Book vernissage rashid-s_kaukab
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Book vernissage rashid-s_kaukab Presentation Transcript

  • 1. IMPROVING OWNERSHIP OF TRADE POLICY THROUGH INCLUSIVE PROCESSES Presentation to CSEND and CUTS Book Vernissage: “Inter-ministerial Coordination and Stakeholder Consultation of Trade Policy Making” 19 July, 2010 By Rashid S. Kaukab Deputy Director and Research Coordinator, CUTS Geneva Resource Centre [email_address] www.cuts-grc.org
  • 2. STRUCTURE OF PRESENTATION
    • Introduction
    • Trade policy for development: stakeholders and formal consultative mechanisms
    • Effective participation: challenges as viewed by stakeholders
    • Measuring inclusiveness: the Inclusive Trade Policy Making (ITPM) Index
    • Conclusions and way forward to maximize inclusivity pay-offs
  • 3. I. INTRODUCTION
    • Importance of trade and trade policy as a means to achieve growth and development
    • Importance of inclusive trade policy making to ensure relevance and effective implementation
    • Based on recent CUTS research under the FEATS project with focus on Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia
  • 4. II. TRADE POLICY FOR DEVELOPMENT: MAIN STAKEHOLDERS Features of an Inclusive Trade Policy Key Elements of Inclusive Trade Policy Making Process Relevant Stakeholders Based on national development policy Clear guidance/directions from national development policy makers National development policy makers (e.g., President’s Office, Ministry for Planning and Development, parliament, etc) Linked with other governmental policies Timely inputs and feedback from other government ministries/departments Other relevant government ministries/departments (e.g., those dealing with agriculture, employment and labour,, competition, etc.) Linked with international commitments (to implement the commitments as well as to guide the positions regarding future possible commitments) Timely inputs and feedback from relevant ministries and negotiators Relevant ministries (e.g., Ministry of Foreign Affairs, etc.) and negotiators (e.g., dealing with the WTO and EPA negotiations) Balancing the interests of all key stakeholders Regular inputs and feedback from key non-state stakeholders Key non-state actors (e.g., representatives of the private sector, farmers, consumers, and the civil society) Clear implementation plan with adequate resources Articulation of implementation plan and commitment of required resources Relevant government ministries (e.g., Ministries of Trade, Finance, Planning) and donors (multilateral and bilateral)
  • 5. II. TRADE POLICY FOR DEVELOPMENT: CONSULTATIVE MECHANISMS
    • Categorization by Mandate
    • On specific trade negotiations (e.g. EPA, WTO)
    • On all trade issues
    • On larger set of issues that includes trade
    • Categorization by Membership
    • Only governmental actors
    • For public and private sectors
    • Multi-stakeholder
  • 6. II. TRADE POLICY FOR DEVELOPMENT: CONSULTATIVE MECHANISMS Mandate/Membership Multi-stakeholder Public-Private sectors Only governmental Multiple issues including trade Uganda ACF Kenya JICCC Malawi PPD Tanzania NBC Uganda PEC Kenya IMCs Malawi IMCs Tanzania IMTC, Zambia SCS All trade issues Malawi NWGTP Uganda IITC Zambia NWGT Zambia TEWG Kenya Cabinet sub-committee on trade Specific trade Negotiations Kenya NCWTO Kenya NDTPF Malawi NDTPF Tanzania NETT Uganda NDTPF
  • 7. III. EFFECTIVE PARTICIPATION: CHALLENGES AS VIEWED BY STAKEHOLDERS
    • Common Challenges
    • Lack of capacity and technical human resources to deal with diverse and evolving issues
    • Issues of internal and external coordination
    • Lack of regular and timely information flow on trade issues
  • 8. III. EFFECTIVE PARTICIPATION: CHALLENGES AS VIEWED BY STAKEHOLDERS
    • Challenges Specific to Categories of Stakeholders
    • Ministry responsible for trade: Lack of financial and human resources to ensure regular functioning of consultative mechanisms
    • Other relevant government ministries/agencies: Issue of primary mandate
    • Private sector: Need to improve opportunities for less powerful business associations
    • CSOs: Occasional tensions with the government and limited opportunities for participation
  • 9. IV. MEASURING INCLUSIVENESS: THE INCLUSIVE TRADE POLICY MAKING (ITPM) INDEX
    • Objectives of ITPM Index
    • Assessing the inclusiveness of a country’s trade policy making processes in terms of the capacities and participation of main stakeholders in these processes
    • Identifying the weaknesses and gaps that should be the target of related capacity building and other activities by the governments, donors, and various stakeholders
    • Allowing for comparisons across countries to identify the good practices as well as prompting actions by countries lagging behind
    • Improving prospects for domestic ownership of trade policies through development and application of more inclusive trade policy making processes
  • 10. IV. MEASURING INCLUSIVENESS: THE INCLUSIVE TRADE POLICY MAKING (ITPM) INDEX ITPM Action Variable KENYA MALAWI TANZANIA UGANDA ZAMBIA Part I. Ministry responsible for Trade A. Identification of all key stakeholders 0.75 0.50 0.50 0.75 0.75 B. Creating awareness about the need for trade policy 0.75 0.50 0.50 0.25 0.75 C. Establishment of formal consultative mechanisms 0.75 1.00 0.75 1.00 1.00 D. Functioning of formal consultative mechanisms 0.75 0.75 0.50 0.50 0.75 E. Regular information flow to the stakeholders including on the content of trade policy 0.50 0.50 0.25 0.25 0.50 Part I Score 3.50/5.00 3.25/5.00 2.50/5.0 2.75/5.00 3.75/5.00
  • 11. IV. MEASURING INCLUSIVENESS: THE INCLUSIVE TRADE POLICY MAKING (ITPM) INDEX ITPM Action Variable KENYA MALAWI TANZANIA UGANDA ZAMBIA Part II. Other relevant government ministries/agencies F. Regular participation in the process and feedback to the relevant authorities 1.00 0.75 0.50 0.75 0.75 G. Faithful representation of and regular feedback to the represented constituencies 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 H. Acquiring relevant knowledge and expertise 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 Part II Score 2.00/3.00 1.75/3.00 1.50/3.00 1.75/3.0 1.75/3.00 Part III. Private sector and business umbrella organizations I. Regular participation in the process and feedback to the relevant authorities 1.00 1.00 0.75 1.00 1.00 J. Faithful representation of and regular feedback to the represented constituencies 0.50 0.75 0.75 0.50 0.50 K. Acquiring relevant knowledge and expertise 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 Part III Score 2.00/3.00 2.25/3.0 2.00/3.00 2.00/3.00 2.00/3.00
  • 12. IV. MEASURING INCLUSIVENESS: THE INCLUSIVE TRADE POLICY MAKING (ITPM) INDEX ITPM Action Variable KENYA MALAWI TANZANIA UGANDA ZAMBIA Part IV. Civil society organizations L. Regular participation in the process and feedback to the relevant authorities 0.75 0.25 0.50 0.25 1.00 M. Faithful representation of and regular feedback to the represented constituencies 0.75 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 N. Acquiring relevant knowledge and expertise 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.75 0.50 Part IV Score 2.00/3.00 1.25/3.00 1.50/3.00 1.75/3.00 2.00/3.00 ITPM Index Score 9.50/14.0 8.50/14.00 7.50/14.00 8.25/14.00 9.50/14.00
  • 13. V. MAIN CONCLUSIONS
    • Improved (and further improving) inclusiveness, better informed stakeholders, and emerging culture of dialogue at nation al levels
    • But
    • Not all relevant stakeholders involved (e.g. parliamentarians, informal sector, consumers), and
    • Consultative forums lack effective mandates
    • And
    • Further efforts also needed to maximize inclusivity pay-offs in an evolving setting
  • 14. V. WAY FORWARD TO MAXIMIZE INCLUSIVITY PAY-OFFS FOR TRADE-LED DEVELOPMENT: SOME RECOMMENDATIONS
    • Broadening national consultations: identification and involvement of all relevant stakeholders
    • Strengthening national consultative mechanisms: more resources and better mandates
    • Linking with results: measure impact of improved inclusivity/ownership on trade policy content and outcomes
    • Focusing on specific areas: make better use of inclusivity processes for EIF and Aid for Trade
    • Addressing the regional dimension: build similar processes at the regional level among RECs
  • 15.
    • Inclusiveness can generate national ownership leading to effective implementation of trade policy as part of overall development policy