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Key Findings  of Five Country Studies CUTS Geneva Resource Centre
<ul><li>INTRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>BRIEF SYNTHESIS OF FIVE COUNTRY STUDIES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul...
<ul><li>CUTS GENEVA RESOURCE CENTRE </li></ul>Introduction |  Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade | Recommendations Intro...
<ul><li>THE FEATS PROJECT </li></ul>Introduction Introduction |  Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade | Recommendations Fo...
<ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancing positive linkages between Trade and Development in Africa </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>Two-phase project  </li></ul><ul><li>Phase One: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>research on policy making processes </li></u...
<ul><li>Agriculture is key to inclusive growth and development: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increase investment to improve produ...
<ul><li>LINKING TRADE & AGRICULTURE IN SELECT AFRICAN COUNTRIES </li></ul>Introduction |  Brief Analysis | Agriculture | T...
<ul><li>LINKING TRADE & AGRICULTURE IN SELECT AFRICAN COUNTRIES </li></ul>Introduction |  Brief Analysis | Agriculture | T...
Research Findings from the Five Country Studies
Introduction   | Brief Analysis |  Agriculture | Trade | Recommendations <ul><li>MAIN ECONOMIC INDICATORS </li></ul>Brief ...
Introduction   | Brief Analysis |  Agriculture | Trade | Recommendations <ul><li>MAIN ECONOMIC INDICATORS </li></ul>Brief ...
Agriculture
<ul><li>PRODUCTIVITY </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis  | Agriculture |  Trade | Recommendations Agriculture in LLCs...
<ul><li>PRODUCTIVITY (Con’d) </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis  | Agriculture |  Trade | Recommendations Agriculture...
<ul><li>PRODUCTIVITY (Con’d) </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis  | Agriculture |  Trade | Recommendations Agriculture...
<ul><li>FOOD SECURITY </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis  | Agriculture |  Trade | Recommendations Agriculture in Non...
<ul><li>FOOD SECURITY (cont’d) </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis  | Agriculture |  Trade | Recommendations Agricultu...
<ul><li>FOOD SECURITY (Cont’d) </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis  | Agriculture |  Trade | Recommendations Agricultu...
<ul><li>FOOD SECURITY (cont’d) </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis  | Agriculture |  Trade | Recommendations Agricultu...
<ul><li>FOOD SECURITY (cont’d) </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis  | Agriculture |  Trade | Recommendations Agricultu...
<ul><li>FOOD SECURITY (cont’d) </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis  | Agriculture |  Trade | Recommendations Agricultu...
<ul><li>FOOD SECURITY (cont’d) </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis  | Agriculture |  Trade | Recommendations Agricultu...
<ul><li>FOOD SECURITY (Con’d) </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis  | Agriculture |  Trade | Recommendations Agricultur...
Trade
<ul><li>INTERNATIONAL TRADE PROFILE OF PROJECT COUNTRIES </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture  | Trade | ...
<ul><li>INTERNATIONAL TRADE PROFILE OF PROJECT COUNTRIES  (Cont’d) </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture  ...
<ul><li>INTERNATIONAL TRADE PROFILE OF PROJECT COUNTRIES  (Cont’d) </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture  ...
<ul><li>PROFILE OF PROJECT COUNTRIES </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture  | Trade |  Recommendations Agr...
<ul><li>PROFILE OF PROJECT COUNTRIES (Cont’d) </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture  | Trade |  Recommenda...
<ul><li>PROFILE OF PROJECT COUNTRIES (Cont’d) </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture  | Trade |  Recommenda...
<ul><li>REGIONAL TRADE IN AGRICULTURE </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture  | Trade |  Recommendations Ag...
<ul><li>REGIONAL TRADE IN AGRICULTURE (Cont’d) </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture  | Trade |  Recommend...
<ul><li>REGIONAL TRADE IN AGRICULTURE (Cont’d) </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture  | Trade |  Recommend...
<ul><li>REGIONAL TRADE IN AGRICULTURE (Cont’d) </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture  | Trade |  Recommend...
<ul><li>REGIONAL TRADE IN AGRICULTURE (Cont’d) </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture  | Trade |  Recommend...
<ul><li>LANDLOCKEDNESS AND TRADE FACILITATION </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture  | Trade |  Recommenda...
<ul><li>LANDLOCKEDNESS AND TRADE FACILITATION (cont’d) </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture  | Trade |  R...
Recommendations
1 Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade  | Recommendations 1. Recognize agriculture as key to inclusive grow...
2 Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade  | Recommendations 2. Improve agricultural productivity <ul><li>Stre...
3 Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade  | Recommendations 3. Promote formal regional trade <ul><li>Governme...
4 Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade  | Recommendations 4. Urgently address trade facilitation issues in ...
5 Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade  | Recommendations 5. Develop and implement holistic, balanced and s...
6 Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade  | Recommendations 6. Educate and build capacity of small farmers an...
7 Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade  | Recommendations 7. Encourage multi-stakeholder consultations and ...
8 Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade  | Recommendations 8. Define a more positive role for donors in the ...
9 Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade  | Recommendations 9. CSOs as important partners in these endeavours...
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Transcript of "110405 feats-ag, trade and development-overview of country studies-revised"

  1. 1. Key Findings of Five Country Studies CUTS Geneva Resource Centre
  2. 2. <ul><li>INTRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>BRIEF SYNTHESIS OF FIVE COUNTRY STUDIES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade </li></ul></ul><ul><li>THEMES AND MAIN RECOMMENDATIONS </li></ul>Structure of the presentation
  3. 3. <ul><li>CUTS GENEVA RESOURCE CENTRE </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade | Recommendations Introduction For more than 25 years, CUTS International pursues research-based advocacy to promote consumer sovereignty with social justice and equality within and across borders. In 2008, CUTS Geneva Resource Centre started functioning to promote a pro-trade, pro-equity credible Southern voice in the Geneva trade and development community. CUTS GRC aims to provide services that would bridge the gap between capitals and Geneva on trade-related issues. At the same time it also launched its flagship three-year project entitled “Fostering Equity and Accountability in the Trading System (FEATS)” .
  4. 4. <ul><li>THE FEATS PROJECT </li></ul>Introduction Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade | Recommendations Fostering Equity & Accountability in the Trading System
  5. 5. <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancing positive linkages between Trade and Development in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Advocacy with trade officials by establishing two-way linkages between activities in Geneva and Project Countries </li></ul><ul><li>Generating a more coherent and pro-trade for development voice in trade policy making and implementation. </li></ul>Introduction THE FEATS PROJECT
  6. 6. <ul><li>Two-phase project </li></ul><ul><li>Phase One: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>research on policy making processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>role of stakeholders at the national level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phase Two: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>research on country-specific issues related to trade in agriculture in the overall context of development constraints and objectives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>today’s presentation is based on the findings from these studies </li></ul></ul></ul>Introduction THE FEATS PROJECT (Cont’d)
  7. 7. <ul><li>Agriculture is key to inclusive growth and development: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increase investment to improve productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>adopt and implement holistic and balanced policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade can play an important role for inclusive development through agriculture: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reform international trade in agriculture and promote formal regional trade </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>urgently address trade facilitation constraints </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stakeholder involvement and capacity building is a must </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>prioritise capacity building of small farmers and traders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage multi-stakeholder consultations and coordination </li></ul></ul></ul>Introduction KEY MESSAGES
  8. 8. <ul><li>LINKING TRADE & AGRICULTURE IN SELECT AFRICAN COUNTRIES </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade | Recommendations Introduction <ul><li>The project was undertaken in LLCs Malawi, Uganda and Zambia, and non-LLCs Kenya and Tanzania. </li></ul><ul><li>In all the five countries, agriculture constitutes a substantial portion of the economy. Its role is crucial for food security, livelihoods and poverty reduction. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, strategies and policy interventions aimed at inclusive development should give precedence to the agriculture sector. </li></ul><ul><li>From the1990’s, these countries implemented trade liberalization measures, with mixed success. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>LINKING TRADE & AGRICULTURE IN SELECT AFRICAN COUNTRIES </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade | Recommendations Introduction <ul><li>However, if well managed , trade can be a powerful instrument for growth and poverty reduction, as well as a tool to correct imbalances between areas of surplus and areas of deficit. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, by increasing opportunities and expanding markets, trade has a direct impact on competitiveness, productivity and livelihoods. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Research Findings from the Five Country Studies
  11. 11. Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade | Recommendations <ul><li>MAIN ECONOMIC INDICATORS </li></ul>Brief Country Analysis
  12. 12. Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade | Recommendations <ul><li>MAIN ECONOMIC INDICATORS </li></ul>Brief Country Analysis <ul><li>Last decade witnessed good GDP growth rates with some variations across countries and between the first and second half of the decade. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth attributed to higher commodity prices, growing exports volumes, macro-economic policies, FDI and debt relief among others. </li></ul><ul><li>Although there are variations among them (e.g. in per capita GNI and population size), poverty is widespread in all project countries. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Agriculture
  14. 14. <ul><li>PRODUCTIVITY </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade | Recommendations Agriculture in LLCs In landlocked Zambia, Malawi and Uganda, the study focused on agricultural productivity, livelihoods, and trade. Zambia, Malawi and Uganda
  15. 15. <ul><li>PRODUCTIVITY (Con’d) </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade | Recommendations Agriculture in LLCs <ul><li>Findings: </li></ul><ul><li>Heavily dependent on Agriculture, making the sector critical for overall economic development. </li></ul><ul><li>Some strengths, e.g. availability of land, comparative advantage in many Ag. Products, and large scope for improving agricultural productivity. </li></ul><ul><li>However, there are constraints such as infrastructure, economic policies, legal frameworks and cultural attributes affecting agricultural productivity and production. </li></ul>Zambia, Malawi and Uganda
  16. 16. <ul><li>PRODUCTIVITY (Con’d) </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade | Recommendations Agriculture in LLCs <ul><li>Factors Affecting Agricultural Productivity: </li></ul><ul><li>Limited availability and poor quality of inputs used. </li></ul><ul><li>Only a limited segment of Ag. production is carried out on commercial basis. </li></ul><ul><li>Land tenure system </li></ul>Zambia, Malawi and Uganda
  17. 17. <ul><li>FOOD SECURITY </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade | Recommendations Agriculture in Non-LLCs <ul><li>In non-landlocked Kenya and Tanzania the study focused on regional trade and food security </li></ul>Kenya and Tanzania
  18. 18. <ul><li>FOOD SECURITY (cont’d) </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade | Recommendations Agriculture in Non-LLCs Kenya and Tanzania Both countries face the challenge of Food Insecurity. (Data indicates that Food Insecurity in these countries is linked to poverty.)
  19. 19. <ul><li>FOOD SECURITY (Cont’d) </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade | Recommendations Agriculture in Non-LLCs <ul><li>Three key elements widely agreed as necessary for food security: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability of enough food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to the available food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stability of availability and access </li></ul></ul>Kenya and Tanzania
  20. 20. <ul><li>FOOD SECURITY (cont’d) </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade | Recommendations Agriculture in Non-LLCs Kenya and Tanzania <ul><li>A number of factors responsible for this situation, that can be categorized as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental </li></ul><ul><li>Political and Institutional </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>FOOD SECURITY (cont’d) </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade | Recommendations Agriculture in Non-LLCs Kenya and Tanzania ECONOMIC FACTORS REASONS IMPACTS <ul><li>Low food production </li></ul><ul><li>small plots of land </li></ul><ul><li>low input use </li></ul><ul><li>plant diseases </li></ul><ul><li>low investment </li></ul><ul><li>Short rainfall season </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient market information </li></ul>Less band fluctuating availability and access to food <ul><li>Limited availability of food at household level </li></ul><ul><li>Sale of a great portion of what they produce to meet other needs </li></ul><ul><li>Exacerbated by volatility in food prices </li></ul><ul><li>Fragmented and insufficient market </li></ul><ul><li>Barriers to trade, e.g. NTBs, SPS. </li></ul><ul><li>High transport cost and poor storage </li></ul><ul><li>Poor infrastructure and trade links between producer areas and consumer markets </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>FOOD SECURITY (cont’d) </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade | Recommendations Agriculture in Non-LLCs Kenya and Tanzania ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS REASONS IMPACTS <ul><li>Repeated crop losses </li></ul><ul><li>Continued maize planting in Agro ecology suitable for sorghum, millets, peas etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic food insecurity in rainfall marginal areas </li></ul><ul><li>Limited income for Ag. labourers during droughts </li></ul><ul><li>Limited investment in flood prone areas </li></ul><ul><li>Limited vegetation regeneration </li></ul><ul><li>Degradation in both pastoral and marginal agricultural areas </li></ul><ul><li>Small proportion of rainfall appropriately used </li></ul><ul><li>High run off and poor water storage </li></ul><ul><li>Droughts and Floods </li></ul><ul><li>Increased frequency and severity </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>FOOD SECURITY (cont’d) </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade | Recommendations Agriculture in Non-LLCs A case study of Kenya and Tanzania POLITICAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FACTORS REASONS IMPACTS <ul><li>Weak Public and Private institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Limited resources </li></ul><ul><li>Limited investment in agriculture and few safety nets to protect farmers from natural and man-made disasters </li></ul><ul><li>Shortcomings in Policy Framework </li></ul><ul><li>Wrong prioritisation </li></ul><ul><li>Abrupt changes </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of full implementation </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>FOOD SECURITY (Con’d) </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade | Recommendations Agriculture in Non-LLCs Trade impacts on food security, either: Kenya and Tanzania Positively Negatively Allows imports of staple food products at affordable prices. Increases livelihood options and hence enhances food security Heavily subsidized food production can depress international food prices, discouraging investment in food production in small countries. Additionally, trade liberalization measures adopted by small developing countries leads to immediate increase in imports, thus worsening balance of payments
  25. 25. Trade
  26. 26. <ul><li>INTERNATIONAL TRADE PROFILE OF PROJECT COUNTRIES </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade | Recommendations Trade
  27. 27. <ul><li>INTERNATIONAL TRADE PROFILE OF PROJECT COUNTRIES (Cont’d) </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade | Recommendations Trade <ul><ul><li>Project countries significantly integrated into the world economy if measured by the share of imports/exports in their respective GDPs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hence they need to focus more on improving the contribution of trade to growth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major exports mostly agricultural commodities except for Zambia (dependent on mineral commodity exports) </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>INTERNATIONAL TRADE PROFILE OF PROJECT COUNTRIES (Cont’d) </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade | Recommendations Trade <ul><ul><li>Dependence on primary commodity exports exposes them to declining terms of trade and price shocks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diversification in export markets is a positive development because: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional European partners are growing much slower than Asian markets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diversified export markets provide some cushion against shocks in individual markets. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All project countries run unsustainably high levels of current account deficits due to imports being much higher than exports, which can lead to macro economic instability. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>PROFILE OF PROJECT COUNTRIES </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade | Recommendations Agricultural Trade
  30. 30. <ul><li>PROFILE OF PROJECT COUNTRIES (Cont’d) </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade | Recommendations Agricultural Trade <ul><ul><li>The share of agricultural exports in total substantially decreased between 2000 and 2006, but it still forms the bulk of exports in these countries (1/3 for Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania in 2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similarly, share of agricultural imports in total has decreased in the period for four project countries (almost doubled in Uganda) </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>PROFILE OF PROJECT COUNTRIES (Cont’d) </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade | Recommendations Agricultural Trade <ul><ul><li>While Ag. Exports are mostly cash crops, Ag. Imports are mostly food products. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Possible positive impact on FS if exports generate greater purchasing power and if imports reach food deficit areas. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Possible positive impact on livelihood if returns on export-oriented production are higher and evenly distributed. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>REGIONAL TRADE IN AGRICULTURE </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade | Recommendations Agricultural Trade <ul><li>Potential of Regional Trade </li></ul><ul><li>creating larger markets and reducing dependence on traditional export markets </li></ul><ul><li>improving production and productivity </li></ul><ul><li>reducing the trading costs through facilitated regional trade infrastructure development </li></ul><ul><li>improving food security by enabling movement from surplus to deficit areas within the region </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>REGIONAL TRADE IN AGRICULTURE (Cont’d) </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade | Recommendations Agricultural Trade <ul><li>Production and regulatory constraints to regional trade </li></ul><ul><li>Over dependence on single primary commodities </li></ul><ul><li>Exports mostly geared for markets outside Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Production of similar Ag. outputs, not complementary for trade between themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Poor Infrastructure a key bottleneck for intra-regional trade </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of harmonized regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Tariff Barriers remain in the region: 1/3 of Africa’s imports face NTBs, higher than OECD and Fast Growing Economies. </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>REGIONAL TRADE IN AGRICULTURE (Cont’d) </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade | Recommendations Agricultural Trade <ul><li>Lack of an enabling agriculture business environment </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual absence of production, financing and marketing channels among businesses in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Imperfect and/or asymmetric information on opportunities for businesses in African Markets </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple currencies and convertibility problems </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>REGIONAL TRADE IN AGRICULTURE (Cont’d) </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade | Recommendations Agricultural Trade <ul><li>80% of regional agricultural trade in East Africa is informal. </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Restrictive policies such as import tariffs, quotas, exchange controls etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Legal requirements for Trade in Agriculture and in food products, e.g. compliance with SPS and Livestock Clearance Certificate. </li></ul><ul><li>Delays at the border and corruption </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>REGIONAL TRADE IN AGRICULTURE (Cont’d) </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade | Recommendations Agricultural Trade <ul><li>Implications of informal trade </li></ul><ul><li>Positive: increases business activities and enhances income and employment for poor households in the border regions, and allows movement of food products from surplus to deficit areas in the region </li></ul><ul><li>Negative: no incentives to invest in formal economy, compromises implementation of health safety and environmental standards, and erodes government revenues </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>LANDLOCKEDNESS AND TRADE FACILITATION </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade | Recommendations Trade for LLCs <ul><li>Constraints to trade specific to LLCs </li></ul><ul><li>The major determinant for trade in the case of LLCs is the cost of transportation, resulting from distance to the sea and inadequate infrastructure. Landlocked LDCs spend almost double the percentage of their export earnings for transport than the average developing country </li></ul><ul><li>Due to “price takers” in the international market, high transportation costs reduce producers’ incomes and discourage them from investing and trading. </li></ul><ul><li>Ag. products are perishable, requiring faster and efficient transportation </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>LANDLOCKEDNESS AND TRADE FACILITATION (cont’d) </li></ul>Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade | Recommendations Trade for LLCs <ul><li>Constraints to trade specific to LLCs </li></ul><ul><li>Neighbors are not strong enough economically to enable project LLCs to expand their markets </li></ul><ul><li>Project countries are not rich to generate enough domestic demand, nor they are resource rich. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Recommendations
  40. 40. 1 Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade | Recommendations 1. Recognize agriculture as key to inclusive growth and development <ul><li>Prioritize agriculture development through policies at the national, regional and international levels, with enhanced support from IGOs, RECs, donors, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase government expenditure on agriculture (at least 10% of annual budget) </li></ul><ul><li>CSOs should identify and promote an enabling environment for private sector led and farmer friendly agricultural development </li></ul>
  41. 41. 2 Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade | Recommendations 2. Improve agricultural productivity <ul><li>Strengthen governmental efforts in the sector, e.g. farm input subsidies, promotion of organic manure, infrastructure etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Promote Farmer-Private sector collaborations through Out-Grower Schemes (OGS) </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage small-holder participation in cash-crop farming </li></ul><ul><li>Create collaboration networks involving researchers, extension services and farmers towards productivity improvements. </li></ul>
  42. 42. 3 Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade | Recommendations 3. Promote formal regional trade <ul><li>Government should encourage formal trade by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reducing tariff and non-tariff barriers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>clamping down illegal payments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>harmonizing SPS and food safety standards at the regional level </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The secretariats of RECs should disseminate information and knowledge regarding the regional market </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation between regional farmer/trader organisations </li></ul>
  43. 43. 4 Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade | Recommendations 4. Urgently address trade facilitation issues in landlocked countries <ul><li>Strengthen border transit efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Upgrade facilities, e.g. customs infrastructure, transportation systems, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate interconnections between countries at the regional level </li></ul>
  44. 44. 5 Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade | Recommendations 5. Develop and implement holistic, balanced and specific government policies and strategies <ul><li>How to implement it </li></ul><ul><li>Governments should adopt comprehensive and balanced trade and agriculture policies that are inter-linked, tackling bottlenecks of trade and distribution mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Set up farm service centers to address farmers’ needs: inputs, machinery, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Improve warehouse facilities to better manage harvests and food insecurity issues </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure fair trade between farmers and sponsors of Out-Grower Schemes (OGS) </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate commercialization of small-scale farmers by building their capacities </li></ul><ul><li>Establish security enabling smallholders to access credits </li></ul><ul><li>Invest in irrigation technology </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinate activities of donors to ensure effective and efficient use of funds </li></ul>
  45. 45. 6 Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade | Recommendations 6. Educate and build capacity of small farmers and traders <ul><li>Strength research extension services to farmers in order to improve agricultural productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Other stakeholders, such as REC secretariats, private sector, donors and CSOs should assist the governments educate farmers and traders and disseminate information widely </li></ul>
  46. 46. 7 Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade | Recommendations 7. Encourage multi-stakeholder consultations and coordination <ul><li>Close collaboration between the ministries of agriculture and trade to bridge the gaps between trade, rural livelihoods, agriculture and food security issues </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers and traders should be involved in policy making and implementing processes through formal consultative mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Farmer/trade regional organisations (e.g., EAGC) should take the responsibilities of honest brokers at the regional level </li></ul><ul><li>Establish national and regional consultative and coordination mechanisms </li></ul>
  47. 47. 8 Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade | Recommendations 8. Define a more positive role for donors in the host and home countries <ul><li>Donor assistance should shift to land and labour productivity improvements </li></ul><ul><li>Donors should collaborate in the implementation of agriculture-related projects, e.g. corridors in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Lobby their governments to reduce entry barriers for imports from project countries </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage MNCs from their home countries to take on corporate social responsibilities </li></ul>
  48. 48. 9 Introduction | Brief Analysis | Agriculture | Trade | Recommendations 9. CSOs as important partners in these endeavours <ul><li>CSOs should strengthen research and information dissemination to all stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Lobby for domestic policies to promote welfare of small-scale farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Build international networks among project countries </li></ul><ul><li>Lobby for the creation of bodies that act as fair arbiters between farmers and agribusiness orgs </li></ul><ul><li>Lobby for increased government spending on poverty reducing oriented agricultural projects </li></ul><ul><li>Design programs targeted at sensitizing the farmers on the commercial side of agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Other stakeholders, e.g. governments, REC secretariats and donors should recognize the importance of CSOs for inclusive development of agriculture through trade </li></ul>
  49. 49. Thank You ! Questions ?
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