Toward a Strategy for Conservation of      Crop Wild Relatives of the USA: Initial                     ResultsColin Khoury...
Strategy Flowchartsource: adapted from Maxted N. various publications
National Inventory    Taxa directly used for food, fiber, forage,    medicine, ornamental, and restoration    purposes    ...
Taxonomic PrioritiesPrioritization of taxa based upon potential use value  genepools of major crops with active breeding  ...
Taxonomic Priorities for the USApplied World’s Top Crops list to thenational inventory and GRINtaxonomy to derive a priori...
Taxonomic Priorities for the US>2,000 taxa of 175 priority genera occur in the USA800 taxa of 69 Priority 1 genera316 taxa...
Genepool Conceptshttp://www.ars-grin.gov/~sbmljw/cgi-bin/taxcwr.pl                                                    http...
Gap Analysis Methodology    Gather                  Gather                                            Georeferencingtaxono...
Global CWR Project GeneraAgropyron                       Colocasia                        Ipomoea               PistaciaAl...
Gap Analysis: Global Project                 Occurrence Data Sources• Online data• Researchers• Herbarium and genebank dat...
Gap Analysis: Methodology        Ramírez-Villegas J, Khoury C, Jarvis A, Debouck DG, and Guarino L (2010).A Gap Analysis M...
Gap Analysis: Dimensions             TaxonomicGeographic               Environmental
US Phaseolus taxa
US Phaseolus taxon richness
US Phaseolus  herbarium and germplasm record richnessherbarium records                      germplasm                     ...
US Phaseolustaxonomic gaps
US Phaseolusdistribution model taxon richness
US Phaseolusgeographic gaps
US Phaseolus resultsTaxon                               HS         GS        TOTAL         SRS           GRS           ERS...
US Phaseolus germplasm gapsgermplasm gap richness for high priority species
Next StepsGather more occurrence data- US herbaria,expert sourcesGather data on threats to CWR populationsPerform full gap...
Expected ProductsWeb-based map tool for visualizingspecies distributions and ex situ and insitu gapsPublish checklist of C...
Contribute!Occurrence data needed forUS distributions of priority1 taxaExpert review of gapanalysis results (for bothUS an...
Thank You!http://cwroftheus.wordpress.com/www.cwrdiversity.orgColin Khouryc.khoury@cgiar.orgStephanie GreeneStephanie.Gree...
Thank You!
US Phaseolus record richness
US Phaseolus       modeling uncertainty metricsmodeling uncertainties as maximum standard deviations of taxa
US Phaseolus                    gap uncertainty metricscollecting uncertainties as   maximum standard    deviations of tax...
Gap Analysis: Global Project                                              Occurrence Data SourcesAcademy of Natural Scienc...
Global CWR Project PrioritiesCrop                  TaxaAlfalfa (Medicago)      13Apple                   12Bambara Groundn...
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CWR US presentation PGOC 2012

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Presentation on progress toward a national strategy for conservation of CWR in the US, given at the curators and PGOC meeting, Spokane Washington June 2012

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CWR US presentation PGOC 2012

  1. 1. Toward a Strategy for Conservation of Crop Wild Relatives of the USA: Initial ResultsColin Khoury, Stephanie Greene, Nora Patricia Castañeda Alvarez, John Wiersema
  2. 2. Strategy Flowchartsource: adapted from Maxted N. various publications
  3. 3. National Inventory Taxa directly used for food, fiber, forage, medicine, ornamental, and restoration purposes CWR taxa (taxa used for crop improvement through breeding) Both native and non-native taxa Sources: GRIN World Economic Plants Database; Flora of North America; McGuffin (2000); Native Seed Network Database.• List reviewed by US researchers, curators, breeders (THANK YOU!) Phaseolus angustissimus source: SEINet• Inventory currently lists over 4,600 taxa
  4. 4. Taxonomic PrioritiesPrioritization of taxa based upon potential use value genepools of major crops with active breeding programs primary focus on food cropsGathered data on major crops globally (FAOSTAT,published literature, ITPGRFA)Prioritized the listResults: 242 World’s Top Crops (268 genera)101 crops (119 genera) in Priority 1141 crops (149 genera) in Priority 2Includes all the most important agricultural cropsaround the world by a number of measures, and coversall crops listed in FAOSTAT for US production and food Juglans hindsii source: http://dendro.cnre.vt.edusupply, with virtually all major US crops on Priority 1.
  5. 5. Taxonomic Priorities for the USApplied World’s Top Crops list to thenational inventory and GRINtaxonomy to derive a priority list ofCWR occurring in the USAReviewed inventory and proposedadditional priorities that did notemerge from global dataProposed iconic US wild harvestedspecies crops, e.g. sugar maple, wildrice, echinacea, pine nut, pecan, jojoba,agaveList reviewed by US researchers,curators, breeders (THANK YOU!) Vitis rotundifolia source: Will Cook, 2008
  6. 6. Taxonomic Priorities for the US>2,000 taxa of 175 priority genera occur in the USA800 taxa of 69 Priority 1 genera316 taxa of 33 genera 1A (closely related native taxa)477 taxa of 47 genera 1B (distantly related, non-native)Priority 2 genera- future work!Important crops with rich genepools include Allium(onion), Cucurbita (squash), Fragaria (strawberry),Helianthus (sunflower), Ipomoea (sweet potato),Phaseolus (bean), Prunus (cherry, almond, peach,etc.), Ribes (currant), Rubus (raspberry), Vaccinium(blueberry, cranberry), and Vitis (grape), among Rubus hawaiensis source: luirig.altervista.orgothers.
  7. 7. Genepool Conceptshttp://www.ars-grin.gov/~sbmljw/cgi-bin/taxcwr.pl http://www.cwrdiversity.org/home/checklist/
  8. 8. Gap Analysis Methodology Gather Gather Georeferencingtaxonomic data occurrence data Make collecting Determine gaps Modelrecommendations in collections distributions
  9. 9. Global CWR Project GeneraAgropyron Colocasia Ipomoea PistaciaAllium Corylus Isatis Pisum (incl. Vavilovia)Ananas Crambe Juglans PrunusArachis Cucumis Lablab Pyrus Raphanus (incl.Armoracia Cucurbita Lactuca Raphanobrassica)Artocarpus Cynara Lathyrus RibesAsparagus Daucus Lens RorippaAvena Digitaria Lepidium SaccarhumBarbarea Dioscorea Lupinus SecaleBertholletia Diplotaxis Malus SesamumBeta Echinochloa Mangifera SetariaBrassica Elaeis Manihot SinapisCajanus Elettaria Medicago Solanum (incl. Lycopersicon)Camellia Eleusine Musa (incl. Ensete) SorghumCapsicum Elymus Olea SpinaciaCarica Eruca Oryza Theobroma Triticum (incl. Triticosecale,Carthamnus Ficus Panicum Aegilops, others)Chenopodium Fragaria (incl. as Potentilla) Pennisetum ViciaCicer Glycine Persea VignaCitrullus Gossypium Phaseolus VitellariaCitrus (incl. Fortunella and Helianthus Phoenix VitisPoncirus)Cocos Hordeum Pimenta XanthosomaCoffea Ilex Piper Zea (incl. Tripsacum)
  10. 10. Gap Analysis: Global Project Occurrence Data Sources• Online data• Researchers• Herbarium and genebank databases• Herbarium visits- more than 25,000 photos taken at NY, PH, US, MO, CAS, UC, WAG, CUVC, R, RB, MA, COI, RBGE, LISU, LISC, LISI, BM, RBGE, P,  L, K, VIR. Global database contains ca. 4 million geo-referenced records add new occurrence data for 18 USA CWR priority genera filter for US occurrences
  11. 11. Gap Analysis: Methodology Ramírez-Villegas J, Khoury C, Jarvis A, Debouck DG, and Guarino L (2010).A Gap Analysis Methodology for Collecting Crop Genepools: a Case Study with Phaseolus Bean. PLoS ONE 5(10): e13497
  12. 12. Gap Analysis: Dimensions TaxonomicGeographic Environmental
  13. 13. US Phaseolus taxa
  14. 14. US Phaseolus taxon richness
  15. 15. US Phaseolus herbarium and germplasm record richnessherbarium records germplasm records
  16. 16. US Phaseolustaxonomic gaps
  17. 17. US Phaseolusdistribution model taxon richness
  18. 18. US Phaseolusgeographic gaps
  19. 19. US Phaseolus resultsTaxon HS GS TOTAL SRS GRS ERS FPS priority categoryPhaseolus_sinuatus 0 1 1 10.00 10.00 10.00 0.00 HPSPhaseolus_leptostachyus 1 0 1 0.00 NA NA 0.00 HPSPhaseolus_pedicellatus 11 0 11 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 HPSPhaseolus_smilacifolius 1 0 1 0.00 NA NA 0.00 HPSPhaseolus_texensis 6 0 6 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 HPSPhaseolus_polystachyus 344 2 346 0.06 0.06 2.61 0.91 HPSPhaseolus_maculatus 60 9 69 1.30 0.34 4.00 1.88 HPSPhaseolus_parvulus 61 9 70 1.29 0.55 4.00 1.94 HPSPhaseolus_maculatus_maculatus 62 3 65 0.46 0.38 5.05 1.96 HPSPhaseolus_grayanus 71 23 94 2.45 1.24 3.55 2.41 HPSPhaseolus_angustissimus 267 8 275 0.29 0.46 6.50 2.42 HPSPhaseolus_filiformis 162 20 182 1.10 1.68 7.67 3.48 MPSPhaseolus_acutifolius 96 25 121 2.07 1.89 6.92 3.62 MPSPhaseolus_maculatus_ritensis 53 20 73 2.74 3.66 6.50 4.30 MPSPhaseolus_acutifolius_tenuifolius 64 55 119 4.62 3.35 7.50 5.16 LPSPhaseolus_acutifolius_acutifolius 27 17 44 3.86 2.38 10.00 5.41 LPSPhaseolus_parvifolius 2 2 4 5.00 10.00 6.67 7.22 LPS
  20. 20. US Phaseolus germplasm gapsgermplasm gap richness for high priority species
  21. 21. Next StepsGather more occurrence data- US herbaria,expert sourcesGather data on threats to CWR populationsPerform full gap analysis methodology onPriority 1 genepoolsDevelop methodology for in situconservation analysis and perform analysisAdvocate for collecting and for establishmentof genetic reserves
  22. 22. Expected ProductsWeb-based map tool for visualizingspecies distributions and ex situ and insitu gapsPublish checklist of CWR of the USAPublish gap analysis resultsPublish analysis of management of geneticreserves under climate changeContribution to new accessions conserved,management plans for conservation ofCWR in genetic reserves Helianthus exilis source: Greg Baute
  23. 23. Contribute!Occurrence data needed forUS distributions of priority1 taxaExpert review of gapanalysis results (for bothUS and Global CWRprojects) Ribes niveum source: www.plantsystematics.org
  24. 24. Thank You!http://cwroftheus.wordpress.com/www.cwrdiversity.orgColin Khouryc.khoury@cgiar.orgStephanie GreeneStephanie.Greene@ars.usda.govJohn WiersemaJohn.Wiersema@ars.usda.gov Lactuca serriola source C Khoury
  25. 25. Thank You!
  26. 26. US Phaseolus record richness
  27. 27. US Phaseolus modeling uncertainty metricsmodeling uncertainties as maximum standard deviations of taxa
  28. 28. US Phaseolus gap uncertainty metricscollecting uncertainties as maximum standard deviations of taxa collecting uncertainties as maximum geographic distance to known populations
  29. 29. Gap Analysis: Global Project Occurrence Data SourcesAcademy of Natural Sciences Herbarium (PH), USAAfrican Biodiversity Conservation and Innovations Centre (ABCIC) (Dr. Dan Kiambi), KenyaArmenian State Agrarian University (Dr. Alvina Avagyan), Armenia National Center for Agricultural Research and Extension (NCARE) (Dr. Maha Syouf), JordanAustralias Virtual Herbarium (AVH), Australia (accessed 10/2011) Natural History Museum Herbarium (BM), UKAustralian Tropical Grains Germplasm Centre (ATGGC) (Dr. Sally Norton), Australia Natural History Museum, Planetary Biodiversity Inventory (PBI) Solanum: A worldwideBotanical Society of the British Isles Herbaria@home, UK treatment, Solanaceae Source, UKCalifornia Academy of Sciences (CAS), USA New York Botanical Garden Herbarium (NY), USACentro de Referência em Informação Ambiental (CRIA), Brazil (accessed 6/2011) Nordic Genetic Resources Center (NordGen), SwedenComisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad (CONABIO), Mexico (accessed Plants of Taiwan, Taiwan5/2011) Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid (MA), SpainCommonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) (Dr. Robert Lawn), Australia Royal Botanic Gardens Edinburgh (E), UKConsortium of Pacific Northwest Herbaria, USA Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (K), UKConsultative Group on International Agricultural Research System-wide Information Network for Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (K) (Josephine Piggin), UKGenetic Resources (SINGER) (accessed 6/2011) Smithsonian Institution, National Herbarium (US), USADenver Botanic Gardens Herbarium (DBG), USA United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (Dr. David Spooner),DIVEA, DEP, FEEMA Herbário Alberto Castellanos (GUA), Brazil USAEuropean Search Catalogue (EURISCO), Europe (accessed 6/2011) United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National ClonalField Museum (F), USA Germplasm Repository (Dr. Kim Hummer), USAFlorida State University Herbarium (FSU), USA United States Department of Agriculture, National Plant Germplasm System, GermplasmGENESYS Global Portal (accessed 6/2011) Resources Information Network (GRIN), USA (accessed 6/2011)Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) (accessed 4/2011) United States Department of Agriculture, National Plant Germplasm System, Western RegionalHarvard University Herbarium (HUH), USA Plant Introduction Station, Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Seeds ofHerbário do Jardim Botânico do IICT (LISC), Portugal Success Program, USAHerbarium and African Library of the Free University of Brussels (BRLU), Belgium United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service; Bioversity International;Institute for Cereal Crops Improvement (ICCI), Harold and Adele Lieberman Germplasm Bank, Israel International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT); and the UniversityInstituto Superior de Agronomia (LISI), Portugal Universidad del Valle Herbarium (CUVC), ColombiaInternational Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) (Alicia Velasquez), Colombia Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Museu Nacional, BrazilInternational Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Colombia Universidade Lisboa Museu Nacional de História Natural e da Ciência (LISU), PortugalInternational Potato Center (CIP), Peru Universidade Nova de Lisboa (Dr. Susana Neves), PortugalInternational Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Philippines University of Birmingham (Dr. Nigel Maxted), UK.Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro (JABOT), Brazil University of California, Riverside (Dr. Jeff Ehlers), United States Department of Agriculture,LAC-Biosafety, Colombia Agricultural Research Service (Dr. Roy Pittman), USALeibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK) (Dr. Benjamin Kilian), Germany University of California, Riverside Herbarium (UCR), USAMain Botanical Garden of the Russian Academy of Sciences (MHA), Moscow, Russia University of Çukurova (Dr. Hakan Özkan), TurkeyManchester University Herbarium (MANCH), UK University of Helsinki (Dr. Markku Hakkinen), FinlandMillennium Seed Bank of the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, UK University of Washington (Dr. Joshua Tewksbury), USAMissouri Botanical Garden Herbarium (MO), USA V. L. Komarov Botanical Institute (LE), St. Petersburg, RussiaMoscow State University (MW), Moscow, Russia Wageningen University (Dr. Laurentius Josephus Gerardus van der Maesen), The NetherlandsMuseu Nacional de História Natural (Dr. Joana Brehm), Portugal Wageningen University Herbarium (WAG), The NetherlandsMuseu Nacional de História Natural e da Ciencia (MNHN), Portugal West Virginia University Herbarium (WVA), USAMuseum National d’Histoire Naturelle Herbarium (P), France World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), KenyaN.I. Vavilov Institute of Plant Sciences (VIR), St. Petersburg, Russia World Vegetable Center (AVRDC), TaiwanNationaal Herbarium Nederland Collection Database (L, U, WAG), The NetherlandsNationaal Herbarium Nederland, Herbarium Utrecht (U), The NetherlandsNationaal Herbarium Nederland, Leiden University branch (L), The Netherlands
  30. 30. Global CWR Project PrioritiesCrop TaxaAlfalfa (Medicago) 13Apple 12Bambara Groundnut 27Banana 31Barley 2Bean (Phaseolus) 37Carrot 27Chickpea 4Cowpea 12Eggplant 32Faba Bean 1Finger Millet 4Grasspea 12Lentil 4Oat 12Pea 9Pearl Millet 4Pigeon Pea 8Potato 83Rice 19Rye 4Sorghum 5Sunflower 11Sweet Potato 14Vetch 9Wheat 55Total 451
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