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Conflict and cooperation of water users in Nduruma sub-catchment: the role of commercial estates in local water management agreements - Hans Komackech, Researcher , UNESCO-IHE , The Netherlands
 

Conflict and cooperation of water users in Nduruma sub-catchment: the role of commercial estates in local water management agreements - Hans Komackech, Researcher , UNESCO-IHE , The Netherlands

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    Conflict and cooperation of water users in Nduruma sub-catchment: the role of commercial estates in local water management agreements - Hans Komackech, Researcher , UNESCO-IHE , The Netherlands Conflict and cooperation of water users in Nduruma sub-catchment: the role of commercial estates in local water management agreements - Hans Komackech, Researcher , UNESCO-IHE , The Netherlands Presentation Transcript

    • The role of commercial estates in local water sharing agreements in the Nduruma sub-catchment
      H. Komakech;
      Co- authors:
      M. Condon and P. van der Zaag
    • Water right and access in Tanzania
      Water Policy (2002) / Act (2009) - formalization:
      • Basin board to issue water access right/permit
      • Right is volumetric - based on mean values
      • No other permit issued under any other law may apply
      • Customary rights recognised and must apply for use permit
    • Implementation: intake gates?
    • Water users approaches (local)
      • Invested and maintain hydraulic infrastructures (irrigation canals or furrows)
      • Developed elaborate proportional and time based allocation systems
      • River committees manages allocation at river level
      • Water guards monitor compliance
      • Canal committees oversee allocation within canals
    • Water users approaches (local)
    • Important question
      • Whose views or right system is legitimate?
    • Methodology/Methods
      Actor-network approach
      • Field observation and spatial mapping
      • Discussions with the actors
      • Review of secondary material e.g. minutes of meetings, letters, reports
      • Research conducted in the Pangani river basin, Tanzania
    • Nduruma sub-catchment
    • Spatial geography
      “the iron ring of land alienation” colonial time
      now “ the plastic valley”
    • Struggle over water
      Gomba estate: Official right?
      • Estate has legal right allocated by basin board
      • Does not recognise local river committee
      • Not comfortable with ‘unofficial agreements’
    • Gomba “…you end up with guards wielding machetes watching your water intake to make sure you don’t open early, no one knows what is official or not….”
      Farmers reaction: intake vandalized and estate’s workers harassed
      Stopped operation in 2007, water shortage a factor
      • Invested in strong relationship with river committee
      • Willing to reduce abstraction: dry season 9-10 hrs/day.
      “.. there is not enough water, you can’t blame anybody, .. .. you also need to respect that downstream villages need some water for food production”
      • International outlook: “seen working with the locals, good neighbour”
    • Mediators: EnzaZaden
      • Produces vegetable seeds (18.2ha)
      • View “..there just isn’t enough water.. ”
      • Use groundwater during dry seasons – drilled boreholes
      • Employees 140 permanent and 40 temporary. All locals
      • Estate’s ad hoc mediation - water conflict Nambala and Manyire village
    • Use own resource to construct local irrigation intakes
      Results: “Enza ..like our relative…..solves problems beyond our control …..most youths here works for Enza”
    • Upstream-downstream crisis
      • Estates and villagers momentarily on the same side
      • Year 2003, even Gomba estate joined fighting Arusha city’s new allocation
      Gomba estate hired lorries and transported angry villagers upstream to disrupt Arusha’s water works.
      • Collaboration with river committees
      “better to have venue for people to discuss and complain than resort to violence”
    • Estates adopt varied strategies
      • Claim access by sticking to state’s water law
      “the official right”
      • Engage and negotiate rotational allocation
      • Band together to secure more water
    • Discussions: struggles over access
      Line of division between user groups
      • Customary right and access
      • State-issued rights and access permit
      Process of exclusion (access and decisions)
      • Water users associations,
      • “official” permits
      Structures leading to unequal access
      • Property relations (right systems)
      • Capacity (knowledge, technology etc)
      • Location
    • Conclusions
      • Successful estates negotiate local agreements
      • Working with downstream village estates:
      • avoid conflict
      • gain social reputation,
      • labour ;and
      • security on hydraulic infrastructure investment
      • Local government keen to ‘keeping peace’ than enforcing water law
      • Variable allocation – could sustain equity during scarcity
    • Thank you all…