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The Emergence of Water User Associations (WUAs) in Rwanda marshlands – Thierry Lassalle, GRET, France
 

The Emergence of Water User Associations (WUAs) in Rwanda marshlands – Thierry Lassalle, GRET, France

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    The Emergence of Water User Associations (WUAs) in Rwanda marshlands – Thierry Lassalle, GRET, France The Emergence of Water User Associations (WUAs) in Rwanda marshlands – Thierry Lassalle, GRET, France Presentation Transcript

    • Water Users Associations from Emergence to Convergence: Experiences from Rwanda and Burundi
      Theme3:  Water and Society Case study:  Equitable Distribution of Water Rights and Access
    • Preambule
      This presentationrelates on-goingprocessesimplemented by the Governements of Rwanda and Burundi in collaboration withdonorsthroughspecificprojects. The authorinteractedwith the projects teams through short-term support missions.
      Viewsexpressed in thispresentationonlyreflect the author’s and cannotbeconsidered as official positions.
      2
    • Background: willingpolicies…
      In Rwanda and Burundi, processes were launched to set WUAs to manage irrigation water particularly in newly rehabilitated marshlands into rice fields.
      Main characteristics
      • Many marshlands with infrastructure (dam, canals)
      • Marshlands surrounded by hillsides (soil erosion)
      • Rice mono-cropping by small-scale holders (<1ha)
      3
    • …to address a triple challenge:
      • technico-economical: i)promotion of intensive ricecroppingsystems; ii)value chainswithfinancialreturns on investment.
      • water management: i)maintenance of irrigation infrastucture and water sharing; ii)soil conservation measures in hillsides (silting/sand).
      • socio-developmental: i)repartition of the added value beyond water usersamong the community; ii)fairaccess to irrigated land.
      4
    • The Emergence of WUA
      5
    • Issue1: Water fees for what water rights?
      Local authorities are the custodian of all common goods, hence natural resources (water, lands…)
      Challenges facing WUAs:
      • What is the scope of the responsibilities handed over to WUAs by the local authorities?
      Sharing-Maintenance-Access…
      • What means to be raised to fulfill this mandate?
      Running costs- investment costs-water fees
      6
    • Issue 2: Membersbut not yetusers?
      Producers belong to rice cooperative who used to manage water services.
      Challenges facing WUAs:
      • How to build ownership of the association and its mandate by the users?
      Elected leadership- Water fee payable at sale- Transparency on use of resources…
      • How to enforce rules upon defaulting users?
      Sharedrules- Attractive event- Equity (lowtolerancewith transparent decisionmaking)
      7
    • Issue 3: Not users, …not carers?
      Hillside farmers’ practices affect the irrigated marshlands while some of them have no access to rice fields and subsequent incomes.
      Challenges facing WUAs:
      • How to enforce hillsides common protection measures in individual plots?
      Education-Income generating activities- by-laws…
      • How to share water rights with hillside irrigation?
      WUA in hillsides- local negotiation process
      8
    • Severalvoices on behalf of « local interest »
      9
      4 legitimate groups
      • Local authorities mandated to ensure fair access to common goods to all citizens;
      • WUA mandated to ensure a sustainable use of irrigation water by all users;
      • Cooperative mandated to ensure viable incomes derived from the use of marshlands;
      • Hillside farmers groups mandated to ensure a sustainable and viable use of soil and water.
    • A local forum for local water stakeholders?
      10
      “District Water Management Coordination Committees” are about to be set up to provide case-to-case answers to be effected through:
      • Contracts between stakeholders/
      • Chart of conduct / rules and regulations /
      • Commitment and accountability…
      In any case, social consensual constructions recognisingeachother’sinterests and roles.
    • 11
      Thankyou