Solutions for Crack-Free, Joint-Free & Maintenance-Free Floors

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Learn solutions for crack-free, joint-free and maintenance-free floors.

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  • Thank you for your feedback, Aleksadra. We are glad this was interesting and useful for you. If we can help you with your concrete mix design, please contact us at info@ctscement.com or 800-929-3030.
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  • very interesting for me I also working as designer of initial concrete mix design,for many project in Macedonia.
    Thank you ,and best regards,
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  • Plastic cracks.
  • Drying shrinkage tends to happen in the middle of the concrete like the centerline of this parking garage ramp.
  • Crazing cracks, map cracks, alligator cracks or whatever you call them.
  • Have the audience come up with the answers.
  • Only .25 W/C is required for proper cement hydration. Everything above the red line is “Water of convenience”. Its just there to help the contractor get the concrete placed. Even at .40 W/C which is low, there is an extra cubic foot of water that leaves a cubic yard of concrete. That’s 1 cubic foot out of 27. It no surprise that the concrete cracks. The only surprise is that it doesn’t crack worse.
  • Typically 100’ of concrete will shrink 5/8”.
  • In a perfect world the subgrade were perfectly flat and there would be no friction, so it would just get 5/8” smaller and there would be no cracks. That isn’t going to happen
  • There is restraint from the subgrade, reinforcement, and surrounding concrete.
  • So here is what happens. The concrete gets a little smaller and we get cracks. The total is still 5/8”. This is why we put joints in concrete. We try to anticipate where the cracks will be. Usually we guess right, but sometimes we guess wrong.
  • This is one of our cement mills where we make Calcium SulfoAluminate Cement not Portland Cement. We use the same basic raw ingredients but different ratios. We burn at different temperatures and grind for longer and get a cement with very different properties.
  • This is the test equipment. Bars are 3” by 3” by 10”.
  • Full scale testing on strips 50’ by 6’. The red curve is Portland and .15% rebars. The blue curve is Komponent with the same amount of rebars. The green curve is System-K with K-Fiber and no steel. The System-K performs at least as well as SCC and rebar. The length to width ratio is over 8 to 1. ACI recommends 1.5 to 1 and a maximum of 2 to 1. These are now almost a year old and get continuous forklift traffic. The Portland strip has many cracks and the other strips have none.
  • Two slabs about the same size as a typical grocery store.
  • Traditionally with 15’ joint spacing 6270 linear feet of joints.
  • SCC ban have 150’ joint spacing so only 459 linear feet of joints. That saves over a mile of joints on this relatively small slab. That’s a mile of joints that don’t have to be sawcut, don’t have to be filled, and don’t have to be maintained for the life of the building.
  • The curl will always be worst at the corners because it curls from two directions. When there is a point load or impact load four corner cracking is common. This project wasn’t even completed yet. Notice the differential vertical movement as well.
  • Flatter joints.
  • These are quotes from the admixture literature. So at 1 year you have only half as many cracks.
  • Solutions for Crack-Free, Joint-Free & Maintenance-Free Floors

    1. 1. SOLUTIONS FLOORSfor Crack-Free, Joint-Free & Maintenance-Free By Matt Jabbari, M.S. Civil Engineer CTS Cement Manufacturing Corp. 800-929-3939 Ext. 173 www.ctscement.com
    2. 2. Matt Jabbari B.S. Civil Engineer  University of Minnesota M.S. Eng. Management  Northeastern University Design & Field Engineer Millstone III Nuclear Power Plant; Waterford, CT Research Engineer W.R. Grace & Company; Cambridge, MA Engineering Contractor, Public Works & Private Site Development Company; Santa Ana, CA Project Manager Consultant; P.W. City of La-Canada-Flintridge, CA Affiliations: ASCE, ACI, PTI, SEAOC, ICRI, and Public Works Greenbook Sub-Committee Member
    3. 3. Typical Industries Requiring Perfect Floors Pharmaceutical Companies Distribution Centers: Target, K-Mart, Costco Production & Manufacturing Facilities Parts & Inventory Warehouses Computer Production & Assembly Facilities Food Warehouse & Distribution Centers Beverage Production & Bottling Facilities Meat & Poultry Grinding/Packaging Facilities Anyone who wants to INCREASE PRODUCTION and DECREASE maintenance DOWN TIME!!!
    4. 4. CRACKS OVERVIEW Types of Cracks
    5. 5. When water evaporates off the surface TOO RAPIDLY, cracking usually occurs.Why are cracks Important?
    6. 6. Plastic Shrinkage Cracks
    7. 7. Drying Shrinkage Cracks
    8. 8. Crazing Cracks
    9. 9. There are FOUR FACTORS that contribute to thisONE TWO THREE FOURHigh ambient High concrete Low humidity High windstemperatures temperatures
    10. 10. Water to Cement Ratio 200 Pounds Water 500 Pounds Cementitious W/C = 200/500 = .40
    11. 11. Excess water in one cubic yard of concrete with 500 pounds of cement 400 4 350POUNDS OF WATER 3 300 2 250 1 200 150 100 50 0 .25 .30 .35 .40 .45 .50 .55 .60 .65 .70 .75 WATER C EMENT R ATIO
    12. 12. Learning Objectives SHRINKAGE & CRACKING Understand why traditional concrete shrinks, cracks, curls and needs joints CURLING Understand why Shrinkage-Compensating Concrete doesn’t shrink, crack, curl or need joints FUTURE JOINT MAINTENANCE COSTS Consider joint spacing of 150’ by 150’ RETURN ON INVESTMENT Learn how Shrinkage-Compensating Concrete lowers initial and life-cycle costs DISCUSS SOME TYPICAL APPLICATIONS
    13. 13. SHRINKAGE & CRACKING Problem / Solution
    14. 14. PROBLEM: Shrinkage & CrackingTypical Drying Shrinkage is .05% = 5/8” in 100’ 100’
    15. 15. PROBLEM: Shrinkage & Cracking Without ResistanceA (Floating Space) B 99’ 11 3/8” Total Shrinkage = A +B = 5/8”
    16. 16. PROBLEM: Shrinkage & Cracking But There is Resistance 100’Subgrade Friction
    17. 17. PROBLEM: Shrinkage & Cracking Shrinkage + Resistance = Cracks1/16” 1/16” 99’ 11 3/8” 1/8” 1/8” 1/8” 1/8” Subgrade Friction
    18. 18. SOLUTION: Shrinkage Compensating CementWhat is shrinkage Type-K or Expansive Cementcompensating cement?TetracalciumTrialumino 85% PortlandSulfate 15% C4A3S
    19. 19. SOLUTION: Shrinkage Compensating Cement Compensates for dry shrinkage of cement Also known as Type K Concrete
    20. 20. All you needto do is Portland CementADD 15%KOMPONENTto your LocalPortlandCement
    21. 21. CEMENT PRODUCTION PLANTCalcium Sulfo Aluminate Cement C4A3S
    22. 22. ASTM C 878
    23. 23. SHRINKAGE ZONE CHART No Shrinkage / No Crack Zone Shrinkage / Crack ZoneAll panels were 50’ long by 6’ wide, 6” thick and had 7 days wet cure Traditional Portland Concrete with Rebar (#4 @ 24”oc) Type K Concrete with Rebar (#4 @ 24”oc) Type K Concrete with K-Fibers™ (aka: System-K™)
    24. 24. JOINTS OVERVIEW Types of joints and their purpose
    25. 25. Tooled Joints
    26. 26. Saw-Cut Joints
    27. 27. Tooled Joints vs. Saw-Cut Joints
    28. 28. PROBLEM: Number of Joints PORTLAND SLAB SLABTYPICAL SLABS 210’ by 240’ 50,400 ft2
    29. 29. PROBLEM: Number of Joints PORTLAND SLAB SLAB Portland Concrete Shrinkage-Compensating 6270 linear ft. of joints 210 linear ft. of jointsTYPICAL SLABS 210’ by 240’ 50,400 ft2
    30. 30. PROBLEM: Number of Joints PORTLAND SLAB SLAB Typical 1 day pour 25,200 square feet SAVES OVER A MILE OF JOINTS Portland Concrete Shrinkage-Compensating 6270 linear ft. of joints 210 linear ft. of jointsTYPICAL SLABS 210’ by 240’ 50,400 ft2
    31. 31. PROBLEM: Number of Joints PORTLAND SLAB SLAB Typical 1 day pour 25,200 square feet $12,000 $2,000 Portland Concrete Shrinkage-Compensating 6270 linear ft. of joints 210 linear ft. of jointsTYPICAL SLABS 210’ by 240’ 50,400 ft2
    32. 32. PROBLEM: Cracks & Joints
    33. 33. PROBLEM: Cracks & JointsDifferential drying causes curlingCracks (joints) form in “V” shape
    34. 34. SOLUTION: Shrinkage Compensating Cement Mitigates drying shrinkage cracks Eliminates curling
    35. 35. CURLING OVERVIEW Problems / Solutions
    36. 36. PROBLEM: Cracks & Joints Curling may occur at the intersections of all the joints
    37. 37. PROBLEM: Cracks & Joints PORTLAND SLAB SLAB Typical 1 day pour 25,200 square feet SAVES OVER A MILE OF JOINTS Portland Concrete Shrinkage-Compensating 6270 linear ft. of joints 210 linear ft. of jointsTYPICAL SLABS 210’ by 240’ 50,400 ft2
    38. 38. SOLUTION: Shrinkage Compensating Cement
    39. 39. Shrinkage Reducing Admixtures but they should be called Shrinkage Delaying Admixtures .01 0Elongation (%) -.01 Shrinkage Reducing -.02 -.03 Control -.04 -.05 -.06 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Time (days)
    40. 40. SOLUTION: Shrinkage Compensating Cement Mitigates drying shrinkage cracks Eliminates curling
    41. 41. FUTURE JOINTSMAINTENANCE COSTS PROBLEMS / SOLUTIONS
    42. 42. PROBLEM: Future Joint Maintenance Typical Costly Epoxy Repair
    43. 43. PROBLEM: Future Joint Maintenance Typical Spall Repair
    44. 44. SOLUTION: Shrinkage Compensating Cement By eliminating joints, you also eliminate the need for costly joint repair and maintenance
    45. 45. NO JOINTS = NO REPAIRS
    46. 46. RETURN ON INVESTMENT Cost Analysis
    47. 47. PROBLEM: Costly Joint Repairs • Downtime • Facility closures • Loss of load on pallet • Accidents • Performance − does not slow down workflow • Insurance claims and employee compensations • Bacteria growth • Unsanitary conditions
    48. 48. TYPICAL APPLICATIONS
    49. 49. TYPICAL APPLICATIONS FORSHRINKAGE-COMPENSATING CONCRETE Manufacturing Water Treatment Warehouses Tanks Retail Stores Reservoirs Hangars Secondary Containment Runways Hazardous Waste Paving Piers/Wharves Bridges Ice Skating Rinks Parking Structures Tennis Courts Walls Skateboard Parks Roofs Basements
    50. 50. Cracks Normally Occur at:1. Mid-Panel2. Columns in the Slab (notice no boxouts)3. Perimeter Columns4. Bollards5. Re-entrant Corner6. Plastic and Crazing
    51. 51. Sofa Express Portland, Tennessee April 2004 70,000 square feetMax Joint Spacing 130’ No cracks
    52. 52. Menards Home Improvement Centers Over a dozen locations done to date 4” slabs with 120’ by 160’ joint spacing
    53. 53. Floors only 4” thick 120’ by 160’ panels No saw-cut joints!
    54. 54. Parking Structures atJohn Wayne Airport
    55. 55. John Wayne Airportwith Portland Cement and Post-Tensioning
    56. 56. $1,000,000
    57. 57. Typical Costly Epoxy Repair
    58. 58. Basement moisture isthe #1 cause of mold
    59. 59. With Shrinkage-Compensating Cement and Post-Tensioning
    60. 60. Same Design, Contractor, and Ready-Mix Company. Theonly difference is Shrinkage- Comp Cement.
    61. 61. THIS? OR THIS?
    62. 62. United National Foods Distribution Center York, Pennsylvania 675,000 sq. ft. Built in 2008 Computer and robotic aided distribution center
    63. 63. High-Speed, High-Capacity Food Distribution New York New Jersey Pennsylvania Delaware Maryland Ohio Virginia and West Virginia
    64. 64. Albertsons Warehouse Tolleson, Arizona 672,000 square feet Joint spacing 162’ Pallet jacks 10 years old NO REPAIRS
    65. 65. Toyota Parts Center Ontario, California 760,000 ft2 Super Flat Joint spacing 120’ by 120’ Built in 1995 $10,000/year repairs in other centers None needed here
    66. 66. Conclusion
    67. 67. When You Want Concrete Without Joints Without Cracks Without Curling Without Spalling Without Maintenance With Lower Initial Costs With Lower Life-Cycle Costs
    68. 68. Same Design, Contractor, and Ready-Mix Company. Theonly difference is Shrinkage- Comp Cement.
    69. 69. THIS? OR THIS?

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