Reflection presentation-june 15, 2010


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This workshop presentation will lead you through the elements of reflection in service-learning and how it relates to student learning outcomes.

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Reflection presentation-june 15, 2010

  1. 1. Reflection in Service-Learning: Principles & Practice Deena Sue Fuller Center for Service-Learning and Civic Engagement Tennesse State University
  2. 2. What is this thing called “reflection”? <ul><li>On paper or your computer write down your definition of “reflection” in 60 seconds. </li></ul><ul><li>Then describe an example of how you use “reflection” in your own life or in your teaching --- BRIEFLY in 60 seconds. </li></ul>
  3. 3. How diverse are our responses? <ul><li>Let’s discuss our responses. </li></ul><ul><li>Guess what….You’ve just completed a “pre-flection” activity. </li></ul><ul><li>[More on this later…stay tuned!] </li></ul>
  4. 4. Reflection is…. The intentional consideration of an experience in light of particular learning objectives. (Hatcher & Bringle, 1997).
  5. 5. Compare Your Definition of Reflection With… The intentional consideration of an experience in light of particular learning objectives . What does your definition say, include, or not include?
  6. 6. Reflection in service-learning can go beyond this definition to include things like… <ul><li>Integration of theory and practice </li></ul><ul><li>Integration of knowledge into personal life & action </li></ul><ul><li>Consideration of the service-learning experience in the “bigger picture” </li></ul><ul><li>Questioning our knowledge & understanding </li></ul>
  7. 7. Theoretical Foundations
  8. 8. Theoretical Foundations <ul><li>Kolb’s Learning Cycle (depicted on next slide) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) Concrete experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) Reflective observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3) Abstract conceptualization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4) Active experimentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some courses do ALL of these…some courses do some or are better suited for some </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can all of these be integrated into a course? – Maybe there’s an easier way…stay tuned! </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Kolb’s Cycle Concrete Experience Reflective Observation Abstract Conceptualization Active Experimentation
  10. 10. <ul><li>Why do instructors use reflection? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the objectives? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some formats for reflection? </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s do a physical & mental aerobic exercise to answer these questions! </li></ul>
  11. 11. Reflection Formats <ul><li>What are various objectives for reflection? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some formats for reflection? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some pros/cons to each format? </li></ul><ul><li>[We’ll revisit this process later] </li></ul>
  12. 12. Objectives of the Reflection Process <ul><li>Academic/cognitive growth </li></ul><ul><li>Application of skills </li></ul><ul><li>Critical thinking & articulating a position </li></ul><ul><li>Personal development </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting citizenship </li></ul><ul><li>Integration of theory & practice </li></ul><ul><li>Others from YOUR list </li></ul>
  13. 13. Reflection Formats <ul><li>Oral Reflection </li></ul><ul><li>Written Reflection (electronic or paper) </li></ul><ul><li>Arts and/or multi-media </li></ul><ul><li>Large Group & Small Group </li></ul><ul><li>Simulations/activities </li></ul><ul><li>Individual Reflection </li></ul><ul><li>Out-of-class Reflection </li></ul>
  14. 14. Pros & Cons of Reflection Formats <ul><li>Advantages of Large Group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very efficient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Everyone hears the same thing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows many different perspectives and ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students learn from each other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professor gets a good sense of how students are growing and learning </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Pros & Cons of Reflection Formats <ul><li>Disadvantages of Large Group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A few “talkers” may dominate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shy students don’t contribute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes up time from other activities </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Pros & Cons of Reflection Formats <ul><li>Small Group Discussions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Address some issues of larger groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reconvene larger group to get reports from small groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time is a factor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easier forum for more shy students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructor can walk around and hear some of all groups </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Written Reflection <ul><ul><li>Students can contemplate their ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be long or short </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quick responses on index cards can be circulated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Longer reflection provides deep responses and confidentiality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works better when you have progressively deep questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes time to read them </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Pros & Cons of Reflection Formats <ul><li>Written Reflection (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructor can dialogue on paper with each student </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large classes require more time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Written reflection can take place out of class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Threaded discussions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set guidelines </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. What are some Pros & Cons of THESE Reflection Formats? <ul><li>Podcasts </li></ul><ul><li>Video journals </li></ul><ul><li>Photography </li></ul><ul><li>Poetry </li></ul><ul><li>Music </li></ul><ul><li>Dance </li></ul><ul><li>Skits </li></ul>
  20. 20. Other Challenges <ul><li>Lack of depth & richness </li></ul><ul><li>Venting, “shooting the bull”, shallow observations, diaries (lack of critical thinking) </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty in assessing reflection and/or growth </li></ul><ul><li>Finding methods that match students’ learning styles </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>There’s no single way to conduct reflection </li></ul><ul><li>Mix and match objectives and formats to accommodate different learning styles </li></ul><ul><li>Speaking of learning styles… </li></ul>
  22. 22. The Four “Cs” of Reflection <ul><li>Connected </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous </li></ul><ul><li>Challenging </li></ul><ul><li>Contextualized </li></ul>
  23. 23. Connected <ul><li>Connect to learning objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Determine if there are cognitive connections of class content to the service-learning experience </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge what they’ve learned </li></ul><ul><li>Provides an instructor insight and helps assess their own teaching </li></ul>
  24. 24. Write one reflection prompt that will connect the course content (lecture, reading, theories, etc.) with the service activity.
  25. 25. Continuous <ul><li>Allowing time to reflect before, during, and after the experience </li></ul><ul><li>Think about and plan to make time for reflection </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection vs. lecturing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intersperse lecture with reflection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhance lecture with reflection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use reflection to see what students are learning from lectures </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. - Write one reflection question that you could use before your students start their service activities. - Write one for during the service. - Write one that you could use near the end of the service.
  27. 27. Challenge <ul><li>Challenge students with new ideas and perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>Propose unfamiliar or “uncomfortable” ideas for consideration </li></ul><ul><li>Create provocative dialogue in class discussions or written journals </li></ul>
  28. 28. Write one reflection prompt that will deepen your student’s thinking. Consider the higher order thinking in Bloom’s taxonomy. (see handout)
  29. 29. Contextualized <ul><li>First… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine the proper and most appropriate context for reflection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine type and format of reflection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decide when to conduct reflection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Second… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure reflection within the context of the service-learning experience or course content </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Example <ul><li>Based on what you learned in yesterday’s lecture and reading and your first week with your mentee, what teaching/ learning strategies will probably work best? </li></ul><ul><li>Which learning strategies have worked? Why? Which haven’t worked well? Why? </li></ul><ul><li>How will you change what you’re doing based on the past 2 weeks experiences and last week’s lectures/readings? </li></ul>
  31. 31. Example <ul><li>What did you learn last week in the community site that supported and/or challenged what you learned from your textbook ? </li></ul><ul><li>Create a poster, drawing, pamphlet, essay, skit , etc. highlighting what you learned in the community that deepens your understanding of the course content. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Example <ul><li>List 3 needs that you have observed in the community. </li></ul><ul><li>What have you learned from your first 2 weeks in the community? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the health hazards you have observed in the community and write about how you think they affect the quality of life for the residents. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Part II: Methods of Reflection <ul><li>There is no “right” or “best” method…you don’t have to use these if you don’t want to. </li></ul><ul><li>These techniques are “tried and true” and easy to use. </li></ul><ul><li>These methods can be combined and modified for various formats. </li></ul><ul><li>Some work better in some situations than others. </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection can be a teaching AND learning tool. </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection is not JUST for service-learning. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Some Guidelines for Oral Reflections <ul><li>Confront an idea…not a person </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain confidentiality (within legal/ethical limits) </li></ul><ul><li>Respect differences – no judgments </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t attempt to “convince” or “convert” others </li></ul><ul><li>Back up your ideas/opinions with WHY and/or content from class </li></ul><ul><li>“ Temporary” silence is OK… but revisit the issue </li></ul><ul><li>Consider creating a covenant </li></ul>
  35. 35. SOME Methods of Reflection <ul><li>[Pre-flection] </li></ul><ul><li>What? So what? Now what? </li></ul><ul><li>Graffiti </li></ul><ul><li>Get off the fence/take a stand </li></ul><ul><li>ABC123 </li></ul><ul><li>Others are in your notebook and on the web </li></ul>
  36. 36. Pre - flection <ul><li>Powerful & simple technique </li></ul><ul><li>Grounded in Constructivist Learning Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Activates learners’ existing knowledge and experience </li></ul>
  37. 37. Pre-flection: At the Beginning <ul><li>Students write down what they think they’ll learn… </li></ul><ul><li>What they want to learn… </li></ul><ul><li>What they’re excited and/or anxious about </li></ul><ul><li>Collect, keep, redistribute, and re-flect </li></ul>
  38. 38. Pre-flection: In Class <ul><li>Write down thoughts or definition of a key concept </li></ul><ul><li>Circulate definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Pair up and share definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Share what they’ve learned </li></ul>
  39. 39. What? So what? Now what? <ul><li>WHAT? = A topic, issue, or experience is identified, defined, described, discussed, and analyzed </li></ul><ul><li>SO WHAT? = Rationale or importance of the topic or issue – critical thinking – relate the experience to your course content </li></ul><ul><li>NOW WHAT? = Consider the next steps; what should you do; how can you make a difference; what actions are needed </li></ul>
  40. 40. An Example… Sustainability of a tutoring/ mentoring program for new immigrants <ul><li>WHAT? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The term sustainability is discussed in class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading assignments on immigrants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflect on examples in their lives - their previous experiences or understandings and what they are experiencing in the service-learning experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What keeps the program operating </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. An Example…Sustainability <ul><li>SO WHAT? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small group brainstorming on why this is important and maybe what will be the impact if it continues long term </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reconvene for large group discussion and review main points </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. An Example…Sustainability <ul><li>NOW WHAT? </li></ul><ul><li>Small group discussion on… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenge cultural norms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategies to promote sustainability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What worked; what didn’t </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application to service-learning experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Final Reflection Paper could be a summary of all three with a focus on NOW WHAT?) </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. What? So what? Now what? <ul><li>Combine with journal entries or threaded discussions </li></ul><ul><li>Use as a basis for a final paper </li></ul><ul><li>Pair-up students and go through all 3 steps </li></ul>
  44. 44. Interactive Exercise <ul><li>Consider how you might use WHAT? SO WHAT? NOW WHAT? </li></ul><ul><li>Would it work for you? Why? Or Why not? </li></ul><ul><li>Jot down your ideas & we’ll discuss them. </li></ul>
  45. 45. 4 Cs + What? So What? Now What? <ul><li>Identifying a term that is part of the course content and the service experience = connected </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-flection and reflections during lectures or journal entries after class = continuous </li></ul><ul><li>Question preconceived notions = challenge </li></ul><ul><li>Apply to specific service-learning experiences = contextualized </li></ul>
  46. 46. ABC123 Method <ul><li>Students sometimes need to be taught how to reflect and this helps them understand </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used with oral or written reflection </li></ul>
  47. 47. ABCs <ul><li>A = Affect: attitudes, emotions, feelings </li></ul><ul><li>B = Behavior: past, current, or future behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>C = Cognitive Connections: thoughts and overt reference to topic, term, skill </li></ul>
  48. 48. A “Relevant” Example… <ul><li>As a group…we’ve been studying about reflection in service-learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive – What have you learned about reflection? What are key components? </li></ul><ul><li>Affect – How do you feel about what you’ve learned? Why? How do you feel about your use of this strategy? </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior – Describe how you will integrate reflection into your course and how this will change the way you teach. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Assigning Points – Simple Way <ul><li>Dichotomous scoring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 pt for each of the ABC responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>0 pt for each one missing </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Assigning Points – Another More Complex Approach <ul><li>Adding points for increased depth of responses! </li></ul><ul><li>Students may “freak” at getting a grade for reflection, based on past experiences of “shooting the bull” </li></ul><ul><li>3 pts – Affect </li></ul><ul><li>3 pts – Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>4 pts – Cognitive content </li></ul><ul><li>See next slide for more… </li></ul>
  51. 51. Assigning Points – Based on Quality or Depth Criteria <ul><li>Level 1 = cursory discussion without elaboration of “why” or “how” </li></ul><ul><li>Level 2 = deeper observation but still limited in context or application </li></ul><ul><li>Level 3 = complex application, understanding & articulation </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative points </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 pts for rich/in-depth response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 pts for marginal response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 pt for cursory response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>0 pt for no discussion </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. ABC as Feedback <ul><li>Teacher’s comments acknowledge student comments </li></ul><ul><li>Note little to nothing articulated </li></ul><ul><li>Explain why points were lost </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage student to respond to all 3 components of the ABC & re-submit (adjust grade) </li></ul>
  53. 53. <ul><li>Explicitly teach the ABC – students do not intuitively know how to reflect in these dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>Consider providing a sample (pros/cons) </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive responses help determine students’ understanding of critical concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Over time, we’ve discovered the ABCs are a teaching tool as well as a learning tool </li></ul>
  54. 54. Shifting Gears a Bit <ul><li>This next approach is NOT an evaluation or “grading” method </li></ul><ul><li>This next approach CAN be used to assess & monitor depth of students’ reflection </li></ul><ul><li>This next approach CAN provide an additional framework to guide reflection </li></ul><ul><li>At the risk of confusing you…Forget everything we just discussed in terms of “point values” </li></ul>
  55. 55. ABC123 <ul><li>Level One = self-centered perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Level Two = empathic or “other-ness” perspective </li></ul>
  56. 56. <ul><li>“ I never really understood the frustration of a single mom of color until I had this service-learning experience.” </li></ul><ul><li>A reference to another individual is not necessarily an empathic statement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I read with the student in the classroom” is not an empathic statement. </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. ABC123 <ul><li>Level One = self-centered perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Level Two = empathic or “other-ness” perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Level Three = global or systemic perspective of political and cultural issues </li></ul>
  58. 58. Assessing Depth ABC123 Affect (1) + Behavior (1) + Cognition (1) Level 1 (1) OR Level 2 (2) OR Level 3 (3) 3 X 1 = 3 3 X 2 = 6 3 X 3 = 9 2 X 1 = 2 2 X 2 = 4 2 X 3 = 6 1 x 1 = 1 1 X 2 = 2 1 X 3 = 3
  59. 59. ABC123 <ul><li>Instructors have begun to explicitly ask students to share reflection statements from various levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Some students rarely consider experience from Level 3. </li></ul><ul><li>Instructors can raise such issues in class discussions or assignments. </li></ul>
  60. 60. Interactive Exercise <ul><li>How might you consider using the ABC or ABC123 model in oral discussions or written reflection entries? </li></ul>
  61. 61. Reflection Activity - Putting It All Together <ul><li>What…is reflection? </li></ul><ul><li>So What? </li></ul><ul><li>What difference does it make (if at all)? </li></ul><ul><li>Now What am I going to do with it and what I learned today (if anything)? </li></ul>