HOW DO WE MEASURE THE BENEFITS OF GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE?
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HOW DO WE MEASURE THE BENEFITS OF GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE?

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How do we comprehensively measure all of the benefits of green infrastructure? How can we not only put these green options on par with traditional gray infrastructure in terms of reliability and ...

How do we comprehensively measure all of the benefits of green infrastructure? How can we not only put these green options on par with traditional gray infrastructure in terms of reliability and safety; but also show other significant benefits such as increased quality of life, improved public health, reduced energy requirements, resiliency to climate change, and enhanced natural environment? This Sidebar Conversation will discuss how a systems approach can be used in order to show the interconnections and interrelationships of our water resources, as well as measure the benefits of green infrastructure. This approach can facilitate new partnerships between utilities, park departments, schools, transportation agencies, redevelopment agencies and private interests. It can also leverage scarce resources (time and money) to implement projects with greater public support.

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  • Good morning & thanksI am privileged to be here with you today as we look forward for opportunities to provide a more sustainable future for our communities.Today, I will be sharing with you LA’s experience in implementing green infrastructure projects and initiatives for achieving clean water while greening the City and enhancing our sustainability.We are already seeing the effects of global warming and climate change. We are seeing longer droughts, warmer days, heavy downpours and less reliable snow pack. As President Roosevelt said: “ Men and nature must work hand in hand. The throwing out of balance of the resources of nature throws out of balance also the lives of men.”We have a responsibility to our children and grandchildren to restore the balance with nature.
  • A simulation tool, that looks at urban form (land use and building attributes), infrastructure (WWTP, WTP, Incinerators, Landfills, railroads, etc) and green technology (technologies applied at the building or group of building level such as solar PV panels, graywater, rainwater capture, composting, etc.). We have included 6 sectors and three layers of analysis.

HOW DO WE MEASURE THE BENEFITS OF GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE? Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Parkway Infiltration Swale 11th St & Hope St – Los AngelesMeasuring the Benefits of Green Infrastructure Using a Systems Approach Adel Hagekhalil, P.E., BCEE Wing Tam, P.E. Dan Rodrigo October 16, 2012
  • 2. As urban communities consider green infrastructure asan option to meeting regulatory requirements andenvironmental goals, it is important to fully measure allof the potential benefits using triple-bottom-line.Urban communities are systems of many systems(water, energy, transportation, environment), which areall interconnected.Using a systems approach, all of thebenefits of green infrastructurecan be measured more accurately,which will help foster greaterpartnerships and increasefunding opportunities!
  • 3. Institutional Measures Public Outreach Public EducationMunicipal Ordinances Green Building Ordinance Low Impact Development (LID) OrdinanceLocal (on-site) Projects Rain Barrels BioswalesRegional Projects Wetland Parks Green Streets Regional GW Recharge
  • 4. Examples Benefits Bioswales Improved water quality Local water supply Cisterns/Rain Local flood control Barrels Energy reduction GHG reduction Green Roofs Increased open space Increased recreation Constructed Increased/improved Wetlands habitats Deferment of grey Green Streets infrastructure Green jobs Regional GW Public education recharge
  • 5. Examples Benefits Bioswales Improved water quality Local water supply Cisterns/Rain Local flood control Barrels Energy reduction GHG reduction Green Roofs Increased open space Increased recreation Constructed Increased/improved Wetlands habitats Deferment of grey Green Streets infrastructure Green jobs Regional GW Public education recharge
  • 6. Examples Benefits Bioswales Improved water quality Local water supply Cisterns/Rain Local flood control Barrels Energy reduction GHG reduction Green Roofs Increased open space Increased recreation Constructed Increased/improved Wetlands habitats Deferment of grey Green Streets infrastructure Green jobs Regional GW Public education recharge
  • 7. Examples Benefits Bioswales Improved water quality Local water supply Cisterns/Rain Local flood control Barrels Energy reduction GHG reduction Green Roofs Increased open space Increased recreation Constructed Increased/improved Wetlands habitats Deferment of grey Green Streets infrastructure Green jobs Regional GW Public education recharge
  • 8. Systems thinking is the process of understanding how thingsinfluence one another within a whole.Systems thinking illustrates thatevents are separated spatially andtemporally; and can demonstratethat an improvement in one areaof a system can impact another area.Systems thinking promotescommunication and understandingat all levels so that silo approachesto solving problems are avoided.Systems thinking may be used tostudy any kind of system — natural, engineered, human,conceptual, or combinations of systems.
  • 9. Simple System for Water Pumping Storage Rainwater Pumping Treatment Storage Rooftop Runoff Greywater Discharge Demands Recycled Water • Indoor Potable Rain Capture • Indoor Non-potable Municipal WWTP • Cooling Municipal Supply • Irrigation Storage Treatment Rainwater infiltration Losses Consumption Groundwater Pumping Municipal WTP
  • 10. Why Do We Need an Urban Systems Model? Complexity of Urban Sustainability Reduce Energy Footprint Reduce Water Footprint Zero Waste Overall:Achieve UrbanSustainability Carbon Neutral City
  • 11. CDM Smith’s Urban Systems Model System Map UrbanSimulation Model Sectors Water Resource Utilization Financial Analysis Greenhouse Gases Solid Energy WasteUrban Form ActivitiesInfrastructure/Facilities Transportation Ecosystems BuildingsGreen Technology
  • 12. Model Components and Relationships
  • 13. Model Components and Relationships Model Simulates: • Rainfall rates, infiltration and hydrology • Water and wastewater demands, flows through treatment and distribution and system storage • Stormwater system flows • Transportation demands • Solid waste production • Energy demand and energy sources • Receiving water quality • Impacts to ecosystem habitats
  • 14. Model Components and Relationships Model Tracks Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) • Total lifecycle costs of alternatives such as gray and green infrastructure • TMDLs and other water quality metrics • Water shortages/surpluses • Greenhouse gas emissions • Resiliency to extreme climate events • Groundwater storage • Solid waste production and reuse • Renewable energy production • Heat island effects
  • 15. Buildings Sector: ‘Building Types’ and ‘Building Groupings’ Urban Form Total Area Location Library of Elevation Building Types Building Types: Building types are pre-defined as appropriate to local project. Each will include parameters relevant to resource calculations and energy modeling. Building Groupings: Composition Building groupings will be specified Percent makeup, each spatially and then described by their percent composition of local, building type ‘generic’ building types. Occupancy Area per person Roof Construction Building usage Material Gender ratio Color/Reflectivity Daily patterns Insulation Resources (unit) Envelope Construction Energy demand Material Water demand Glazing Waste generated Insulation Location Information Building Geometry Elevation Shape N-S, E-W location Footprint, roof area(s) Orientation Number stories Energy zone Height
  • 16. Infrastructure Water Sector Municipal Water Treatment Plant All Sectors Included • Stormwater • Energy • Solid Waste • Transportation Legend Municipal Centralized • Ecosystem Water Recycling Plant Decentralized
  • 17. Features of the Urban Systems Model Water Sector Rain Rooftop Rain Capture Water Sector Technologies & Storage • Rain Harvesting Indoor Building • Green Roofs System Supplies - Potable Reuse (graywater) • Rain Gardens - New Water • Bioswales and Bio-Retention Irrigation Reuse • Graywater • Recycled Water • Conservation Onsite Water • Desalination Onsite Reuse Stormwater Used Water • Groundwater Management GHG
  • 18. Contents of Urban Systems Model Greenhouse Gas Layer Greenhouse Gas Layer Wastewater Emissions Energy Use Vehicles GHG Layer Energy Power Plant • Detailed GHG Accounting Use Emissions • - Network Description Custom User-Input and Setup - Demand Factors - Demand Factors - Trips/destinations - Solar Series - Wind Series - Rain Series - Vehicle types - Grid Type - ET Series Inputs Inputs Grid Requirement Renewable Energy Reduced Demand Peak Power - Modes Reliability Total Energy Use Onsite Capture Emissions Reduction GHG Reliability Demand Inputs Vehicle Miles, Hours Traveled Shaved and Reuse Proximity Metrics Quality of Life • Flexible Pivot-Chart Output Air Emissions Eco Intrusion Index Air Emissions GHG • Linked to GIS Mapping Water Water Energy Demand (process) Energy Site Wind Waste-to Energy Building Solar PV Transportation Origin/Destination Population Trips Sector Site/City Solar PV Building Hydro Power Energy Pumping Storage Demand Fuel Cells Transportation Demand Biogas Energy Biogas (WW) Grid Power Rainwater Pumping Treatment Storage Electricity Fuel Demand Fuel Demand Transport Modes Co-Generation Greywater Discharge Demands Bicycle Recycled Water • Indoor Potable Rain Capture • Indoor Nonpotable Municipal WWTP Water Demand Other Solar Evaporative Cooling • Cooling (cooling) Lighting Sector Auto Municipal Supply Demands Rooftop Runoff Storage Treatment • Irrigation Ground Source Heat Pump Water Air Solar Heating Plug Water Cooling Rainwater Bus Heat Exchange Loads Pumps Cooling Exchange Sewer Electric Power Demands Surface Water Light Rail Losses Consumption Heat Exchange Cooling Exchange Electric Vehicle Demand Municipal WTP Pumping Other Sectors/Layers Impervious Surface, Runoff Energy Generated Demand Energy (Waste to Energy) • All Sectors Report Emissions Flood Mitigation Water Available Pollution Energy Demand Water Attenuation Water Demand, Wastewater Generation Water Demand, Wastewater Generated Transportation Demand Roof Area for Rain Capture Energy Produced • Include Cost of Carbon Ecosystems Buildings Angle of Sunlight Water Sector Energy Sector Solid Waste Water Sector Energy Sector Urban Heat Island Area Summary Index Built Areas Waste Generated Natural Area Solid Waste Landfill Generation Eco Index Shading Tree Surface Water Area Shading Area Waste Generation Open Area Quality of Life Height Infrastructure Process Process Process Ambient Building Temperature Orientation Compost Recycle Waste-to-Energy - Per capita demands bio characteristics Material Fate - Routing options Urban Heat Island - Watershed and - Building design - Building usage Temperature - Urban design - Topography Air Emissions - Population - Site layout Quality of - Climate Inputs Inputs Life Inputs C02 Energy Energy Sequestered Use Use Atmosphere Refrigerants Process Emissions (landfill, incineration)
  • 19. Applying the Urban Systems Model Public Agency / Urban Planners, Facility Utility Managers Designers, and Architects Iterative Input and Feedback in Design and Planning Process Community Interests Staff from Public and Individuals Agencies / Developers Envision and draw urban plans to Dynamic, integrated simulation in Urban Output, Analytics, ‘feed’ into model Systems Model and DecisionsUrban Plan“Maps” Alternative A Output Metric Alternative C Target Alternative B Decision Variable GIS Model Input Systems Dynamics Output Application Application Simulator Tools
  • 20. Output from EPA Total Water ManagementStudy (Using Los Angeles as Case Study) Baseline Integrated Integrated Performance Measure (Status Quo) Alt 1 Alt 2Water Demand in 2030 (acre-feet/year) 680 585 635Maximum Supply Deficit During a 70 0 11Drought (mgd)Average Use of Imported Water (mgd) 121 29 56Additional Groundwater Storage in 2030 0 147 174(million gallons)Zinc Loading at Downstream End of Los 26,569 23,788 22,089Angeles River (kg/year)Cumulative CO2 Emissions 26.1 22.6 24.2(million metric tons)Average Monthly Wastewater Flows into 375 270 335Hyperion Plant (mgd)Present Value Cost ($ billions) $6.7 $5.7 $6.4
  • 21. Construction Before AfterCommunity Partnership 25 25
  • 22.  Leveraging Funding Resources Multiple Sources of Funding: • U.S. Bureau of Reclamation $0.33 M • State Water Resources $0.86 M • City LA Sanitation $0.08 M • City LA Stormwater $0.30 M • Local Water Agencies $0.81 M (LA Water & Power, Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, Water Replenishment District of Southern California, City of Santa Monica) • LA Street Services Doing Construction Many Project Supporters: • Council for Water Health (NGO) • Tree People (NGO) • Urban Semillas (NGO) • Local Neighborhood Council • Area Residents & Businesses
  • 23. Community Opening During Construction After 27 27
  • 24.  Leveraging Funding Resources Multiple Sources of Funding: • State Water Resources $1.00 M • City LA Sanitation (SEP) $2.55 M • City LA Stormwater $0.10 M • LA Water & Power $0.24 M Many Project Supporters: • USEPA • Los Angeles Regional Water Quality Control Board • North East Trees (NGO) • Local Neighborhood Schools • Local Neighborhood Council • Area Residents & Businesses
  • 25. Before AfterCommunity Opening 29
  • 26.  Leveraging Funding Resources Means Multiple Sources of Funding: • U.S. EPA Brownfield $ 0.20 M • State Water Resources $ 6.60 M • Metropolitan Transportation Agency $ 0.97 M • City LA Sanitation (SEP) $ 3.74 M • City LA Clean Water Bond $13.36 M • City LA Park Bond $ 1.50 M And Many Project Supporters: • USEPA • Los Angeles Regional Water Quality Control Board • Local Neighborhood Schools • Local Neighborhood Council • Area Residents & Businesses
  • 27. Green infrastructure hasmultiple benefitsIt is part of an integratedwater resources solutionand urban sustainabilityA systems approach canhelp measure the benefitsmore accuratelyThis leads to increasedpartnerships andexpanded funding
  • 28. For more information, contact:Los Angeles Bureau of Sanitation: Adel Hagekhalil, Assistant Director 213-485-2210 Adel.Hagekhalil@lacity.org Wing Tam, Assistant Division Manager Watershed Protection 213-485-3985 Wing.Tam@lacity.orgCDM Smith: Dan Rodrigo, Vice President Water Resources Practice Leader 213-798-6142 rodrigod@cdmsmith.com