ncasi The Value of Current Knowledge – A Case Study of the Forest Products       Industry Water Profile           Canadian...
Motivation• Access to water  increasingly controlled• FPI large user of fresh  water• Information gaps for  stakeholders• ...
Elements of Water Profile•   Forest and Forest Management                                       •   P&P and WP Manufacturi...
Canadian Industry Water        Profile
Forest and Forest Management•   Forest and Forest Management   The Challenge: to estimate the                             ...
Forest and Forest Management                                                                                              ...
Forest Management Elements                 Precipitation – all water that                 enters the system not lost to   ...
Forest Management Elements                 Precipitation – all water that                 enters the system not lost to   ...
Forest Management Elements                 Precipitation – all water that                 enters the system not lost to   ...
Forest Management Elements                 Precipitation – all water that                 enters the system not lost to   ...
Forest Management Elements                 Precipitation – all water that                 enters the system not lost to   ...
Forest and Forest ManagementAssumptions:an ecozone-based approach                            • Majority (>98%) of         ...
Forest and Forest Management       Element         Million m3Precipitation on       1 350 000managed forest areasRunoff fr...
Manufacturing Element: Concepts• Water use: Total amount of water used for process and cooling                        need...
Approach• Pulp & Paper – Perform mass balance calculations  on a mill-by-mill basis  • Ideally: Generate independent estim...
Water Profile for Manufacturing (2007)                                       (million m3 per year)                        ...
Water Profile for the Canadian Industry (2007)                                       (million m3 per year)                ...
The Value of Current Knowledge –     Opportunities and Limitations• Breadth of forestry across Canada  necessitates assump...
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Kirsten Vice, Canadian Operations - The Value of Current Knowledge: A Case of Study of Forest Products Industry Profile

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Kirsten Vice, Canadian Operations - The Value of Current Knowledge: A Case of Study of Forest Products Industry Profile

  1. 1. ncasi The Value of Current Knowledge – A Case Study of the Forest Products Industry Water Profile Canadian Water Summit June 17, 2010 (Toronto, ON) Kirsten Vice Vice President, NCASI
  2. 2. Motivation• Access to water increasingly controlled• FPI large user of fresh water• Information gaps for stakeholders• Water Profiles provide holistic overview of interconnections between water resources and forest products industry operations
  3. 3. Elements of Water Profile• Forest and Forest Management • P&P and WP Manufacturing• Effects of Effluents on the Ecology of Surface Waters
  4. 4. Canadian Industry Water Profile
  5. 5. Forest and Forest Management• Forest and Forest Management The Challenge: to estimate the relationship between forest management areas and water resources (precipitation and hydrology) across a vast landscape.
  6. 6. Forest and Forest Management Stuart-Takla (2000) Triton Brook (2005) 250 200 Runoff Runoff 180 Precipitation Precipitation 200 160 140 Carnation Creek (1998) 150 120 mm 700 mm 100 Runoff 80 600 Precipitation 100 60 500 40 50 400 20mm 0 300 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Month 200 Month 100 Catamaran Brook (1999) 0 250 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Runoff Month Precipitation 200 Malcolm Knapp Research Forest (2000) 150 mm 400 Runoff 100 350 Precipitation 300 50 250mm 200 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 150 Month 100 Hayward Brook (1996) 50 0 250 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Runoff Month Precipitation 200 Upper Penticton (2000) 150 250 mm Runoff Precipitation 100 200 Experimental Lakes (1975) REVEW (2000) 50 150 160 250 Runoffmm Runoff 140 Precipitation Precipitation 0 100 200 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 120 Month 100 50 150 mm mm 80 100 0 60 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 40 Month 50 20 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Month Month
  7. 7. Forest Management Elements Precipitation – all water that enters the system not lost to immediate evaporation - Rainfall
  8. 8. Forest Management Elements Precipitation – all water that enters the system not lost to immediate evaporation. - Rainfall - Fog interception
  9. 9. Forest Management Elements Precipitation – all water that enters the system not lost to immediate evaporation. - Rainfall - Fog interception - Snow (and melt)
  10. 10. Forest Management Elements Precipitation – all water that enters the system not lost to immediate evaporation. - Rainfall - Fog interception - Snow (and melt) Runoff – all water that leaves the system via surface or subsurface flow Assumes constant water-table
  11. 11. Forest Management Elements Precipitation – all water that enters the system not lost to AET immediate evaporation. - Rainfall - Fog interception - Snow (and melt) Runoff – all water that leaves the system via surface or subsurface flow. Annual Evapotranspiration – calculated by subtracting runoff from total precipitation AET = Precipitation - Runoff
  12. 12. Forest and Forest ManagementAssumptions:an ecozone-based approach • Majority (>98%) of forestry occurs in nine ecozones (probably) • Forested areas are unequally distributed among ecozones (true) • Forestry operations are equally distributed among forested areas within ecozones (untrue – Boreal Shield has ~50% of forestry operations) • Mean precipitation levels can be estimated across entire ecozones (??)
  13. 13. Forest and Forest Management Element Million m3Precipitation on 1 350 000managed forest areasRunoff from managed 670 000forest areasEvapotranspiration 680 000
  14. 14. Manufacturing Element: Concepts• Water use: Total amount of water used for process and cooling needs Portion of water removed from a water• Water consumption: source that is not immediately returned to the water source (e.g., evaporative losses) Water Evaporated (WE) Water Intake Water in Purchased (WI) Water Source Chemicals (WCH) Manufacturing Water in Raw Final Materials (WRM) Effluent (FE) Water in Final Product Water in (WFP) Residuals (WR)
  15. 15. Approach• Pulp & Paper – Perform mass balance calculations on a mill-by-mill basis • Ideally: Generate independent estimates of water imports and exports (lack of data). • Pragmatically: Use available data and estimated data to estimate water withdrawals. This requires the use of an iterative calculation procedure for closing the water balance.• Wood Products – Undertake typical wood mass balances per wood product sub-category and typical moisture contents • Reasonable: Water use is <1% of that at P&P facilities
  16. 16. Water Profile for Manufacturing (2007) (million m3 per year) Forests • 93.4% water inputs is from surface and ground water groundwater• 11.2% water inputs surface 31.8 Wood are evaporated water products water in wood recovered evaporation • 1.3% water inputs 1,882 131.9 recycle 0.84 2.47 are imparted to residuals and 1.74 product Manufacturing Non-fiber other water water in Products Raw Material inputs products 2.34 19.89 • 87.5% water inputs are returned to surface water to surface to ground evaporation water in disposal water cycle water cycle solid residuals cycle 1,793.9 0 231.5 4.66 14.83
  17. 17. Water Profile for the Canadian Industry (2007) (million m3 per year) evapotranspiration 680,000 Forests precipitation surface water runoff and groundwater recharge 670,000 water 1,350,000 resource cycle• FPI water use ~ groundwater surface 31.8 Wood 0.3% of total water products stream flow water in wood 1,882 recovered evaporation produced by 131.9 recycle 0.84 2.47 managed forests 1.74 Manufacturing Non-fiber other water water in Products inputs products Raw Material 2.34 19.89 to surface to ground evaporation water in disposal water cycle water cycle solid residuals 1,793.9 0 231.5 4.66 14.83
  18. 18. The Value of Current Knowledge – Opportunities and Limitations• Breadth of forestry across Canada necessitates assumptions – Local or regional estimates will always be more accurate• Water consumption only roughly 10% of water use for P&P manufacturing – Site-specific calculations optimal – Process-specific knowledge required – Balance can be struck between measurement devices & engineering estimation

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