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1.1 Manuele Margni
 

1.1 Manuele Margni

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  • The proposed International Standard will deliver principles, requirements and guidelinesfor a water footprint metric of products, processes and organisations, based on the guidance of impact assessment as given in ISO 14044. It will define how the different types of water sources (for example ground, surface, lake, river, green, blue, gray, etc.) should be considered, how the different types of water releases should be considered, and how the local environmental conditions (dry areas, wet areas) should be treated. For products, it will apply the life cycle approach and will be based on the same product system as specified in ISO 14040 and ISO 14044. At the organisation level, it will consider the guidance given by ISO 14064 for greenhouse gases. The standard will also address the communication issues linked to the water footprint
  • Examples of 3 regions embedded? St-Laurence, quebec, canada?

1.1 Manuele Margni 1.1 Manuele Margni Presentation Transcript

  • Behind the Water Footprint Stream - Metrics and InitiativesOverview of available metrics to asses potential impacts of water use and current initiatives integrating them within LCA
    ManueleMargni, Ph.D.
    Scientificcoordinator, CIRAIG
    Ecole Polytechnique Montréal
    manuele.margni@polymtl.ca
    (Incl. materialprovided by Quantis)
  • CIRAIG Factsheet
    Founded in 2000
    Multidisciplinary world-renowned research centre
    135+ professors, researchers and students
    10 universities, 7 Chairs, 5 research units
    Member of the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative
    Numerous collaborations (Canada, USA, Europe)
    120+ applied research projects (industry and gov.)
    Official spin-off
    Expertise:
    Carbon and Water footprint
    LCA
    Company-based LCA and sustainability dashboard
    Ecodesign
    Environmental communication
    www.quantis-intl.com
    2
  • The Water Footprint Stream: Initiatives and timeline
    Source: WBCSD
    3
  • WhichFootprint Is Correct?
    But what water is important?
    • There is currently little consistency in the scope of water footprint and what is measured
    • There is nearly no consistency in how to evaluate impact
    4
  • Problem Statement
    But what water is important?
    • To know what water is important, we must know what type of water use occurs and where
    • To know the impact of water use, we must know the impact of each use type in each geography
    • The method must be operational for companies to apply in decision making
    5
  • Accounting vs. Impact Assessment vs. Communication
  • Impact AssessmentFramework in LCA
  • Water ScarcityAssessment
    («Screening assessment » using Water stress index, WSI)
  • Water Scarcityvs. Full Assessment
    CH
    DE
    CH
    CH
    DE
    DE
    Turbined water
    • Importance to check the (range/scope of) validity of the results
  • Why Expanding the Scope of Water Footprint to LCA?
    Climate change
    Ecosystems
    Natural
    resources
    Human health
    Waterfootprint
    To avoid burden shifting from an impact category to another
    10
  • Framework for Freshwater use In LCA (UNEP-SETAC LC Initiative)
    Endpoint
    Midpoint
    Inventory
    Areas of Protection
    All Impact Categories
    Backup Technology
    Water deprivation for human uses
    Human Health
    Human uses
    Modification of water availability for…
    Water deprivation for ecosystems
    Water Use
    Water Use
    Ecosystems Quality
    Ecosystems
    Water deprivation for future generations
    Natural resources
    Future Generations
  • Human Health Impacts from production of board in Hanoi for different scenarios
    12
  • ... Avoid Taking the Wrong Decision
    13
    Spatial variation of blue water consumption bioenergycrop production within Spain at two different levels:
    Impact AssessmentInventory accounting
    (Source: Nunez Montserrat, SETAC EU 2010)
  • UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative
    International initiative for LCA
    Review and characterization of existing accounting and Impact assessment methods
    Recommendations (end 2010) for:
    Science
    Practitioners (incl. industry)
    Contact:
    ManueleMargni, CIRAIG
    SebastienHumbert, Quantis
    14
  • Towards an International Standard for Water Footprinting
    “Water Footprint: Principles, Requirements and Guidances”
    International standard for water footprinting
    This International Standard specifies requirements and guidelines to assess and report water footprint based on LCA
    Terminology, communication
    Important stages to consider
    Consistency with carbon footprinting and other LCA impact categories
    Scope, system boundary
    Review/Validation
    Reporting
    Began 2009, end 2011
    Towards industry and practitioners
  • ManueleMargni
    CIRAIG – École Polytechnique de Montréal manuele.margni@polymtl.ca
    16
  • 17
  • From Lack of Methods to Methods Overload?
    Inventory & Categorize
    Impact
    Net Damage
    18
  • Risks to Business
    19
  • Physicalrisks
    Scarcity
    Quality
    Deficiency or Compensation
  • T-shirt produced in India and Turkey
    SIMPLIFIED RESULTS
  • Risks associated with water use:
    Water pollution
    Ground water over exploitation
    Reduced availability for nutrition
    Risks associated with water use:
    Water rights
    Water pollution
    Ground water over exploitation
    Risks associated with water use:
    Water pollution
    Risks associated with water use:
    Water pollution
    Ground water over exploitation
    River drying
    Greenhouse gases emissions
    Greenhouse gases emissions (from deforestation)
    Water use (including “green water”)
    Water impact (human health and ecosystems)
    Regionalization of impacts
  • Geen Water LCI
    23
    (Source: Nunez Montserrat, SETAC EU 2010)
  • Implications of Water Shortages
    • Ecosystem quality
    • Lakes and rivers drying
    • Disappearance of wetlands
    • Lack of water for wildlife
    • Human health and welfare
    • Disease
    • Displacement
    • Conflict / warfare
    • Nutrition
    • Economic development
    • Resources
    • Future development and response
    24
  • 25
    About Quantis
    A Global Presence
    Academic Partners
    Diverse Clientele
  • Inventory in the model
    The method assesses the impacts of the water withdrawal and credits the impacts of the water release
    HHimpact = Human health impacts in Daly
    CFi = Characterization factor for water type i for the impact category Human Health (in Daly/m3 of water type i consumed)
    Vi = Volume of water type i – inventory value (in m3), positive value for water withdrawn and negative value for released flows
    26
  • Inventory
    13 Water classes described by:
    • Source (surface, ground or rain)
    • Quality (34 parameters + organics)
    • Users it can be functional for
    27
  • Direct impacts on Human Health
    i: Scarcity of water class i (dimensionless)
    Di,j: User j distribution of water class i (dimensionless)
    AC : Adaptation capacity (dimensionless)
    Ej: Effect factor for user j (DALY/m³)
    Characterisation factor for water i (DALY/m3)
    EFFECT
    FATE
    EXPOSURE
    28
  • Surface water scarcity
    PROPOSED AS A MIDPOINT INDICATOR
    29
  • Direct impacts on HumanHealth – Effect Factor
    Di,j = User’s distribution of water type i for activity j (no units)
    • Assesses the proportion of the elementary flow affecting each user.
    • Based on
    1) Quality of the water : its functionality
    2) Geographical region :intensity of each activity in that region
    30
  • Direct impacts on HumanHealth – Adaptation Capacity
    100% compensation
    Proportional adaptation
    No compensation
    Proportional adaptation
    31
  • Direct impacts on HumanHealth – Effect Factor
    Ej= Effect factor for user j (daly/m3)
    HealthBurden by kcal malnutrition* (Daly/kcal)
    Efish/agriculture =
    (DALY/m3)
    Water requirement per kcal (m3/kcal)
    Health Impacts from water related issues* (Daly/yr)
    Edomestic =
    (DALY/m3)
    Water in deficit for domestic use* (m3/yr)
    * Data by country, geometric average used to produce resulting Effect factor
    32
  • How much water should be compensated?
    All Impact Categories
    Backup Technology
    Human Health
    Water deprivation for human uses
    Ecosystems Quality
    Human uses
    Modification of water availability for…
    Natural resources
    IScomp,i = Impact Score of compensation for water of class i
    (m³to be compensated/m³water class i)
    2 options:
    • Aggregated (as an indicator)
    • Desaggregated (by user) for modeling of compensation by system expansion
    33
  • Using GIS for combining scale
    0.5° x 0.5° grid
    Water consumption
    Water availability
    808 Resulting cells
    All data
    227 Main Watersheds
    Some quality data
    208 countries
    Adaptation capacity
    Some quality data
    Some statistical data
    34
  • Results – Human Health CF
    35
  • Results – Compensation
    36
  • Application
    • Board production from recycled fibers
    37
  • Human Health Impacts from production of board in Hanoi for different scenarios
    38
  • Normalized Human Health (HH) impacts and compensation volume (Comp) for the production of 1 ton of board
    39
  • Discussion
    Future Work
    Only methodology to
    Use adaptation capacity
    Consider quality of water withdrawn and released
    Evaluate scarcity based on consumed water
    Evaluate scarcity for different water qualities
    Include and differentiate instream/offstream users
    Includes all water types: ground, surface, sea, rain, wastewater, etc...
    Limits
    Unreliable regional quality data
    Cases of over/under estimation of impacts due to water categories
    Temporal adaptation of CF
    User’s distribution for transport and recreation not evaluated
    Impacts from compensation are not evaluated
    Does not include impacts on future generations or ecosystems
    • Evaluate impacts based on functionalities instead of water classes and compare results
    • Evaluate fraction of water used by transport and recreation
    • Identify default compensation scenarios and their impacts
    • Modeling of the resource depletion aspect of water use
    40