Fruit and Nut Crop Wild Relatives in the United States: a Surprisingly Rich               ResourceStephanie L. Greene1, He...
New urgency to conserve and           use CWRJarvis et al. (2008) modeled the impact of climate changeon CWR of peanut, po...
Protecting CWR                                     Species in the US                                   Flora of North Amer...
Developing the U.S. CWR Inventory• CWR definition of Maxted et al. 2006 used. Include 3o gene poolspecies when important r...
Inventory DatabaseField                 DescriptionCWR Taxon             Genus species subspecific epithet, tax.          ...
Field                 DescriptionNoxious Weed Status   GRIN (2010), USDA NRCS                      (2010)Crop Common Name ...
Preliminaryinventorycontained2600 taxaMost CWR are for wild or partiallydomesticated crops used for timber,revegetation, f...
55 % of US CWR Species are Potential  Resources for Fruit and Nut Crop           Improvement                             F...
Fruit Species Naturalized                 in the US•     Carica papaya                          Papaya•     Citrus hybrids...
Vulnerable CWRTaxa                   Common                Ex Situ # StatusJuglans hindsii        Hinds Black Walnut    18...
Vulnerable CWRTaxa                   Common                 Ex Situ # Status                                        Only o...
Vulnerable CWRTaxa                   Common                 Ex Situ # StatusJuglans hindsii        Hinds Black Walnut     ...
CWR of Crops•    Carya illinoinensis     Pecan•    Fragaria × ananassa     Strawberry•    Juglans regia           PersianW...
CWR of PecanCarya aquaticaC. cordiformisC. floridanaC. glabraC. illinoinensis                     C. illinoinensisC. lacin...
CWR of StrawberryF. chiloensisF. vescaF. virginiana                                   F. virginianaCWR of Walnut          ...
CWR of Japanese PlumP. americanaP. angustifoliaP. geniculataP. hortulanaP. maritimaP. minutifloraP. munsonianaP. nigraP. p...
CWR of Black Current       Ribes americanum       Ribes aureum       Ribes bracteosum       Ribes cereum  CWR of Gooseberr...
Rubus allegheniensis CWR of Black Berry                           Rubus argutus                                           ...
CWR of High Bush Blue Berry(Vaccinium corymbosum)                             V. angustifolium Vaccinium angustifolium Vac...
CWR of CranberryVaccinium macrocarponVaccinium oxycoccos        V. oxycoccos
V. labruscaCWR of GrapeVitis ×champiniiVitis acerifoliaVitis aestivalisVitis cinereaVitis labrusca                        ...
Some Native Fruits and Nuts Enjoyed              Locally    Mayhaw (Crataegus opaca, C. aestivalis)Paw Paw (Asimina triloba)
Allegheny chinkapin, (Castanea pumila) Prickly Pear (Opuntia fragilis, O. polyacantha)
What are the Next Steps for       Conserving US CWR?•  Engage and partner with conservation communityon national and state...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

CWR US Fruit and Nut Presentation

527
-1

Published on

Presentation for CWR of Tree Crops conference, Davis 2010

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
527
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
5
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

CWR US Fruit and Nut Presentation

  1. 1. Fruit and Nut Crop Wild Relatives in the United States: a Surprisingly Rich ResourceStephanie L. Greene1, Heidi Schwaninger2USDA, ARS NPGS-Plant Germplasm Introduction and Testing1,Prosser, WA; Plant Genetic Resources Unit2, Geneva, NY.
  2. 2. New urgency to conserve and use CWRJarvis et al. (2008) modeled the impact of climate changeon CWR of peanut, potato and cowpea and reported thatextinction was predicted for 16-22 % of the species, andthat distribution areas would be reduced by an average of85-94 %, over the next 50 years. At the same time plantbreeders are looking to CWR to develop crops adaptedto climate change. Global Climate Change
  3. 3. Protecting CWR Species in the US Flora of North America describes more than 20,000 species of native and naturalized plantsThe NPGS currently houses over 540,000 accessions representingover 13,500 species (GRIN 2011), yet only 2.6 % of our collection iswild germplasm collected in the United States. Are we adequatelyconserving U.S. CWR? Without a comprehensive inventory, how can we develop a strategy for conserving crop wild relatives found in our own back yard?
  4. 4. Developing the U.S. CWR Inventory• CWR definition of Maxted et al. 2006 used. Include 3o gene poolspecies when important resource• Comprehensive: agronomic crops, fruits, nuts, forages, ornamentals,herbs, revegetation, timber, traditional/indigenous. Domesticated ,partial-domesticated, wild crops• Coverage: Native and naturalized plants in United States• Sources: GRIN World Economic Plants Database (Wiersema and León(1999); Flora of North America; Herbs of Commerce, McGuffin et al.(2000), Native Seed Network database (www.nativeseednetwork.org).• Draft inventory sent to 50 specialists for peer review
  5. 5. Inventory DatabaseField DescriptionCWR Taxon Genus species subspecific epithet, tax. authority(GRIN nomenclature)CWR Common Name GRINEx Situ Number of wild accessions held in ex situ collections: NPGS; University of Arizona Desert Legume Program; USDA Forest Service National Seed LaboratoryOccurrence Coded: Endemic, Native, Naturalized. Data came from the following databases: GRIN (2010), USDA NRCS (2010)Conservation Status G- Global, T- Infraspecific taxon rank; 1-Critically imperiled, 2-Imperiled, 3-Vulnerable, 4-Apparently secure, 5-Secure. NatureServe Conservation Ranking is generally concordant to the IUCN Red List ranking system (NatureServe 2010)
  6. 6. Field DescriptionNoxious Weed Status GRIN (2010), USDA NRCS (2010)Crop Common Name GRIN (2010)Crop Gene Pool Gene pool 1,2,3 that CWR falls intoGene Pool Citation Citation of literature used to make gene pool designationCrop Use There are 8 use fields to accommodate multiple uses. Use categories are from Wiersema and León (1999)
  7. 7. Preliminaryinventorycontained2600 taxaMost CWR are for wild or partiallydomesticated crops used for timber,revegetation, forage, medicinal orornamental purposes.364 CWR taxa areuseful for breeding65 crops
  8. 8. 55 % of US CWR Species are Potential Resources for Fruit and Nut Crop Improvement Fruit Nut Other
  9. 9. Fruit Species Naturalized in the US•  Carica papaya Papaya•  Citrus hybrids, C. reticulata Lime, lemon, orange, grapefruit, tangerine•  Cocos nucifera Coconut•  Ficus carica Common Fig•  Manilkara zapota Sapodilla•  Morus alba White mulberry•  Musa acuminata Banana•  Olea europaea Olive•  Prunus avium, P. cerasus, P. persica Mazzard, Sour cherry, Peach•  Psidium cattleianum Strawberry Guava•  Psidium guajava Guava•  Pyrus communis Pear•  Rubus laciniatus Cutleaf Blackberry•  Rubus parvifolius, R. phoenicolasius Japenese raspberry , wineberry•  Ziziphus jujuba Jujube Flora of North American (1993+), Coder (1998), NRCS Plants Database (2011)
  10. 10. Vulnerable CWRTaxa Common Ex Situ # StatusJuglans hindsii Hinds Black Walnut 18 G1Rubus macraei Akalakala 2 G2Rubus hawaiensis Hawaii Blackberry 14 G2G3Juglans californica California walnut 30 G3Prunus geniculata Scrub Plum 1 G3Prunus minutiflora Texas Almond 0 G3Prunus texana Texas Peachbush 2 G3Ribes speciosum Fuchsia Gooseberry 2 G3Ribes viburnifolium Evergreen Currant 5 G3Vitis rupestris Rock Grape 59 G3Ribes californicum Hillside Gooseberry 1 G3Ribes niveum White Current 8 G3
  11. 11. Vulnerable CWRTaxa Common Ex Situ # Status Only one confirmed,Juglans hindsii Hinds 18 G1Rubus macraei Akalakala native2occurrenceG2appearsRubus hawaiensis Hawaii Blackberryviable14 of 2003.G2G3 as WidelyJuglans californica California walnut naturalized in cismontane 30 G3Prunus geniculata Scrub Plum 1 G3Prunus minutiflora Texas Almond CA. Threatened by 0 G3Prunus texana Texas Peachbush hybridization with 2 G3Ribes speciosum orchard trees, G3 Fuchsia Gooseberry 2Ribes viburnifolium Evergreen Currant 5 G3Vitis rupestris Rock Grape urbanization, andG3 59Ribes californicum conversion to agriculture. Hillside Gooseberry 1 G3Ribes niveum White Current 8 G3
  12. 12. Vulnerable CWRTaxa Common Ex Situ # StatusJuglans hindsii Hinds Black Walnut 18 G1Rubus macraei Akalakala 2 G2Rubus hawaiensis Hawaii Blackberry 14 G2G3Juglans californica California walnut 30 G3Prunus geniculata Scrub Plum 1 G3Prunus minutiflora Texas Almond 0 G3Prunus texana Texas Peachbush 2 G3Ribes speciosum Fuchsia Gooseberry 2 G3Ribes viburnifolium Evergreen Currant 5 G3Vitis rupestris Rock Grape 59 G3Ribes californicum Hillside Gooseberry 1 G3 Rubus hawaiensisRibes niveum White Current 8 G3 Photo by Forest and Kim Star
  13. 13. CWR of Crops•  Carya illinoinensis Pecan•  Fragaria × ananassa Strawberry•  Juglans regia PersianWalnut•  Prunus salicina Japanese Plum•  Ribes nigrum Black Current•  Ribes uva-crispa Gooseberry•  Rubus fruticosus Blackberry•  Rubus idaeus Red Raspberry•  Vaccinium corymbosum Highbush Blueberry•  Vaccinium macrocarpon Cranberry•  Vitis vinifera Wine Grape
  14. 14. CWR of PecanCarya aquaticaC. cordiformisC. floridanaC. glabraC. illinoinensis C. illinoinensisC. laciniosaC. myristiciformisC. ovalisC. ovataC. texanaC. tomentosa
  15. 15. CWR of StrawberryF. chiloensisF. vescaF. virginiana F. virginianaCWR of Walnut J. californicaJ. californicaJ. cinereaJ. hindsiiJ. microcarpaJ. majorJ. nigra J. nigra Lawrence Kelly
  16. 16. CWR of Japanese PlumP. americanaP. angustifoliaP. geniculataP. hortulanaP. maritimaP. minutifloraP. munsonianaP. nigraP. pumila PrunusP. pumila var. besseyiP. subcordataP. texanaP. virginiana
  17. 17. CWR of Black Current Ribes americanum Ribes aureum Ribes bracteosum Ribes cereum CWR of Gooseberry R. niveum Ribes divaricatum Ribes hirtellum R. divaricatum Ribes niveumPhoto: www.plantsystematics.org
  18. 18. Rubus allegheniensis CWR of Black Berry Rubus argutus Rubus canadensis Rubus cuneifolius Rubus frondosus Rubus setosus Rubus trivialis R.frondosus Rubus ursinus. Photo from http://www.plantsystematics.orgCWR of Red Raspberry Rubus hawaiensis Rubus leucodermis Rubus macraei Rubus occidentalis R. hawaiensis
  19. 19. CWR of High Bush Blue Berry(Vaccinium corymbosum) V. angustifolium Vaccinium angustifolium Vaccinium arboretum Vaccinium caespitosum Vaccinium corymbosum Vaccinium darrowii Vaccinium deliciosum Vaccinium elliottii Vaccinium ovatum Vaccinium tenellum Vaccinium uliginosum Vaccinium virgatum V. corymbosum Photos from http://www.plantsystematics.org
  20. 20. CWR of CranberryVaccinium macrocarponVaccinium oxycoccos V. oxycoccos
  21. 21. V. labruscaCWR of GrapeVitis ×champiniiVitis acerifoliaVitis aestivalisVitis cinereaVitis labrusca V. rotundifoliaVitis monticolaVitis ripariaVitis rotundifoliaVitis rupestrisVitis shuttleworthii Photos from http://www.plantsystematics.org
  22. 22. Some Native Fruits and Nuts Enjoyed Locally Mayhaw (Crataegus opaca, C. aestivalis)Paw Paw (Asimina triloba)
  23. 23. Allegheny chinkapin, (Castanea pumila) Prickly Pear (Opuntia fragilis, O. polyacantha)
  24. 24. What are the Next Steps for Conserving US CWR?•  Engage and partner with conservation communityon national and state level• Refine and prioritize our inventory. What cropsare most important to focus on?•  Identify gaps in our current ex situ collections• Acquire germplasm for ex situ storage• Implement a gap analysis of protected areas.Where do cwr occur in protected areas? Are thereCWR hotspots?• Work with land managers to establish and monitorin situ CWR reserves
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×