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The Many A's in Entperise Architecture: Archaeology, Anthropology, Analysis and Architecture: From Design to Discovery
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The Many A's in Entperise Architecture: Archaeology, Anthropology, Analysis and Architecture: From Design to Discovery


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The Many A's in Entperise Architecture: Archaeology, Anthropology, Analysis and Architecture: From Design to Discovery

The Many A's in Entperise Architecture: Archaeology, Anthropology, Analysis and Architecture: From Design to Discovery

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  • 1. Enterprise Archaeology Archaeology, or archeology is the study ofhuman activity in the past, primarily throughthe recovery and analysis of the materialculture and environmental data that theyhave left behind, which includes artifacts,architecture, biofacts and cultural landscapes(the archaeological record). Date & Time
  • 2. The Purpose of EnterpriseArchaeology !   Learn about the past development of the enterprise !   Important developments in the history of the enterprise are notwritten down !   When they are written down, they are often incomplete andinconsistent !   Understanding the past is important to success in the future !   What are the forces that shaped the enterprise? !   Where is the core value in the enterprise? !   Are there hidden liabilities? Date & Time
  • 3. What are We Looking For? !   Technologies !   Operational and Governance Structures !   Behaviours !   Relationships !   Purpose !   Culture !   Forces and Pressures Date & Time
  • 4. Unearthing the Enterprise – Techniques !   Field Survey !   Consultation with current and past employees !   Excavation !   Forensic Analysis !   Lexical analysis !   Noun analysis to identify business objects and actors !   Other phrase analysis to identify other enterprise objects !   Surveillance – Remote Sensing !   E.g. network scanning !   Analysis and Reverse engineering Date & Time
  • 5. Unearthing the Enterprise - Sources !   Formal Policy and Plans !   The view of the ruling class !   Describes the enterprise as planned and promised !   Formal Records !   The view intended for regulators !   Technology !   Artefacts of the enterprise !   Commentary !   News, inquiries, audits, etc !   Oral History Date & Time
  • 6. Enterprise Anthropology Anthropology is the study of humans, past and present.Tounderstand the full sweep and complexity of cultures across all ofhuman history, anthropology draws and builds upon knowledgefrom the social and biological sciences as well as the humanities andphysical sciences.A central concern of anthropologists is theapplication of knowledge to the solution of human problems.Historically, anthropologists in the United States have been trainedin one of four areas: sociocultural anthropology, biological/physicalanthropology, archaeology, and linguistics.Anthropologists oftenintegrate the perspectives of several of these areas into theirresearch, teaching, and professional lives. American Anthropological Association ( Date & Time
  • 7. The Purpose of EnterpriseAnthropology !   Culture !   Successful architecture is design that the enterprise can live with !   Enterprise culture influences the change that is possible and thespeed with which change can occur !   Culture is foundational to stakeholder management !   Language !   Metaphor and idiom are critical to design !   Design must be articulated in the language of the enterprise !   Evolution !   How does the enterprise evolve in response to its environment Date & Time
  • 8. Techniques for EnterpriseAnthropology !   Architecture Meta-models – codifying the language of theenterprise !   Stakeholder management – documenting the culture of theenterprise !   Environment Scans – understanding the evolutionary pressures Date & Time
  • 9. Architecture Content Meta-Models Date & Time Defines the (formal)language of theenterpriseLanguage affectsdesignSome CommonBiasesFunctionalService OrientationProcess
  • 10. Stakeholders EnterpriseSecurityQA/StandardsGroupsProductSpecialistsTechnicalSpecialistsProgrammeManagement OfficeProcurementHRExecutiveLineManagementBusinessDomainExpertsIT ServiceManagementApplicationManagementManagementData /VoiceCommunicationsLineManagementExecutiveFunctional /BusinessProcessExpertsCxOStakeholder TypesCorporate End - UserSystem ProjectInfrastructureStakeholders are people who havekey roles in, or concerns about, theenterprise architecture. Stakeholderscan be individuals, teams,organizations, etc.Date & Time
  • 11. Stakeholder Management EnterpriseSecurityQA/StandardsGroupsProductSpecialistsTechnicalSpecialistsProgrammeManagement OfficeProcurementHRExecutiveLineManagementBusinessDomainExpertsIT ServiceManagementApplicationManagementManagementData /VoiceCommunicationsLineManagementExecutiveFunctional /BusinessProcessExpertsCxOStakeholder TypesCorporate End - UserSystem ProjectInfrastructureTOGAF provides a step by step approach:Step 1: Identify StakeholdersStep 2: Classify StakeholderPositionsStep 3: Determine StakeholderManagement ApproachStep 4: Tailor EngagementDeliverablesDate & Time
  • 12. Apollo example Date & Time
  • 13. Step 1: Identify Stakeholders !   Identify the key stakeholders of the enterprise architecture. !   Look at who is impacted by the enterprise architecture project: !   Who gains and who loses from this change? !   Who controls change management of processes? !   Who designs new systems? !   Who will make the decisions? !   Who procures IT systems and who decides what to buy? !   Who controls resources? !   Who has specialist skills the project needs? !   Who has influence? Date & Time
  • 14. Step 2: Classify StakeholderPositions !   Classify and record positions in a Stakeholder Analysis Matrix StakeholderGroupStakeholder Ability toDisruptthechangeCurrentUnderstandingRequiredunderstandingCurrentcommitmentRequiredcommitmentRequiredsupportCIO JohnSmithH M H L M HCFO JeffBrownM M M L M MDate & Time
  • 15. Step 3: Determine StakeholderManagement Approach !   Work out stakeholder power, influence and interest, so as tofocus the engagement on the key individuals. !   These can then be mapped onto a power/interest matrix, whichis used to determine the strategy for engaging with them. Date & Time
  • 16. Step 3: Determine StakeholderManagement Approach !   Develop a Power/Interest Matrix and place Stakeholder groupswithin it Date & Time
  • 17. Step 4:Tailor EngagementDeliverables !   For each Stakeholder Group: !   Identify the viewpoints that the architecture engagement needsto produce and validate with each stakeholder group !   Define specific viewpoints, matrices, and views of the enterprisearchitecture model.. Date & Time
  • 18. Example: Stakeholder Map STAKEHOLDERGROUPCLASS EXAMPLE ROLES KEY CONCERNS CLASS Catalogs, Matrices andDiagramsCorporateFunctionsCxO CEO, CFO, CIO, COO The high level drivers, goals andobjectives of the organization, and howthese are translated into an effectiveprocess and IT architecture to advancethe business.KEEPSATISFIEDBusiness Footprint diagramGoal/Objective/ServicediagramOrganization DecompositiondiagramCorporateFunctionsProgramManagementOfficeProject PortfolioManagersPrioritizing, funding and aligningchange activity. An understanding ofproject content and technicaldependencies between projects adds afurther dimension of richness toportfolio management decision making.KEEPSATISFIEDRequirements CatalogBusiness Footprint diagramApplicationCommunication diagramFunctionalDecomposition diagramCorporateFunctionsProcurement Acquirers Understanding what building blocksof the architecture can be bought, andwhat constraints (or rules) exist that arerelevant to the purchase. The acquirerwill shop with multiple vendors lookingfor the best cost solution while adheringto the constraints (or rules) applied bythe architecture, such as standards. Thekey concern is to make purchasingdecisions that fit the architecture, andthereby to reduce the risk of added costsarising from non-compliant components.KEYPLAYERSTechnology Portfolio catalogTechnology
  • 19. Environmental Scans !   Identify factors that influence the evolution of the enterprise !   External factors !   Threats !   Opportunities !   Internal Factors !   Weaknesses !   Strengths Date & Time
  • 20. Enterprise Analytics Date & Time !   Data needs context to become information !   The key to exploiting data is knowing what questions to ask !   Design analyses: !   Problem Analysis !   Opportunity Discovery !   Options Analysis
  • 21. Problem Analysis !   Business Problems are Stakeholder Needs that are not beingaddressed !   If no-one cares it is not a problem !   Analytics allow us to confirm the problem exists !   Analytics allow us to confirm interactions between problems !   Analytics can help us discover root-causes !   Problem Analysis is more than the answer !   Its also about building consensus that my problem is our problem Date & Time
  • 22. Options Analysis !   I know the choices – which is optimal !   Architecture descriptions enable you to precisely define theoptions and identify the questions that need to be asked !   Analytics provide the data to make a choice Date & Time
  • 23. Enterprise ArchitectureDesign for the Enterprise Date Time Descriptions• Structure• Components andtheirrelationships• Behaviour• ValueDesigns•  Rules governingthe evolution ofthe enterprise• Road maps• Analyses• Specifications
  • 24. Why does EnterpriseArchitecture Produce? Date Time DesignArchitectureDescriptionUnintentional IntentionalImplicitExplicitComplianceRisk ManagementTransparency and AccountabilityCommunicationsMission FulfilmentAgilitySustainabilityCompetitive Advantage
  • 25. Characteristics of theEnterprise Architecture Date Time DescribedLeader’sVisionDesignedEvolvedDesignArchitectureDescriptionUnintentional IntentionalImplicitExplicit
  • 26. Characteristics of theEnterprise Culture Date Time OperationalEntrepre-neurialMissionOrientedPoliticalDesignArchitectureDescriptionUnintentional IntentionalImplicitExplicit
  • 27. ComplexbusinessComplexproblems Date Time