The battle of hegemony: strategies to secure exclusive water rights - lessons from Malawi and Mozambique case studies - Francis Nkoka, , Agriculture Manager, Save the Children,  Malawi
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The battle of hegemony: strategies to secure exclusive water rights - lessons from Malawi and Mozambique case studies - Francis Nkoka, , Agriculture Manager, Save the Children, Malawi

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  • 1. The battle of hegemony: strategies to secure exclusive water rights F S Nkoka
  • 2. Outline
    • Introduction
    • 3 Case studies
    • SSIS & SSA Analysis
    • Understanding water rights
    • Basis of Claim
    • Interpretation by SHFs
    • Discussion points
    • Conclusion
  • 3. Introduction
    • Food insecurity in SSA
    • Irrigation a solution
    • Failures of LSISs -> focus on SSISs
    • Clean track record of SSISs
  • 4. Case Studies
    • Smallholder farmers vs MDF – Dowa
      • Irrigation use versus domestic use
    • Smallholder farmers vs Large Scale farmer(s) – Mchinji
      • Shifting alliance of govt institutions
    • The waterscape continuum in Tsangano
      • Smallholder farmers vs smallholder farmers
  • 5. Tsangano Irrigation Systems
  • 6. SSIS & SSA Analysis
    • SSA vulnerability
    • SSISs description
    • SSISs context – political, markets,
    • Farmers – illiterate, poor, not organized
    • Importance of SSISs -> great contribution
  • 7. Understanding water rights
    • Strange concept to Smallholder farmers
    • Not fully rolled out in SSA
    • Vary in many respect – exclusive, transferability, scale, duration, recognition, & assurance
    • Its importance vary with time
  • 8. Basis of Claim
    • Construction history of the system
    • Position in the system
    • Social and political network
    • Settlement history
    • Considered informal
    • Overtaken by ‘formal’ request
  • 9. Interpretation by SHFs
    • Water belong to God
    • Different users with different reference point
    • Eruption of silent wars
    • Very critical in water scarce period
  • 10. Discussion points
    • Line of division between water user groups
      • Legitimate for claims based on scale, use, history
    • Processes of exclusion
      • Location in the system – upstream vs downstream at system level & catchment level
      • Settlement history – fortifying ownership thru construction & land ownership
      • ‘ Formal’ over ‘informal’
      • Power and power relations – fight them if they accept
      • Social & political network
  • 11. Discussion points
    • Underlying structure that lead to unequal access to water
      • Weak institutions (WUAs, ICs) vs administrative structures
      • Fixing ICs structure & membership
      • Legislation unsynchronized to local situation
      • Lack of awareness of ‘formal’ rights to smallholder farmers
      • Un-recognition of local logic
      • Rigorous exercise of obtaining ‘formal’ rights
  • 12. Think on these things
    • Water rights decision should consider local situation
    • More Smallholder farmers are illiterate & poor but not stupid
    • Their claims should be recognized – formal vs informal
    • More awareness to smallholder farmers required
  • 13. Think on these things
    • The concept of equity to be explained
    • Sustainable use natural resource
    • Synchronize WUA and local structure (TAs)
    • Smallholder farmers to be pushed out of farming
    • Food insecurity to persist
    • Social conflict / disorder
  • 14. THANK YOU