ICM and KSS in IWM as evidence-based
DSS to inform Policy and Investment decisions
By:
Prof. Bancy M. Mati
Presented at th...
Basic Terms /acronyms
• ICM – Information, Communication & Management
• KSS – Knowledge Support Systems
• DSS – Decision S...
CONTENTS
1. Status of knowledge share & ICM for IWM in Africa
2. Typologies of Decision Support Systems
3. Knowledge needs...
Status of knowledge share & DSS in Africa
• Africa is a continent fragmented by national boundaries,
languages and cultura...
Why sit on
knowledge?
5 01/29/15
As a result…..
Knowledge Gaps in Policy & Investment decisions
Knowledge and experiences ...
Information and Knowledge
• Information is data that is organized so as to
have meaning
• Data is numerical or at least qu...
Typologies of Decision Support Systems (DSS)
Origins of computer aided DSS is fairly recent - 1967 (Morton’s
dissertation ...
Typical target Stakeholders for ICM. For example
1. International Institutions – e.g. UN, WB, IFAD,
2. Regional Institutio...
Knowledge needs for Policy &
Investment support
• Determine what information needs to be
communicated
• Be sensitive to th...
B.Mati 10 01/29/15
IWM interventions having simple
improvements which yield visible impacts
B.Mati 11 01/29/151101/29/15
Knowledge about inputs, not just costs …
B.Mati 12 01/29/15
Community mobilization and participation
in development programmess
B.Mati 13 01/29/15
Advice on “quick wins” that utilize local materials
Photo by B. Mati
Sand-filled bags for dam embankmen...
Available DSS tools to inform policy & Investment
decisions
• National & regional IWM research information systems
• Indig...
Examples of DSS tools for IWM &
Agric to inform policy
• Early warning systems e.g. Geo-spatial data
shared by FEWSnet, WM...
IMAWESA 16 01/29/15
Institutionalizing sustainability in KSS for IWM
• Devising mechanisms for self-financing
• Working wi...
Example: Climate Change Decision support tools
Source: The Economics of Climate Change. Stern Review, 2007.
Source: The World Bank Group Genderstats Database of Gender Statistics (2004),
and ILO Global employment Trends Brief (200...
• A pen and notebook -
• Writing (newspapers, magazines, report),
• Audio-visual systems (radio, TV , doc films)
• Public ...
Example: SMS as a DSST at farmer level
• In Kenya, farmers have an easy, low risk DSST
through SMS technology & M-PESA. e....
IMAWESA 21 01/29/152101/29/15
Photos by B. Mati
Challenges: how to change age-old practices
e.g. introducing SRI (System o...
IWM for cross-sectoral uses
Photo by B. Mati
Water for Community services Water storages for livestock
Photo by Naphtali M...
Components of ICM
• What: Determine what knowledge is needed, its management information
structures, and objectives.
• Who...
Incentives for supporting ICM
• Making available increased knowledge content
• Facilitating and supporting innovation and ...
Promoting policy and investment support for IWM
• Develop workable Strategies considering river basin mgt.
• Review nation...
B.Mati 26 01/29/15
ICM to bridge the knowledge needs of a
cross-section of “Decision Makers”
Key Water &
Water-related
Policies/Inst.
Resources
Assessment &
Analysis
Use Assessment
& Analysis
Resource
Development &
...
Upgrading IWM through KSS & ICM
• Using KSS to achieve “decisively” designed projects
and/or incorporating IWM into existi...
Desired outcomes of IWM
B.Mati 30 01/29/1530
Thank you
“Knowing is not enough; we must apply.
Willing is not enough; we must do" ….Goethe
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ICM and KSS in IWM as evidence-based DSS to inform Policy and Investment decisions - Prof. Bancy M. Mati

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  • Use houose analogy
    Start w key elements
    Look at resources – allocate strategically
    Pre^pare
    All are steps – revise at year end....
  • ICM and KSS in IWM as evidence-based DSS to inform Policy and Investment decisions - Prof. Bancy M. Mati

    1. 1. ICM and KSS in IWM as evidence-based DSS to inform Policy and Investment decisions By: Prof. Bancy M. Mati Presented at the: CTA Annual Seminar: On: Closing the Knowledge Gap: Integrated Water Management for Sustainable Agriculture Johannesburg, South Africa 22nd -26th November 2010
    2. 2. Basic Terms /acronyms • ICM – Information, Communication & Management • KSS – Knowledge Support Systems • DSS – Decision Support Systems • ICT – Information and Communication Technologies • IWM – Integrated Water Management • IPCC – Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
    3. 3. CONTENTS 1. Status of knowledge share & ICM for IWM in Africa 2. Typologies of Decision Support Systems 3. Knowledge needs for Policy & Investment support 4. Components of ICM 5. Simple KM technologies 6. DSS tools to inform policy on IWM & Agric 7. Schematic presentation of the IWM Process 8. Upgrading IWM through KSS & ICM
    4. 4. Status of knowledge share & DSS in Africa • Africa is a continent fragmented by national boundaries, languages and cultural barriers • Technologies and practices for IWM exist but in localized “islands” • Researchers chase to publish papers in foreign international journals • Policy makers rarely consult local scientists and/or farmers • Research agenda rarely emanates from local needs • Even with the internet, knowledge flow intra-Africa is weak • Capacity has been growing among Africans.....
    5. 5. Why sit on knowledge? 5 01/29/15 As a result….. Knowledge Gaps in Policy & Investment decisions Knowledge and experiences from decades of research and project implementation  are not filtering up-wards to influence policy,  are poorly infiltrating downwards to impact on poverty among smallholder farmers, and  are not spreading outwards rapidly enough to reach many people quickly.
    6. 6. Information and Knowledge • Information is data that is organized so as to have meaning • Data is numerical or at least quantifiable information • Knowledge is “information that is relevant, actionable, and based at least partially on experience”. • ICT consists of information processing and communication technologies.
    7. 7. Typologies of Decision Support Systems (DSS) Origins of computer aided DSS is fairly recent - 1967 (Morton’s dissertation in Harvard). Can Distinguish six types of DSS 1. Model-driven DSS - use limited data and parameters provided by decision makers 2. Data-driven DSS – use large quantities of data 3. Communications-driven DSS – utilize ICTs 4. Document-driven DSS e.g. uses computer storage and processing for info retrieval and analysis 5. Knowledge-driven DSS : are person-computer systems with specialized problem-solving expertise 6. Web-based DSS – e.g. Imagine life without Google?
    8. 8. Typical target Stakeholders for ICM. For example 1. International Institutions – e.g. UN, WB, IFAD, 2. Regional Institutions - COMESA, SADC, AMCOW 3. National Institutions – Ministries of Water, Agriculture 4. National Knowledge Institutions – e.g. universities, 5. Para-governmental Orgs e.g. RBAs, parastatals 6. Private Sector – banks, equipment manufacturers 7. Funded Programmes & Projects - 8. NGOs, WUAs, SHGs, CBOs 9. Farmers, fishers, pastoralists and other land users.
    9. 9. Knowledge needs for Policy & Investment support • Determine what information needs to be communicated • Be sensitive to the needs of Policy makers • Determine the medium of communication. • Determine who will be sending out this communication & who is receipient. • Identify the purpose of the communication • Demand driven or push it? • Determine the frequency of communication
    10. 10. B.Mati 10 01/29/15 IWM interventions having simple improvements which yield visible impacts
    11. 11. B.Mati 11 01/29/151101/29/15 Knowledge about inputs, not just costs …
    12. 12. B.Mati 12 01/29/15 Community mobilization and participation in development programmess
    13. 13. B.Mati 13 01/29/15 Advice on “quick wins” that utilize local materials Photo by B. Mati Sand-filled bags for dam embankment in Nyando, Kenya Zai pits for maize crop in Mbeere, Kenya
    14. 14. Available DSS tools to inform policy & Investment decisions • National & regional IWM research information systems • Indigenous knowledge systems before they disappear. • Developing information systems of matured /tested technologies that have proven successful (farmer K) • Case studies and success stories (local, borrowed) • Audio-visual knowledge capture e.g. photos, broadcasts, videotapes • GIS supported information bases • Websites and blogs • Equip institutions with ICT hardware& software.
    15. 15. Examples of DSS tools for IWM & Agric to inform policy • Early warning systems e.g. Geo-spatial data shared by FEWSnet, WMO-EA • IFPRI’s Strategic Analysis Knowledge Support System" for agricultural and market analysis • WFP/FAO’s Standardized Monitoring and Assessment of Relief and Transitions (SMART) for needs assessment • IPPC’s Global Circulation models for climate change adaptation
    16. 16. IMAWESA 16 01/29/15 Institutionalizing sustainability in KSS for IWM • Devising mechanisms for self-financing • Working with service providers • Enhancing ICT communication • Getting political goodwill and support • Devising a reward system for ICM work • Having long-term goals and objectives which are SMART • Creativity and innovation to capture new knowledge and make use of it.
    17. 17. Example: Climate Change Decision support tools Source: The Economics of Climate Change. Stern Review, 2007.
    18. 18. Source: The World Bank Group Genderstats Database of Gender Statistics (2004), and ILO Global employment Trends Brief (2006)
    19. 19. • A pen and notebook - • Writing (newspapers, magazines, report), • Audio-visual systems (radio, TV , doc films) • Public speaking forums, • Electronic media e.g. telephone, fax, e-mail, • Internet search engines e.g. Google or Yahoo • e-learning tools, Wordpress • Social computing tools e.g. SMS, blogs , wikis Simple KM technologies
    20. 20. Example: SMS as a DSST at farmer level • In Kenya, farmers have an easy, low risk DSST through SMS technology & M-PESA. e.g.... • Sale & purchase of farm products • Receipt sent via SMS to farmer’s cell phone • Tailored farm advice messages sent directly to farmer’s cell phone Therefore.... • SMS is the new community gathering. • SMS is the new source of information • SMS is a means for farmers to connect with a larger network of people.
    21. 21. IMAWESA 21 01/29/152101/29/15 Photos by B. Mati Challenges: how to change age-old practices e.g. introducing SRI (System of rice intensification)
    22. 22. IWM for cross-sectoral uses Photo by B. Mati Water for Community services Water storages for livestock Photo by Naphtali Mbanda, Rwanda
    23. 23. Components of ICM • What: Determine what knowledge is needed, its management information structures, and objectives. • Who: identify who to share knowledge with, e.g. networks, authorities, individuals, practitioners, collaborators or the entire World Wide Web. • How: Organize how the knowledge will be shared, e.g. by networking, consulting, collaborating, sharing, researching, reflecting, developing, testing, training, innovating, managing, or simply posting on the Internet. • Why: e.g. activity planning, strategic planning, learning, awareness raising, feedback, or simply for information. • Where: Identify the sources and destinations of the knowledge e.g. strategic positioning, planning, and coverage. • When: Determine the timelines associated with knowledge capture, processing and sharing, e.g. timing, pacing, planning, scheduling, context, live or recorded. • If: Identify the utility of knowledge as a decision support tool.
    24. 24. Incentives for supporting ICM • Making available increased knowledge content • Facilitating and supporting innovation and organisational learning. • Acknowledging and managing intellectual capital and intellectual assets • Improving communications and IT connectivity • Leveraging the expertise through training, • Facilitating interaction between members,. • Solving intractable issues as soon as they arise.
    25. 25. Promoting policy and investment support for IWM • Develop workable Strategies considering river basin mgt. • Review national laws for IWM policy development. • Facilitate participation of all stakeholders at all levels of IWM, with special attention to gender and youth. • Improve structures and processes for consultation at all levels • Better co-ordination and institutional strengthening to overcome fragmented responsibilities in the field of IWM. • Resource mobilization, especially self-financing mechanisms • Increase information, awareness and communication. • Formation of multi-stakeholder forums e.g. WUAs, AgWA • Advocacy and generating goodwill
    26. 26. B.Mati 26 01/29/15 ICM to bridge the knowledge needs of a cross-section of “Decision Makers”
    27. 27. Key Water & Water-related Policies/Inst. Resources Assessment & Analysis Use Assessment & Analysis Resource Development & Management Plan Implementation & Monitoring Resource Allocation Strategy Review & Evaluation Country Development Objectives Schematic of the IWM Process • Stakeholder Input • Investor Input • Public Sector Input
    28. 28. Upgrading IWM through KSS & ICM • Using KSS to achieve “decisively” designed projects and/or incorporating IWM into existing ones. • Embedding the five capitals (N, P, H, F, S) into IWM. • Ensuring that policy and legal instruments for IWM are in place (at local, national & regional levels) • Linking IWM with indigenous knowledge. • Identifying likely barriers and opportunities (research). • Infuse science & technology in IWM implementation • Build capacity for IWM (school kids, farmers, scientists...) • Making IWM understood by leaders (whose decisions affect resource allocation for the poor).
    29. 29. Desired outcomes of IWM
    30. 30. B.Mati 30 01/29/1530 Thank you “Knowing is not enough; we must apply. Willing is not enough; we must do" ….Goethe
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