Big history


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Big history

  1. 1. Big HistoryChristina VerhoevenHistory 140Professor Arguello<br />
  2. 2. The Day the Universe Changed:The Way We Are <br />James Burke asks:<br />Why do we want to know how things work so badly?<br />Why do we always question authority?<br />Why do we constantly change?<br />
  3. 3. The Way We Are<br />As the information we learn evolves, we evolve along with it.<br />Our curiosity to understand how things work drives our society to change.<br />We are constantly looking to improve upon the ideas we create.<br />We are always looking for the better deal.<br />The basic strategy for gathering information has remained the same for many centuries.<br />We explore, conquer and dominate. We integrate ideas , customs, and technology from various cultures.<br />
  4. 4. The Journey of Man<br />Spencer Well uses the genetic markers, on the Y chromosomes of men, to trace back the journey of man out of Africa.<br />He poses several questions:<br />Why did it take man so long , after leaving Africa to reach Europe? <br />Why are our traits so distinctive?<br />Is it possible that we are all related?<br />
  5. 5. Biological Evolution<br />Wells believes, “concepts of race are scientifically wrong, ” and that we can be traced back to the San bushmen in Africa.<br />Different groups migrated out of Africa due to scarcity of food and unfavorable weather conditions.<br />The ice age isolated people in the Americas and Europe causing significant distinctions in our features.<br />The quest to find the missing link to his genetic equation finally led him to India where he proved that we do indeed share a common ancestry.<br />
  6. 6. Catastrophe!<br />David Keys uses various disciplines including climatology, dendrochronology, astrophysics and mythology, among others, to describe why the dark ages took place.<br />He wonders, could a catastrophic event such as a meteor striking earth, or a volcanic eruption change the global climate and cause a cascade of disastrous events?<br />
  7. 7. Guns, Germs, and Steel<br />
  8. 8. Out of Eden<br />Conquest<br />Jared Diamond seeks to discover the roots of inequality in the modern world.<br />Where does inequality come from?<br />Why do some civilizations develop faster than others?<br />It all started with the domestication of animals and farming.<br />Areas such as Papua New Guinea were difficult to establish as agricultural and farming communities like those in the Middle East and China.<br />The geography and shape of the continents helped the Europeans succeed in their conquests.<br />The domestication of animals and farming in Europe triggered an “explosion of civilization.”<br />Areas where animals and humans had the most contact spread diseases rapidly, but also allowed Europeans to build immunities against the deadly viruses which the Natives of the Americas had no protection against.<br />Guns, Germs, and Steel<br />
  9. 9. Columbus and the Age of Discovery<br />Christopher Columbus started his nautical career as a deckhand in Genoa<br />During this period in history, China was the richest empire in the world, the Muslims ruled the Indian Ocean and controlled North Africa and India, and the Ottoman Turks captured the city of Constantinople which was the gateway between Europe and Asia.<br />An alternate route to the orient needed to be found in order to break the Turks control over trade and commerce.<br />Many merchants were in search of new land and resources.<br />Columbus knew the Moluccas, were the key to controlling trade and expanding his fortune, but Japanese and Malayan merchants controlled the cargo being transported off the islands.<br />Only the local traders new the location of the archipelago. <br />
  10. 10. The World in 1492<br />Globalization began with Christopher Columbus’s voyage to the Americas.<br />Agricultural goods like wheat, rice, corn, coffee, coca, tobacco and sugar, helped form the wealth of many nations.<br />Some of these commodities were considered drugs.<br />They also led to the destruction of entire populations.<br />
  11. 11. The World That Trade Created<br />Drug foods created “ national identities.”<br />Unfortunately these foods also expanded and exacerbated slavery.<br />Profits from sugar plantations in Haiti helped fund the industrial revolution in Europe.<br />Other staples such as potatoes helped feed the masses.<br />While cacao was used as currency in the Aztec and Mayan empires.<br />