PREPARINGYOUR THESIS ORPROJECT REPORT The Fine Art of Formatting
Thesis and Dissertation OfficeUniversity Library, Room 501Email: firstname.lastname@example.orgPhone: (562) 985-4013Web: http://www.csulb.edu/library/guide/serv9 a.m. To 5 p.m. Monday through Friday Format Evaluators: Vivian Reed and Laurie Welch Administrative Assistant: Sue Joshee
ROLE OF THE THESIS AND DISSERTATION OFFICEWe’re here to help you prepare your manuscriptaccording to the University Guidelines Manual and theformatting style guide approved by your department.Plan to submit as soon as possible if your officialtranscript with degree posting is required by a specificdate for a graduate school application, a job or a raise,or if you’re leaving the country or anticipate some othermajor event in your life.
FORMAT EVALUATION PROCESS Submit your manuscript to the Thesis and Dissertation Office before 5 p.m. of the submission deadline date. Be sure that: your manuscript is printed on standard printer paper, your signature page is complete with all signatures, your manuscript is in a manuscript (or thesis) box, and all three sections of the AUTHOR LOGIN are complete. Formatters read through manuscripts on a first come first served basis. Pages are flagged and corrections are noted on the pages. It may take up to 6 weeks from when you submit your manuscript to when you receive an email to pick it up. Once you’ve made corrections, return the revised manuscript to the Thesis and Dissertation Office. Set a 2 week turnaround time for yourself to ensure completing the process within the term deadline. Once the formatting is “cleared,” you take the manuscript to the Copy Center located on the south side of the University Bookstore building. You will be asked to fill out the UMI/ProQuest Open Access Publishing Agreement Form and to pay fees for reproduction of your manuscript in microfiche and online. The University Library now maintains permanent copies of theses and dissertations on microfiche in the library archives and on an online database rather than keeping bound copies. IMPORTANT LAST STEP: Email or call the Thesis and Dissertation Office and tell us your receipt number. We cannot send out the clearance letter to you, your thesis advisor (committee chair), and Enrollment Services until we receive the receipt number. Until your clearance letter has been sent, your requirements for graduation will be incomplete.
UNIVERSITY GUIDELINES VERSUSDEPARTMENTAL STYLE MANUALS The University Style and Format Guidelines for Master’s Theses, Project Reports and Dissertations ALWAYS takes precedence over the style guide (APA, Chicago, Turabian, etc.) or other citation format styles required by your department
CURRENT EDITION STYLE MANUALSTurabian Manual (2007) 7th EditionChicago Manual (2010) 16th EditionAPA Manual (2010) 6th EditionUniversity Style and Format Guidelines for Theses, Project Reports, and Dissertations (2011)
THESIS AND DISSERTATION OFFICE WEBPAGES The easiest access to our web page is from the University Library homepage. Click on the link on the list on the left side of the page. From our homepage, link to the “Format Guide” webpage, which gives access to a pdf of the newest version of the official University Guidelines Manual Besides the official University Guidelines Manual, there is a mini-manuscript with examples of formatted pages and a guidelines checklist that includes most of the points made in this slide show The pages of the mini-manuscript can be hard to navigate. See page 7 (of the pdf, NOT the page numbers in the document) for a title page, page 10 (of the pdf) for a signature page, and pages 15 and 16 (of pdf) for a table of contents. See page 23 (of pdf) for example of a List of Works page with wording of footnote The Thesis and Dissertation Office now has Research Guide web pages with PowerPoints. From the University Library homepage, click on “Research Guides,” then click on gold-colored “Other Guides” tab, and click one more time on “Formatting Your CSULB Master’s Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation.” Templates for a signature page and a title page are available to download
FORMATTING ESSENTIALS Submit manuscripts printed on 20 lb. (standard weight) white printer paper in a thesis box Only these 4 font styles allowed: Times Roman, Times New Roman, Courier, or Courier New in 12 point font size Margins: 1 ½ INCH LEFT MARGIN IS USED THROUGHOUT THESIS; one inch margin on top, right, and bottom except on the first page of every major section where a two inch top margin is used Use TWO SPACES AFTER PERIODS or any other punctuation at the end of all sentences and TWO SPACES AFTER ALL COLONS
TWO IMPORTANT DETAILSOverlooking either of these details could mean that you have torevise and reprint your entire manuscript: Center page numbers just ABOVE the one inch bottom margin (footer setting between 0.7 and 0.9 inch for good placement) and match the font size and font style of page numbers with text Use paragraph format with uniform double line-spacing (one empty line between two lines of text) with no additional line space between paragraphs and around chapter titles or subheads. Select text above and below wide blank space and set line spacing to “0 pt.” to eliminate wide gaps
ORDER OF ELEMENTS Abstract—If only one page, do NOT use page number, otherwise use Arabic numerals (1, 2) for page numbers; 2 inch top margin for first page Guard Sheet (blank page) Title Page Signature Page Copyright Page (optional) Acknowledgements (optional)—Use lowercase Roman numerals (iii) for page numbers; 2 inch top margin for first page Table of Contents—Use lowercase Roman numerals (use iii if there is no acknowledgements page); 2 inch top margin for first page List of Tables, List of Figures, List of Works, and so on (as needed)—Use lowercase Roman numerals; 2 inch top margin for first page of each Chapters—Use Arabic numerals for page numbers from here to the end of the manuscript (Chapter 1 starts with page 1); 2 inch top margin for first page of each chapter Appendices (optional)—Each one begins with a title page; if there is more than one appendix, begin with a title page with APPENDICES centered on the page followed by title page for APPENDIX A Reference List or Bibliography—Begins with a title page with REFERENCES or BIBLIOGRAPHY centered on page; 2 inch top margin for first page Guard Sheet (blank page)
PRELIMINARY PAGES Check the formatting of your preliminary pages carefully. Refer to the University Guidelines Manual or check out the mini-manuscript online for visual examples of formatting for your title page (page 7 of the pdf) and signature page (page 10 of the pdf) Research Guides web page (www.csulb.libguides.com/thesisformat) has detailed format rules for title page and signature page and templates for these pages (links to the templates are found at bottom left corner of format rules web pages) Use double line-spacing for the blocks of text on the title page, except use single-line spacing for the names of committee members on title page The title of your manuscript on the abstract, title page, and signature page must match exactly in wording and line breaks and be formatted in an inverted pyramid (longest line first) Your name must also match on those three pages as it is listed in your official university records
TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 inch top margin for other pages
TABLE OF CONTENTS Example of correctly formatted table of contents on pages 15-16 of mini- manuscript pdf Include headers—CHAPTER (on left margin) and Page (on right margin). On the first page, they are located within the other elements. On all other pages, they are located at the top of the page Include all chapter titles and first level subheads. Match the wording of chapter and subhead titles in table of contents with the wording of titles in text; double check that page numbers match too. If you choose to include even one second level subhead, then ALL second AND third level subheads must be included in the table of contents Subheads and multiple-lined chapter titles are single line-spaced, but leave a blank line before and after chapter titles and appendix titles as well as other elements using all upper case letters like ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS and LIST OF TABLES Dot leaders end in alignment 3-4 spaces before the longest page number (programmed as a right-aligned tab) Page numbers must be right aligned (a right-aligned tab also) The Thesis and Dissertation Office Format Guide web page also has instructions on setting tabs for the table of contents and links to the table of contents page template
BIG NO-NOSNo bold fontNo font color other than blackNo contractionsNo outlinesNo bulletsNo right justificationNo uniform left indentation of numbered items
RIGHT WRONG 1. Microsoft Word automatically formats 1. Microsoft Word automaticallynumbered items with uniform left formats numbered items withindentation. uniform left indentation. 2. The University Guidelines Manual 2. The University Guidelines Manualrequires paragraph format. requires paragraph format. 3. University Guidelines Manual wins! 3. University Guidelines ManualIndent the first line of each item, including wins! Indent the first line of eachthe number, like a paragraph, and start all item, including the number, like aother lines at the left margin. paragraph, and start all other lines at the left margin.
SUBHEADSFIRST LEVEL SUBHEAD Underlined Headline Style of Capitalization On a line by itself CenteredSECOND LEVEL SUBHEAD Underlined Headline Style of Capitalization On a line by itself Begins at left marginTHIRD LEVEL SUBHEAD Underlined Sentence style of capitalization Paragraph indentation On the same line as text Ends with a periodSPACING For first or second level subheads, subheads of two or more lines are single line-spaced
TABLES Each line of the table title begins at the left margin. The table title begins with the header TABLE (all upper case letters) then the number of the table, a period and two spaces The wording of the table title uses Headline Style of Capitalization (first word and all significant words capitalized). Multi-line table titles are single line spaced Align all numbers in a column by decimal or assumed decimal and use commas in numbers 1,000 or more Do not box tables; there should be no lines on the left or right edge Notes can be placed underneath tables. Each line of the note begins at the left margin. Use single line spacing if a note is more than one line Tables must fill a complete page before continuing to another page. For subsequent pages of a table, include the column headers used on the first page of the table and use the title: TABLE [#of table]. Continued Table titles are placed ABOVE the table
FIGURES Each line of the figure caption begins at the left margin. The caption begins with the header FIGURE (all upper case letters) then the number of the figure, a period and two spaces The wording of the caption uses Sentence style of capitalization (First word capitalized plus anything that would be upper case in a sentence). Multi-line figure captions are single line spaced Figure captions end with a period but to not have to be grammatically correct sentences To simplify the list of figures, begin captions with a short descriptive phrase ending with a period and then add as much information as needed. In the list of figures, you only need to include the words of each caption up to the first period A figure must be complete on one page Figure captions are placed BELOW the figure
PLACEMENT OF TABLES AND FIGURESOPTIONS Tables and figures can be placed in an appendix OR on pages by themselves (one, two, or three on a page) OR on pages with text IN APPENDIX Placement of tables or figures in sequence with no text in between makes them easy to findON PAGE WITHOUT TEXT If a table or figure appears on a page without text, center the table or figure on the page; that is, use the same amount of blank space above and below the table or figureON PAGE WITH TEXT If a table or figure appears on a page with text, then there should be extra spacing —3 to 4 blank single line spaced lines (from one half to three quarters of an inch of blank space)—between the text and the table or figure. Add extra spacing above if text appears above the table or figure, add extra spacing below if text appears below the table or figure, and add extra spacing above and below if text appears above and below the table or figure
MIND THE GAP Extra blank space cannot be left at the bottom of a page of text to accommodate placement of a table or figure. If more text remains in the chapter following a table or figure, then move that text forward to fill space at the bottom of a page of text, even it that means separating a table or figure from the text that describes the table or figure or even if that text includes a subhead.
AVOID OTHER COMMON MISTAKES Use 12 point font size for page The first time each acronym (or numbers, footnotes, table titles and abbreviation) is used in text, write table notes, and figure captions out the complete term followed by the acronym in parentheses; after Periods and “commas,” inside that, the acronym can be used in all “quotation marks.” text that follows without the term being written out Use two hyphens—with no space before or after—to create “em” Use consistent style for quotation (long) dash marks: "straight" versus “smart” (curved) Widows and orphans (single lines at top of page or single lines or subheads at bottom of page) are For ellipsis . . . use 3-4 period dots not allowed with a space before and after each dot
APPENDICES Title pages are used to introduce appendices. Titles use all upper case letters and double line spacing and are centered on the page If there is only one appendix, use the word APPENDIX as the first line and then the title of the appendix on the next line For more than one appendix, begin with a separate APPENDICES title page followed by the first appendix title page which contains the words APPENDIX A, then a blank line and then the title of Appendix A on the next line Each page of the appendices as well as the appendix title pages have page numbers (in sequence following the last page of the text). The page number of the appendix title page is the page number listed in the table of contents All material within appendices must maintain the 1 ½ inch left margin and one inch top, right, and bottom margins Consider blocking out or omitting personal email addresses and phone numbers if included on flyers or forms within appendices
REFERENCES A separate title page comes before the list of citations with a title like REFERENCES or BIBLIOGRAPHY (in all upper case) centered on the page. The page number of this title page is the page number listed in the table of contents Begin the first page of citations with a title (such as REFERENCES or BIBLIOGRAPHY) in all upper case letters and centered on the first line; use a two inch top margin for the first page Format each citation with a hanging indent. The first line begins at the left margin with subsequent lines indented Use single line spacing within the citations and leave a blank line between citations Do not break up a citation onto two pages. Move it to the next page if needed List all references used in your manuscript Be consistent with spacing: single spacing following periods and colons is acceptable; use one space or zero space between initials
TURABIAN OR CHICAGO FORMATTINGNumbers Write out whole numbers one through one hundred, rounded numbers, and any number beginning a sentenceNumber exceptions Percentages use numerals—3 percent Decades can be written out or numerals—the nineties or 1990s—but write out centuries—nineteenth century When referring to chapters, use lowercase “c” and numerals—chapters 4 and 5
TURABIAN OR CHICAGO FORMATTINGCitationsTurabian and Chicago cover two methods of citation—bibliography (with footnotes, Turabian pp. 141-215) andreferences (with parenthetical citations in text, Turabianpp. 216-282). Be sure you are referring to the correctmethod for examples of citation formatting style
TURABIAN OR CHICAGO FORMATTINGFootnotes Place footnotes at the bottom of page—no endnotes Footnote must begin on the page where superscript number appears in the text. Create a page break if necessary. Use 12 point font size for footnotes Be consistent in length of divider line between footnotes and text Indent the first line of each footnote (including the footnote number) the same amount as paragraph indentation Single line space within each footnote and leave a blank line between footnotes Give full information about a source in the first footnote citing it, then use shortened footnote
FOOTNOTE VERSUS BIBLIOGRAPHY FORMATFootnote 2KateL. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of ResearchPapers, Theses, and Dissertations, 7th ed. (Chicago: University ofChicago Press, 2007), 141-215.BibliographyTurabian, Kate L. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses and Dissertations. 7th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.
TURABIAN OR CHICAGO FORMATTINGBibliography Format each citation with a hanging indent. The first line begins at the left margin with subsequent lines indented. Use single line spacing within each citation and leave a blank line between citations Do not break up a citation onto two pages. Move it to the next page if needed Bibliography may be subdivided into categories. Format categories like first level subheads (center and underline) Invert only the first author’s surname. List all other authors’ names in normal order Use long line (6 dashes) to replace repeated author name
PLAGIARISM AND COPYRIGHTPERMISSION Plagiarism If you are unsure about giving credit to a source, then for your own protection you should cite the source Copyright Information A brief discussion of copyright is available at the Thesis and Dissertation Office web page: http://www.csulb.edu/library /guide/serv/copyr.html Copyright Permission (Contact Author or Publisher) Samples of copyright permission forms are also available at the Thesis and Dissertation Office web page. Keep copies of any permission forms you obtain and bring to Copy Center with your manuscript
USING OTHER THESES AS SAMPLESAND GETTING OUTSIDE HELP Referring to Other Theses People often refer to theses on the ProQuest database, but do not base your own thesis formatting completely on these samples. Use the University Guidelines Manual Working with a Typist If you hire a typist or editor or formatter, make sure that they follow the appropriate guides. Agree on this from the beginning or you may find yourself having to pay twice to fix the problems caused by miscommunication
DON’T FORGET THE AUTHOR LOGIN Check our home page http://www.csulb.edu/library /guide/serv/prior to submitting your manuscript for the link to the online Author Login All three sections of the Author Login must be complete before we can accept your manuscript for format evaluation. Contact us if you have problems entering information You will receive an email verification after you complete the Author Login. Please check to be sure all the information is correct, especially your email address and your committee chair’s email address
IT’S NOT THE END OF THE WORLDDon’t let your frustration level get too high. Contact us with any questions or problems. We are here to help and we love specific questionsMany people hire a typist or editor or formatter if the task becomes too overwhelmingYou are responsible for your manuscript being formatted in a professional manner that adheres to all university and departmental formatting guidelines. The manuscript should be formatted to the best of your ability when it is submitted, but there will be opportunities to correct errors after is it submitted