ncasi<br />The Value of Current Knowledge – A Case Study of the Forest Products Industry Water Profile<br />Canadian Water...
Motivation<br /><ul><li>Access to water increasingly controlled
FPI large user of fresh water
Information gaps for stakeholders
Water Profiles provide holistic overview of interconnections between water resources and forest products industry operatio...
P&P and WP Manufacturing
Effects of Effluents</li></ul>       on the Ecology of Surface Waters<br />
Canadian Industry Water Profile<br />
Forest and Forest Management<br />The Challenge: to estimate therelationship between forest management areas and water res...
Forest Management Elements<br />Precipitation – all water thatenters the system not lost toimmediate evaporation<br />- Ra...
Forest Management Elements<br />Precipitation – all water thatenters the system not lost toimmediate evaporation.<br />- R...
 Snow (and melt)</li></li></ul><li>Forest Management Elements<br />Assumes constant water-table<br />Precipitation – all w...
 Snow (and melt)</li></ul>Runoff – all water thatleaves the system via surfaceor subsurface flow<br />
Forest Management Elements<br />AET<br />Precipitation – all water thatenters the system not lost toimmediate evaporation....
 Snow (and melt)</li></ul>Runoff – all water thatleaves the system via surfaceor subsurface flow.<br />Annual Evapotranspi...
Forest and Forest Management<br />Assumptions: an ecozone-based approach<br />Majority (>98%) of forestry occurs in nine e...
Forest and Forest Management<br />
Manufacturing Element: Concepts<br /><ul><li>Water use:</li></ul>Total amount of water used for process and cooling needs<...
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NRTEE: Kirsten Vice

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NRTEE: Kirsten Vice

  1. 1. ncasi<br />The Value of Current Knowledge – A Case Study of the Forest Products Industry Water Profile<br />Canadian Water Summit<br />June 17, 2010 (Toronto, ON)<br />Kirsten Vice<br />Vice President, NCASI<br />
  2. 2. Motivation<br /><ul><li>Access to water increasingly controlled
  3. 3. FPI large user of fresh water
  4. 4. Information gaps for stakeholders
  5. 5. Water Profiles provide holistic overview of interconnections between water resources and forest products industry operations</li></li></ul><li>Elements of Water Profile <br /><ul><li>Forest and Forest Management
  6. 6. P&P and WP Manufacturing
  7. 7. Effects of Effluents</li></ul> on the Ecology of Surface Waters<br />
  8. 8. Canadian Industry Water Profile<br />
  9. 9. Forest and Forest Management<br />The Challenge: to estimate therelationship between forest management areas and water resources (precipitation and hydrology) across a vast landscape.<br /><ul><li>Forest and Forest Management</li></li></ul><li>Forest and Forest Management<br />
  10. 10. Forest Management Elements<br />Precipitation – all water thatenters the system not lost toimmediate evaporation<br />- Rainfall<br />
  11. 11. Forest Management Elements<br />Precipitation – all water thatenters the system not lost toimmediate evaporation.<br />- Rainfall<br /><ul><li> Fog interception</li></li></ul><li>Forest Management Elements<br />Precipitation – all water thatenters the system not lost toimmediate evaporation.<br />- Rainfall<br /><ul><li> Fog interception
  12. 12. Snow (and melt)</li></li></ul><li>Forest Management Elements<br />Assumes constant water-table<br />Precipitation – all water thatenters the system not lost toimmediate evaporation.<br />- Rainfall<br /><ul><li> Fog interception
  13. 13. Snow (and melt)</li></ul>Runoff – all water thatleaves the system via surfaceor subsurface flow<br />
  14. 14. Forest Management Elements<br />AET<br />Precipitation – all water thatenters the system not lost toimmediate evaporation.<br />- Rainfall<br /><ul><li> Fog interception
  15. 15. Snow (and melt)</li></ul>Runoff – all water thatleaves the system via surfaceor subsurface flow.<br />Annual Evapotranspiration –calculated by subtractingrunoff from total precipitation<br />AET = Precipitation - Runoff<br />
  16. 16. Forest and Forest Management<br />Assumptions: an ecozone-based approach<br />Majority (>98%) of forestry occurs in nine ecozones (probably)<br />Forested areas are unequally distributed among ecozones (true)<br />Forestry operations are equally distributed among forested areas within ecozones (untrue – Boreal Shield has ~50% of forestry operations)<br />Mean precipitation levels can be estimated across entire ecozones (??)<br />
  17. 17. Forest and Forest Management<br />
  18. 18. Manufacturing Element: Concepts<br /><ul><li>Water use:</li></ul>Total amount of water used for process and cooling needs<br />Portion of water removed from a water source that is not immediately returned to the water source (e.g., evaporative losses)<br /><ul><li>Water consumption:</li></ul>Water Evaporated (WE)<br />Water Intake (WI)<br />Water in Purchased Chemicals (WCH)<br />Manufacturing<br />Water in Raw Materials (WRM)<br />Water Source<br />Final Effluent (FE)<br />Water in Final Product<br />(WFP)<br />Water in Residuals (WR)<br />
  19. 19. Approach<br /><ul><li>Pulp & Paper – Perform mass balance calculations on a mill-by-mill basis
  20. 20. Ideally: Generate independent estimates of water imports and exports (lack of data).
  21. 21. Pragmatically: Use available data and estimated data to estimate water withdrawals. This requires the use of an iterative calculation procedure for closing the water balance.
  22. 22. Wood Products – Undertake typical wood mass balances per wood product sub-category and typical moisture contents
  23. 23. Reasonable: Water use is <1% of that at P&P facilities</li></li></ul><li>Water Profile for Manufacturing (2007)(million m3 per year)<br />Forests<br />groundwater<br />Wood <br />31.8<br />surface<br />products <br />water<br />water in wood<br />recovered<br />evaporation<br />1,882<br />131.9<br />0.84<br />recycle<br />2.47<br />1.74<br />Manufacturing<br />Non<br />-<br />fiber<br />Products<br />other water<br />water in<br />inputs<br />products<br />Raw Material<br />2.34<br />19.89<br />to surface<br />to ground<br />water in<br />evaporation<br />disposal<br />water cycle<br />water cycle<br />solid residuals<br />14.83<br />4.66<br />1,793.9<br />0<br />231.5<br /><ul><li>93.4% water inputs is from surface and ground water
  24. 24. 11.2% water inputs are evaporated
  25. 25. 1.3% water inputs are imparted to residuals and product
  26. 26. 87.5% water inputs are returned to surface water cycle</li></li></ul><li>Water Profile for the Canadian Industry (2007)(million m3 per year)<br />evapotranspiration<br />Forests<br />surface water runoff and<br />precipitation<br />groundwater recharge<br />water in wood<br />evaporation<br />recycle<br />Manufacturing<br />Non<br />-<br />fiber<br />Products<br />other water<br />inputs<br />Raw Material<br />to surface<br />to ground<br />evaporation<br />water cycle<br />water cycle<br />680,000<br />water <br />670,000<br />1,350,000<br />resource cycle<br /><ul><li>FPI water use ~ 0.3% of total stream flow produced by managed forests</li></ul>groundwater<br />Wood <br />31.8<br />surface<br />products <br />water<br />recovered<br />1,882<br />131.9<br />0.84<br />2.47<br />1.74<br />water in<br />products<br />2.34<br />19.89<br />water in<br />disposal<br />solid residuals<br />14.83<br />4.66<br />1,793.9<br />0<br />231.5<br />
  27. 27. The Value of Current Knowledge –Opportunities and Limitations<br />Breadth of forestry across Canada necessitates assumptions<br />Local or regional estimates will always be more accurate<br />Water consumption only roughly 10% of water use for P&P manufacturing<br />Site-specific calculations optimal<br />Process-specific knowledge required<br />Balance can be struck between measurement devices & engineering estimation<br />
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