Colloquium, University of Tübingen on my approach to CMID - "Computer-mediated intercultural discourse" within my larger PhD thesis frame

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Computer-mediated intercultural discourse - methodological approaches Computer-mediated intercultural discourse - methodological approaches Presentation Transcript

  • E-Learning Scenarios for Intercultural Foreign Language Communication
    Researching “Online Intercultural Foreign Language Communication” or CMID
    University of Tübingen
    Applied English Linguistics Colloquium
    Claudia Warth
    claudia.warth@uni-tuebingen.de
    www.ael.uni-tuebingen.de
    16.07.2009
  • Outline
    Introduction
    Aims of presentation
    Thesis - some background information
    The thesis, so far & upcoming
    Its questions & aims
    Approaches & contents
    The 3 case studies included
    An overview
    “High School Project” case study: self-study exchange preparation
    “Yale” case study: bilateral intercultural exchange
    “icEurope” case study: multilateral ELF web collaboration
    The “Yale” case study – methodology and data analysis
    The study: aims & approaches
    Methodology & data analysis: CMIDA-approach
    Exemplary sets of data
    Your turn, feedback & input 
    2
  • Aims of today’s presentation
    Overview of thesis progress
    Insight into some of the case studies included
    Focus on: methodological aspects & how to handle data
    general methodological approaches to analyzing CMC & CMID
    part of triangulation process ( investigator triangulation)
    looking at some data together & your input and feedback
    3
  • The Thesis – Some Background information
    4
  • Thesis: “E-Learning Scenarios for Intercultural Foreign Language Learning” – in a nutshell
    Where it’s coming from:
    High (empirically evident) potential of e-learning for foreign language learning
    Assumption: e-learning to facilitate intercultural communication & learning
    But: little research into this potential or actual outcomes of intercultural online exchanges / web collaboration (mainly tertiary level)
    Methodological approaches unclear
    Little insight so far into course & activity set-up
    Little insight into teacher’s role
    5
  • Thesis: “E-learning Scenarios for Intercultural Foreign Language Learning” – in a nutshell
    Where it’s going to:
    General research questions:
    What is the learning and teaching potential of e-learning for acquiring intercultural foreign language competences (2ndary level)? [ Learning / Potential]
    How can this potential be ‘extracted’, i.e. become accessible, analyzed, and evaluated? [ Methodology]
    How do courses & activities (i.e. e-learning scenarios) have to be designed to facilitate this type of learning? [ Discussion & Design action plan]
    What is the role of the teacher within a given scenario / approach? [ Teaching action plan]
     To be illustrated and discussed on the basis of 3 different e-learning approaches (scenarios) to intercultural FLL
    6
  • Thesis: “E-learning Scenarios for Intercultural Foreign Language Learning” - Outline
    Research questions and research methodology
    Intercultural competence, communication and foreign language learning
    Web-based communication and learning across cultures
    Catching two birds with one stone - Preparing for a high school year abroad [HSP]
    Transatlantic language and culture learning - a bilateral high school collaboration [Yale]
    European integration - Multilateral web collaboration via ELF [icEurope]
    Conclusion and suggestions for future research
    7
  • Thesis: “E-learning Scenarios for Intercultural Foreign Language Learning” - Outline
    Research questions and research methodology
    Intercultural competence, communication and foreign language learning
    Web-based communication and learning across cultures
    Catching two birds with one stone - Preparing for a high school year abroad [HSP]
    Transatlantic language and culture learning - a bilateral high school collaboration [Yale]
    European integration - Multilateral web collaboration via ELF [icEurope]
    Conclusion and suggestions for future research
    8
  • Research design plan & current stages
    9
    “HSP” & “Yale”
    “icEurope”
  • Ch.1 - Research questions and research methodology
    • general research questions:
    Potential of e-learning for acquiring intercultural foreign language competences [Learning / Potential]
    Access to & analysis and evaluation of FL intercultural online learning & CMID [Methodology]
    E-learning scenario design [Discussion & Design action plan]
    Teacher’s roles [Teaching action plan]
    On the theory & methodology menu: Research approaches
    • social constructionism & constructivism
    • theories of CALL & intercultural learning
    • qualitative approach
    • action research & change orientation
    • grounded theory
    • (ethnomethodology/ CA (talk-in-interaction  cultures-in-interaction))
    • CMC – CMD /CMID(‘computer-mediated intercultural discourse’)
    10
  • The E-Learning Scenarios: The 3 Case Studies Involved
    11
  • 12
    Ch. 4, 5, 6: The Case Studies – 3 E-Learning Scenarios
  • 13
    Ch. 5 Transatlantic language and culture learning - a bilateral high school collaboration [Yale study]
    Underlying theoretical framework & approaches
    • Constructivist learning online
    • Concept of (bilateral) web collaboration / online exchange
    • Byram/ INCA for intercultural communicative competence
    CASE STUDY FACTS
    US-German web collaboration
    Oct. ´07 – Feb. ´08
    ~ 40 students
    US: German class (3rd year) PA, USA
    DE: English class, 11th grade, Gymnasium
    German teacher with Moodle experience, US teacher without
    5 Moodle courses
    http://www.spracheundkultur.com/elearning
  • “Intercultural Meeting Place” – Course & activity design
    Activity Design:
    Phases & progression within course:
    General Introduction
    From own to other cultures & comparison – sensitizing
    Towards intercultural awareness – understanding & reflection
    Intercultural thinking & application – relativization & transfer
    “Debriefing”
    course progression
    tool
    intercultural learning
    aims
    language learning
    aims
    14
  • The main course: “Intercultural Meeting Place” (ICM)
    15
  • Yale study – activities & tasks
    16
  • Yale study – activities & tasks cont’d
    17
  • Evaluation of ‘Yale’ case study I) Data collection
    18
    a) Performance data
    mainly asynchronous data from forums and wikis; very little chat data; reflective data from journals.
     
    CMC-data, i.e. data gained through participants’ contributions in Moodle (students and teachers):
    Forums
    Messages (Moodle messenger / Mail)
    Wikis
    Chats
     Moodle glossary (students)
    ‘ePorfolio’ (students)
    Reflective Moodle journals (students and teachers)
    b) Secondary data
    Self-assessment (students, before start of project)
    Questionnaires (pre-, while-, post) (students and teachers)
    Forum “What we’ve learned so far” (students)
    Interviews (post) (some US students via Skype, teachers)
    Personal communication (with teachers in person or via email)
    Moodle history and statistics data
  • Evaluation of ‘Yale’ case study II) Data sighting & analysis
    19
    “Can a course like the ‘Yale’ course foster cross-cultural understanding & language awareness needed for intercultural communication?”
    Yes – no ?!? How? What needs to be changed or how can it be supported?:
    How is ‘culture’ / ‘intercultural understanding’ communicated by the students, in relation to the task? [ Learning / Potential]
    In which ways do students do so? [ Methodology]
    How does the assumed potential compare to the actual language and culture outcomes for a given task? [ Discussion]
    Which implications and conclusions can be drawn for setting up and teaching in an intercultural FL e-learning scenario? [ Design & Teaching action plans]
  • Evaluation of ‘Yale’ case study II) Data sighting & analysis cont’d
    Initial data analysis plan (before case study): analysis of ‘intercultural online discourse’ & esp. underlying moves and strategies
    Refined data analysis plan (after):
    assumed aims & learning potential of task
    actual ‘languaging’
    actual ‘culturing’
    implications and conclusions for future activities & teaching?
    20
    • underlying strategies & moves (CMID)?
    • generalizability for CMID?
    CMD-perspective, i.e. the particular shapes and forms discourse and conversation take in an online environment
    CMID-perspective
    CMD in intercultural setting
    Language used for intercultural communication purposes there
    “Culture communicated” (cultures-in-interaction)
  • CMIDA as main approach[Computer-Mediated Intercultural communication Discourse Analysis]
    21
    CMD [computer-mediated communication]
    “Computer-mediated discourse is the communication produced when human beings interact with one another by transmitting messages via networked computers. The study of computer-mediated discourse (henceforth CMD) is a specialization within the broader interdisciplinary study of computer-mediated communication (CMC), distinguished by its focus on language and language use in computer networked environments, and by its use of methods of discourse analysis to address that focus.” (Herring 2003: 612; my highlights)
    CMID [computer-mediated intercultural communication]
    • Communication produced by humans in an intercultural online environment; the focus is on investigating the language used to communicate the ‘cultural’ and ‘intercultural’ [‘culturing’] or to create a ‘third space’ within a CMC-setting with the help of discourse analysis.
    (own working definition)
  • CMID approach to Yale case study
    22
    (CMD based on Susan Herring & expanded)
  • Tackling the data – research cycle
    23
    1st data sighting:
    • Topics & contents in posts?
    • How did students talk about them?
    2nd data sighting:
    • Discourse features (e.g. interaction management, ‘turn taking’, topic initiation)
    • Strategies and moves
    • Pragmatic aspects
    (pragmatics in general, Long and others in particular)
    • Discourse behavior (Herring)
    • Content analysis & categorizing topics / contents
    • Aspects of ‘multimodality’
    • Highlighting ‘problem zones’ & ‘teaching potential’
    3rd data sighting:
    • Comparison to assumed cultural / intercultural contents of task
    • Comparison to journal entries & 2ndary data
    • Conclusions & implications for learning, teaching & activities
  • Applying CMIDA to the Yale case study – some starters: “Map it!” activity
    24
  • “Map it!” – Making sense of the data ?!? 
    25
    [Learning/Potential] [Methodology]
    • Meaning
    • Interaction
    • Meaning
    • Interaction
    • Meaning
    • Interaction
    • Meaning
    • Interaction
    • Solidarity
    • Meaning
  • 26
    [Learning/Potential] [Methodology]
    • Meaning
    • Interaction
    • Meaning
    • (Interaction)
    • Meaning
    • Interaction
    • Structure
    • Meaning
    • Interaction
    • Structure
    • Social behavior
    • Meaning
    • Interaction
    • Structure
    • Social behavior
    • Meaning
    • Interaction
    • Social behavior
    • (Interaction)
    • Social behavior
  • 27
    [Learning/Potential] [Methodology]
    • Meaning
    • Interaction
    • Meaning
    • Interaction
    • Structure
    • Soc. beh.
    • Meaning
    • Interaction
    • Structure
    • Soc. beh.
  • 28
    [Learning/Potential] [Methodology]
    • Meaning
    • Meaning
    • Meaning
    • (Structure)
    • Social beh.
  • Your turn 
    29
    For your data samples:
    What would you consider ‘data’ in your samples?
    How would you categorize the data given?
    How would you consider ‘linguistic’ and ‘cultural elements’ (content)?
    How would you relate them to each other?
    Which other aspects strike you?
    Which problems do you see in your data sets (regarding contents, communication as well as methodological approaches)?
    How to deal with them?
  • Your feedback, your thoughts, your comments!Thank you very much 
    30
  • Bibliography (select)
    31
    Herring, S. (1999). InteractionalCoherence in CMC. In: JCMC 4 (4) June: jcmc.indiana.edu/vol4/issue4/herring.html (05/30/09)
    Herring, S. (2003). Computer-Mediated Discourse. In: Schiffrin, D. et al. The Handbook of Discourse Analysis. 612f.
    Long, M. H. (1983). Native speaker/non-native speaker conversation and the negotiation of comprehensible input.